How many hearts does an octopus have

How many hearts does an octopus have? Octopus has three hearts and nine brains. Octopus has blue blood. This fact is stranger than fiction. The central brain of the octopus controls the nervous system. In each octopus’s arms, there is one brain. The brain is a cluster of nerve cells. In the three hearts of octopus, a systemic heart is responsible for the circulation of blood in the body. Octopus has two branchial hearts that helps the blood to pump through two gills.

:black_large_square: Facts about octopus

Scientific classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Coleoidea
Not ranked Neocoleoidea
Super order Octopodiformes
Order Octopoda Leach,1818

:purple_heart: Octopus is related to almost 300 species of soft-bodied, eight-limbed mollusks of order Octopoda. This order then grouped into the class Cephalopoda. This class includes cuttlefish, nautiloids, and squids. Like all other cephalopods, the octopus is also bilaterally symmetrical. These cephalopods have two eyes and a beak, the mouth is at the center of eight limbs. The soft body can easily change its shape so that octopus squeezes from small gaps.

:purple_heart: They take their eight appendages with them when they swim. They have a siphon that is used for both locomotion and respiration through expelling a jet of water. Octopus has a complex nervous system. Their eyesight is very strong. In all of the invertebrates, octopuses are the most behaviorally diverse and intelligent.

:black_large_square: More than one brain

:pushpin: It is a famous fact about an octopus that they have eight arms. But what did they contain in their every arm? Jon Ablett, the curator of cephalopod collection museum, told that the arrangement of eight arms ensures that octopus performs tasks with their arms more effectively and speedily. He also said that each arm acts independently to taste, move without direction, and move. The brain, which is present at the center, is capable of exerting top-down control. In 2011 this fact was proved that an octopus could learn how to guide his one arm in the direction of food.

:pushpin: This experiment was done when researchers designed a maze so that the arm of the octopus should come out from the water. This experiment also ensures that the arm cannot use its chemical sensors to find the food. The walls were transparent around the octopus; these walls help the octopus to find food. Many of the octopuses were successful in finding their food. This means that the central brain, which has visual information, can easily control a single arm. This experiment was successful as octopuses have nine brains. This means that octopuses benefit from both centralized and localized brains as they can control their actions.

:black_large_square: Seriously clever

:pushpin: As a rough guide of octopus intelligence, scientists use the size of an animal’s brain as compared to its body. This is because it indicates how much an animal is investing in its brain. This measurement is not perfect because the degree of folding also plays its major role. This is also a fact that intelligent animals always have a higher ratio of the brain than its body. So, the ratio of the brain is very high in octopuses as compared to their body. This ratio is the highest among all invertebrates.

:pushpin: This is also larger than many vertebrates but not in mammals. The neurons in the octopus are equal to the neurons of dogs. The common octopus has about 500 million neurons. From all the neurons, two-third of them present in their arms. The other neurons are in a doughnut-shaped brain. This brain is wrapped around the esophagus, and the location of this brain is in the head. Jon says that the octopus shows intelligence in many ways. They can also solve tricky tasks and solved mazes to find their food. They are also experts at getting themselves in and out of the containers.

:black_large_square: They can use tools

:pushpin: In the animal kingdom, the use of the tool is very rare. This is something we tried to link with monkeys, apes, some birds, and dolphins. This is a good indicator of the ability to learn. There is only an octopus, and few insects in all invertebrates can use tools. Jon says that with solving tasks, using tools to get free rewards, octopuses have been shown to build little dens. They are allowed to use stones to form some type of shields to protect their entrance. They find all things they can, i.e., broken shells, rocks, bottle caps, and even broken glass.

:black_large_square: Blanket octopus

:pushpin: Some of the species of blanket octopus carry tentacles from the Portuguese man o’ war as a weapon. These tentacles have painful and potent venom. These octopuses are immune, but they can affect predators and prey. In 2009, the most impressive and convincing example of tool use was given. This was when the veined was octopus as they were collecting destroyed coconut shells in Indonesia.

:black_large_square: Collecting the shells

:pushpin: After collecting these shells, octopuses clean them with the help of water. Then they take them to a new location and gather them as a protective shield. Along the seafloor, when they started traveling with the shells. Their body resulted in ungainly and slow walks. In this situation, octopuses became more vulnerable to predators. But octopuses don’t get afraid of them as they are willing to accept the short risk for their future protection. Those scientists who discovered this behavior said that this behavior is the exact example of tool use as octopuses take the shells for their future.

:black_large_square: Ability to recognize people

:pushpin: Octopus contains large optic lobes; these are the brain areas that are dedicated to vision. So this fact came to know that it is important for their lifestyles. Octopuses seem to recognize the species that do not belong to Cephalopoda; these also include human beings. This behavior is not unique to many mammals and can do it, but this is not usual.

:black_large_square: Scientific American

:pushpin: There was a report by scientific America. This report includes a story from the University of Otago in New Zealand. There was an octopus who dislike one of the staff. The octopus squirted a jet of water on a person whenever he passed the tank. In two weeks, one person feeds the octopuses regularly, but another person touched them with a stick. At the end of two weeks, the behavior of octopuses was different with these two men.

:pushpin: They behaved nicely with the man who feeds them. They don’t behave well with the man who was mean to them. This experiment results in the fact that octopuses can distinguish between two individuals.

:black_large_square: Using hectocotylus

:pushpin: Most male octopuses do not contain external genitalia. So instead of using this, they use their modified arm, which is called hectocotylus. This arm is used to pass sperm to the female octopus. The appearance of hectocotylus is different between different species. Some of them appear like a syringe, some look like a spoon. One octopus which belongs to North Atlantic, looks like a toast rock.

:pushpin: Each species of octopus has a different method. The male octopus went one step more in his attempts to reproduce. When he jets away, he leaves behind a sexual appendage in the lady octopus. When a male has given his sperm to a female, then the game is over. Many male species of octopus died just after few months of mating.

:black_large_square: Self-sacrificing mums

:pushpin: Life is not easy for the mums of octopus. They actually gave their whole life to their young ones. In some species of octopus, females show their parental care. They protect their eggs from predators, and they spread water on their eggs to oxygenate the eggs. Until the eggs hatch, they keep this behavior continuously. In the species of shallow water, this process lasts for three months. Some of the octopuses take their care to an extreme level.

:pushpin: During the time of 18 dives to the depth of Monterey Canyon, California, the scientists never saw that the female octopus leave their eggs or eat anything. They don’t eat even shrimp or carbs that are present very close to them. The researchers also found out that the female octopuses faded away, lost weight, skin became loose and pale, and eyes become cloudy due to protecting their eggs. Her sacrifice gave her offspring time to reach the time of development.

:pushpin: Some species of octopus-like boreopacifica hatchlings are miniature adults at the time when they emerge. This gives them a good chance of survival. On the final visit of researchers, hatched the eggs, and the female was gone. No other octopuses are known to look after the birth of their offspring. As I have mentioned earlier that male octopuses cannot survive for a long time after mating. So the sea is full of small orphan octopuses.

:black_large_square: Cunning disguises and escape techniques

:pushpin: Octopuses are maybe the world’s most skilled camouflage artists. They contain thousands of specialized cells under their skin. These cells are called chromatophores. These cells help octopuses to change their color instantly. They also have papilla. Papillon is the tiny areas of skin that can retract or expand fastly change the color of their skin to match the surrounding.

:black_large_square: Builder of cities

:pushpin: Octopuses are commonly antisocial creatures with few known facts. But in 2012, researchers made a surprising discovery in Jervis Bay, Australia. The solitary gloomy octopus really builds underwater cities. Rock outcrops form a congregation of dens and discarded piles of shells from calms and scallops the octopuses. The size of the population is not up to the standards of London. There are only 15 occupants that are living in Octopolis. This is because it was dubbed. Atlantis octopus commune was studied in 2017. These are very higher than scientists anticipated based on the loner reputation of O. tetricus.

Pushpin: There are advantages and drawbacks of city living chases, frequent aggression, and even den evictions observed in the octopuses living in Atlantis. The scientists say that there is no surety of the benefits of living in densely populated settlements of these octopuses. Maybe it is a case of necessity with limited space available.

:black_large_square: Blue blood

:pushpin: Octopuses contain blue blood. This is because hemocyanin and proteins carry oxygen in the body of an octopus. This contains copper rather than iron like humans have in their blood. The protein that contains copper is more efficient at transporting oxygen molecules in cold and low oxygen conditions. So, this is the ideal condition for life in the ocean. Blood (which is called hemolymph in invertebrate) is deoxygenated at the death of the octopus. When an octopus/ animal dies, it discards the blue color of blood and becomes clear.

:pushpin: The three hearts of octopus have different roles. One of these hearts circulates the blood in the body. The other two hearts ump this blood and pass to the gills so that oxygen is picked up.

:memo: Summary

Octopus belongs to the class Cephalopoda. They have 8 appendages. They have a siphon that helps them in locomotion. Some of the species of Octopus also contain venom that they can use for their protection. When predators came to them, they sprinkled this venom on them that result in paralysis, and then death occurs. Some species of octopus are very friendly and playful towards humans. Octopuses are the rarest creatures of animals that can regenerate their lost body parts.

:black_large_square: Camouflage

:pushpin: Octopuses are adapted to different conditions as they can change their color according to a situation. They can change their texture to camouflage in just one second. They have a complex system which is called chromatophores, muscles, and nerves. This complex system has specialized pigment sacs, and these pigments are called chromatophores.

:black_large_square: Toxic ink

:pushpin: There are special glands in an octopus involved in the production of toxic ink. This toxic ink is stored in large sacks. When the animal is in the danger zone, it sprinkles the ink in a powerful jet in one direction to propel the animal in the opposite direction of danger. This toxic ink confuses the potential threat while they were fleeing towards safety.

:black_large_square: Lots of suckers

:pushpin: Female octopuses have a large number of suckers. Large adult female pacific octopuses have 280 suckers. These 280 suckers are present in each of the eight arms of an octopus. As compared to females, males have fewer amounts of suction cups. This is because the tip of their right arm acts as a reproductive organ.

:black_large_square: Octopuses have 8 brains. What are 8 of them doing?

:pushpin: As we know that octopuses are very intelligent because they can make use of tools. So, we have to relate all these brains. The brain that is present in the center is like the shape of a doughnut. This brain forms a ring around the esophagus. So, when an octopus swallows, its means that food must have passed through the brain. The most interesting fact is these octopuses have a mini-brain in each arm. The ability of the brain is distributed in all brains. Each arm has its own function, so the central brain just sends the high-level signal to the arm.

:pushpin: These messages are like ‘for possible crab move to the crevice.’ This means that our brain will guide us to arms about every movement. The arms of the octopus act independently. The arms go to probe into the crevice. They go to crevices by tasting and feeling with the help of suckers. The mini-brain takes the big load off the central brain. Each arm has its own nervous system that controls them. This nervous system consists of 40 million neurons that are connected to the suckers of an octopus.

:black_large_square: There are 180 million neurons in the central brain

:pushpin: Scientists have found that 180 million neurons are present in the brain. These neurons are connected to more than 40 million neurons in every arm. There is a fun fact about octopuses that if they lose their arm, they can regenerate a new arm that contains a mini-brain. This can happen in only 100 days.

:black_large_square: Keep an eye on their arms to find food

:pushpin: There is a strange fact about an octopus that they do not know where its arm is until they can see it.

:pushpin: Arms send signals about texture and taste. But they don’t know about the structure and location of food. In their body, there is an ability which is called proprioception. This ability tells about the location of the arm even if they are out of sight. We can bend our backs with perfection as we know about our hand’s location compared to our back. Octopuses keep their eye on their suckers. This is a good fact that they cannot see their arms. They don’t know about arms for a good reason.

:pushpin: In our brain, we carry an exact map of our body, but this cannot be possible for octopuses. This is because their body shape is constantly changing, and it is in the form of fluid. Another interesting question about the covering of eight arms with the help of suckers. How they keep all these arms that are stick to each other? The octopus’ skin secretes a chemical to keep the suckers from sticking to it. To avoid the tangled mess, sounds are essential.

:black_large_square: Mating and the thrill of surviving

:pushpin: When we are talking about arms, let’s talk about the mating process of octopus. Yes, there is an important arm that plays an essential role in the process of octopus mating. This arm is called a hectocotylus. This arm is present in the body of the male octopus. The male octopus uses his arm to pass the sperm to the female octopus. After a few days of mating or mating, the male octopus is killed because of this. One of the octopus, i.e., Nautilus, has hectocotylus, which is worm-like.

:black_large_square: Process of mating

:pushpin: This functions as a detachable penis that will swim to females on its own. Also, there is the fact that males can initiate an erection. This sounds like a starter of good observation. The thing is that when a female and male octopus mate, the male uses his specialized arm and slowly deposits one or two packets of sperm in the female‘s mantle. Then he goes back quickly. He will require a long arm for the special delivery of sperms. This is because the female can become cannibalistic as soon as she gets the love packet from the male octopus. Now she has sperms in her mantle. Male then left only for one thing, i.e. nourishment.

:black_large_square: Female octopus

:pushpin: From the female perspective, cannibalism makes good sense for females. This is because she needs nourishment as she has to produce thousands of eggs. She also has to spend months taking care of offspring without feeding them. Every female lays 100,000 fertilized eggs in the form of clusters under an overhang. In many species of octopus, females guard their eggs constantly. They clean and oxygenate the eggs for seven months before their hatching process.

:pushpin: In this period, mothers can lose 50 % of their body and become very weak. The females live for a very short time after the production of offspring. Mating for males is bad for their health. Once they do mating, they started to decline fastly as they entered the process of senescence. They started acting erratically and stopped eating until they die after some time.

:black_large_square: Why they need three hearts

:pushpin: Maybe octopus says that how humans can survive on one heart? Most of the species of octopus live in deep oceans, where there is no more oxygen available, and water is frigid. To survive in this environment, octopuses have evolved three hearts so that they can get essential oxygenated blood to all parts of their body. They can take this blood even to the tips of their arms. Two hearts of octopus pump blood towards the gills, and the larger heart takes the oxygenated blood and circulates it to all the body and its organs.

:black_large_square: True blue blood has a thing for copper

:pushpin: As most of the octopuses live in cold deep water. They have adapted to use copper-rich proteins called hemocyanin. This hemocyanin oxygenates their blood rather than our hemoglobin that is rich in iron. This iron gives a blue shade to their blood, but hemoglobin gives the red color to blood. This is because copper-based blood is not capable of carrying oxygen. Octopuses favor cooler oxygen-rich water.

:black_large_square: Octopus can regenerate lost appendages

:pushpin: Octopus is one of the rare creatures that can regrow their lost parts. They can also grow completely severed and damaged appendages to be as good as the new appendage. This appendage cannot be distinguished from the original. In almost 100 days, the lost arm can be regenerated. Octopus can also regenerate the whole mini-brain with the help of a scratch.

:black_large_square: Facts about octopus

  • The growth rate of octopus is very fast. They gain 2 percent of their body weight in a single day. This estimation is according to the 50 percent remarkable efficiency of converting food into mechanical results. Humans are only half efficient at 25 %.
  • There are 2000 suckers in a single octopus. These suckers operate independently. Sucker features chemo-receptors that can taste everything when they touch.
  • They can kill their prey just by thrusting their sharp tongue.
  • They are very intelligent compared to your pet, i.e., dog and cat, etc., they can solve many problems, and they have long-term memory.
  • Scientists estimate that from 50,000 to 75,000 eggs, only 2 eggs will survive and become mature adults.
  • Octopus paralarvae feed on many zooplankton, but they cannot live in the plankton layer. They take turns and become food for other creatures.
  • After hatching, octopus lives as small paralarvae that drift around the clouds of plankton. They are present near the surface of the ocean.

:black_large_square: Frequently asked questions

:one: Can an octopus kill you?

Yes, the octopus can kill humans in one minute. This animal is one of the most venomous animals in the world. All octopuses contain venom,, but some of them are dangerous. The greater blue-ringed octopus is one of the dangerous octopuses. These rings are threatening when the animal is dangerous. If a predator does not leave, then octopus attacks on them by sprinkling venom can cause paralysis and then death.

:two: Why does an octopus have nine brains?

To survive in the deep ocean, octopuses evolve nine hearts. Most of the species of octopus live in the deep ocean. Octopus has eight arms, and each arm contains its own mini-brain. One brain is present at the center of the octopus that rolls around the esophagus. Octopus has blue blood because they are adapted to low oxygen water using hemocyanin, cold, and a rich copper protein.

:three: Why does octopus die after mating?

The male octopus dies after some time of mating but the female has to live until the time of hatching eggs as she has to take care of her offspring. Octopus died because he had used all the energy in growing fastly than mating. He will start declining after mating and then eventually died. They need her to give oxygen, remove algae. Once the female dies, she gives all her nutrients to them.

:four: What work the 8 brains do?

As we know octopuses are very intelligent because they can make use of tools. So, we have to relate all these brains. The brain that is present in the center is like the shape of a doughnut. This brain forms a ring around the esophagus. So, when an octopus swallows, its means that food must have passed through the brain. The most interesting fact is these octopuses have a mini-brain in each arm. The brain’s ability is distributed in all brains as each arm has its own function, so the central brain sends a high-level signal to the arm.

:five: How octopus can regenerate their body parts?

Octopus is one of the rare creatures that can regrow their lost parts. They can also grow completely severed and damaged appendage so that this is as good as the new appendage will be. This appendage cannot be distinguished from the original. In almost 100 days, the lost arm can be regenerated. Octopus can also regenerate the whole mini-brain with the help of a scratch.

:six: Are octopuses friendly to humans?

Yes, some of the species of octopus are friendly to humans. Octopuses are resourceful, inquisitive ad playful. Some species play with one another, but some of them play with humans. These are highly evolved and intelligent invertebrates. Some of the species of octopus are harmful to human beings.

:seven: Is octopus intelligent?

Yes, octopuses are very intelligent as compared to all pets such as dogs and cats. Scientists performed many experiments to find out about intelligence, and they found octopuses very intelligent. Scientists try every pattern and shape. One study tells that octopus has the ability to use observational learning. Octopuses and nautiluses also have the ability of spatial learning.

:eight: Does octopus feel pain?

Yes, octopus feels pain. Scientists have concluded that octopuses are the most complex neurological invertebrates. They can feel pain, and they remember it. Their behavior is different for different people. These people, when treating well, octopuses will behave differently with them. When people behave with them rudely, their behavior will be the opposite. This is because they can sense what is happening to them.

:nine: Why should you not eat octopus?

The octopuses need an amount of food to survive and grow fastly. This food is three times larger than the weight of the animal itself. Octopuses are carnivores, and they feed on proteins and fish oils. They put risks and further pressure on the marine ecosystem, which is already over-exploited.

:keycap_ten: What is the life span of octopus?

Octopuses have a short life span. Some of the species of octopus live for only six months. The large pacific octopus can live only for five years. This is one of the two largest species of octopus. Male octopus will go after few days of mating. Their body will start declining and eventually dead. The female octopus dies after few days of hatching the eggs. This is because she looks after her eggs for seven months and does not eat anything. That’s why she became weak and died.

:memo: Conclusion

Octopuses have three hearts and 8 brains. Octopuses are the creatures of the ocean that are very famous because of bulbous heads and eight arms that have mini-brains in each of them. A central brain is also present that rounds the esophagus. Octopus has blue blood. Octopus can change their color and texture depending on the surroundings. Male octopus has a short life span than female. A male octopus dies after some time of mating. The female octopus sacrifices her health and body for the protection of her eggs. After the hatching of eggs, she also died because of weakness and health problems. Most of the octopus lives in the Deep Ocean, and they are adapted to that environment. The lifespan of octopus is small, i.e., almost 6 months.

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