Collectivist culture

The collectivist culture emphasizes the needs and goals of the entire group, rather than the needs and desires of everyone.

Understand the culture of collectivism:

collectivist culture
The culture of collectivism emphasizes the needs and goals of the entire group, rather than the needs and desires of everyone. In this culture, relationships with other group members and relationships between people play a central role in each person’s identity. …The cultures of Asia, Central America, South America, and Africa are more collectivistic. Countries considered to be collectivists include Japan, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Venezuela, Guatemala, Indonesia, Ecuador, Argentina, Brazil, and India.

Cumulative social features:

Some common characteristics of collectivist culture are:
Social rules focus on promoting selflessness and placing community needs above individual needs. It is very important to work in a group and support others. Encourage people to do what is most beneficial to society. House members and society perform a fundamental role. Common goals are more valued than individual measures.

What is the difference between collectivist culture**:**

Collectivist culture usually contrasts with individualist culture. Collectivism emphasizes the importance of community, while individualism emphasizes rights and rights. If unity and altruism are valuable features of collectivist culture, then independence and personal identity are strongly emphasized in an individualistic culture. These cultural differences are very common and will affect many aspects of the operation of society. Workers living in a collectivist culture may sacrifice their happiness for the common good of the group. On the other hand, they may feel that their happiness and goals are more important.

Behavioral influence:

Cross-cultural psychologists study how these cultural differences affect various aspects of behavior. You will see the impact in many aspects of your behavior. Self-perception: Culture affects people’s behavior and self-image. Individualistic culture can be described in terms of personality traits and characteristics (for example, “I am smart, funny, athletic and friendly”).

Relationships and roles :

On the other hand, members of collectivist culture tend to describe themselves in terms of their social relationships. Relationships and roles (for example, “I am a good son, brother, and friend”).

SUMMARY:
Studies have shown that the culture of collectivism is related to the low mobility of interpersonal relationships. This term describes how many opportunities people have in society to connect with people of their choice. Low mobility in the relationship means that the relationship between people is stable, strong, and lasting. These relationships are usually based on factors such as family and geographic location, rather than personal choices. In a collectivist culture, developing relationships with new people is very difficult, and because getting to know new people is usually more difficult. Compared with individualistic culture, there are more aliens reserved for collectivist culture. Paradoxically, this indicates that people in an individualistic society will spend more further strength and power to actively cultivate intimacy, and this often comes at the cost of greater self-disclosure and intimacy. In a collectivist culture, a more stable relationship is expected. The relationship in an individualistic culture is often more tense and fragile. People must do more to maintain this relationship. Introduction: It is essential to maintain the harmony of interpersonal relationships in interpersonal relationships. This may be because this relationship is long-lasting and extremely difficult to change. Failure to maintain peace may mean long-term pain for all parties involved.

Adaptation:

Cultural differences will also affect their motivation to stand out or adapt to the team. In one experiment, participants from American and Japanese cultures were asked to choose a pen. Most pens have the same color, but different colors will have different changes. Most American participants chose the rarest color pen. On the other hand, although Japanese people prefer rare pencils, Japanese people are more likely to choose more common colored pencils. Based on a collectivist culture, Japanese participants instinctively value interpersonal harmony rather than personal preferences, so they chose non-abusive behavior-leaving the strangest corrals to others they might want.

Social anxiety:

Research shows that collectivist cultures are more tolerant of socially reserved behaviors. Compared with individualistic cultures, people in these cultures show higher levels of social anxiety. However, it is possible that not only collectivist values ​​contribute to this. For example, Latin Americans have lower levels of social anxiety than East Asians. And the higher value of qualities such as sociality (factors that help reduce social anxiety) in Latin American culture.

Social support:

When people in a collectivist culture are under pressure, they are less likely to talk about their problems than people from an individualistic culture. Research shows that people from a collectivist culture are more reluctant to discuss stress factors with their relatives because they are worried about possible negative effects. On the contrary, people often seek so-called hidden social support. Stay with your supporters regardless of the source of stress.

Collectivism:

Most Asian cultures are collectivist. during a collectivist culture, people suppose that folks are integrated into their cluster identity, whereas the ideas of autonomy and freelance self are underestimated. Even someone’s look is commonly seen as over simply a reflection. people additionally embody representatives of families, extended families, and even entire Asian communities. thanks to the apparent variations between people, it’s not uncommon for people to listen to opinions or maybe raise regarding their appearance, particularly from family members. folks with collectivist values ​​also tend to create social comparisons to make sure that they’re appropriate for this group. The specifications cause a powerful shame. For these reasons, folks whose size, look or incapacity deviates from traditional standards won’t solely be disappointed, however will be frowned upon by their family or society. Therefore, for members of a collectivist culture, the motivation for ever-changing their appearance is also to avoid embarrassment, adapt, and be accepted by the community. Compared with individualistic culture, acceptance of the cluster is driven by the stress and appreciation of the group’s praise.

Traditional history and view:

The German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnis used the term “community and society” to describe early models of collectivism and individualism. Community relations that prioritize communism are seen as characteristics of small villages. The anthropologist Redfield (1941) repeated this concept in his work to contrast mass society with urban society. Max Weber (1930) compared collectivism and individualism from a religious perspective and believed that Protestants are more individualistic and independent than Catholics. Geert Hofstede (Geert Hofstede, 1980) had a huge impact on the beginning of the era of cross-cultural research, comparing the dimensions of collectivism and individualism… Hofstede combined collectivism and Individualism is regarded as part of a unified unity, and each cultural structure is opposite. The author describes people who support high levels of collectivism as part of their social background and puts social goals above personal goals in life for the benefit of the team. Words such as “collective” and “mass” are often used in official languages ​​and are praised in the blender literature, such as Vladimir Mayakovsky (“Who needs the number 1”) and Beto Brecht (“Decision-making, people equal people”). - Collectivism: Anarchic collectivism deals with collectivism in a decentralized anarchic system in which people get paid for their extra work. Their discretion. He usually talks to Miha Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian organization of the International Workers’ Association, which is linked to the early Spanish anarchist movement.

Siblings and their competition:

The limit.
In the existing empirical literature, there are many important restrictions on the relationship and competition between siblings. First of all, the vast majority of research is conducted on Caucasians, middle class, and Westerners (British, Canadian, American). Unfortunately, we know very little about the development of sibling relationships in other cultures or population groups. The nature of kinship in more collectivist cultures (such as in Latin America) may be different from less collectivist cultures in the industrialized West. We don’t know much about the differences in sibling relationships among ethnic or linguistic minorities in the West (eg Spanish, French, South Asia), rural or urban populations. Recently, researchers studied the quality of the family relationship between the relay mother and the stepmother in non-traditional families (such as single parents, divorced parents). Second, the researchers failed to consider the nature of the family relationship in families with more than two children, so there is no empirical data on the dynamics of families with more than three children. For example, the type of interaction that may exist between first and third-generation offspring or second and third-generation siblings is still an open question. Third, many studies have confused the age difference between children with the age of one of their siblings, so we know little about the impact of these variables on the quality and nature of sibling interactions. Or intellectual disability, the impact of these experiences on family and sibling functions is still a neglected area of ​​research. Most studies are based on parental reports or some type of interview/interview method, and several natural observational studies have studied sibling interactions in these specific populations.

Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders of Young People:

Cultural Aspects: Individualism and Collectivism. One of the most common concepts used to explain and predict cultural differences is individualism and collectivism (Hofstede, 2001; Triandis, 2001). People perceive themselves, their relationship with others, the goals they pursue, and their behavior motivations (Triandis, 2001). This structure makes an important contribution to the understanding of individual behavior. Generally speaking, it is well known that individualistic culture emphasizes the difference between oneself and others and social background, and therefore regards the individual as independent and autonomous (Ho & Chiu, 1994; Triandis, 2001). Freedom of choice, personal goals, and self-reliance are some important aspects that need to be emphasized. On the contrary, collectivist culture tends to value group goals, group harmony, and maintaining relationships. Birth and order and responsibilities and obligations (Hofstede, 2001; Oyserman & Lee, 2007). Collectivist culture puts the group above the individual and regards personal achievement as a means to benefit the group (Triandis, 1994). With different values. Standards will be determined by individualism and collectivist society. For example, in an individualistic culture, social behavior standards require people to be independent and show no signs of weakness. On the other hand, collectivist culture is more likely to agree that the social appropriateness of behavior must be subordinate to authority (Argyle, 1986; Triandis, 1989). As we all know, compared with Westerners, East Asians are more collectivistic because their needs and emotions are more closely related to others, and they see themselves as an extension of other important figures (Bochner, 1994; Hofstede, 1980; Triandis, 1994). However, this conceptualization raises many questions. For example, individualism and collectivism are not opposites, and their values ​​are not contradictory (Watson & Morris, 2002; Yamaguchi et al., 1992). Similarly, when comparing the average differences between people in Eastern and Western cultures, it means that the observed differences are the result of individualism and collectivist differences, and these differences cannot provide enough information to understand cultural differences (Matsumoto, 1999) Oyserman, Coon & Kemmelmeier (2002). In addition, since most countries contain different cultures, it is too easy to regard culture as a nation and classify people as national culture (Fiske, 2002). Although the eastern sample is in individualism and There is little difference in the scale of collectivism, but it is problematic to generalize the results based on population or region (Fiske, 2002; Oyserman et al., 2002). Given these aspects, many suggestions have been made, such as measuring personal level data without inferring individualism and collectivism based on nationality, which is important to show that this variable contributes to cultural differences (Bond, 2002; 2002). Singles) & Brown, 1995; Triandis et al., 1986); however, individualism and collectivism are considered to be reliable methods for measuring cultural differences and provide a useful framework for understanding such differences.

Advertising and culture:

individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism represent a major cultural difference, which has been explored by studying the persuasiveness of advertising content and advertising information. Individualism and collectivism are considered to be two powerful cultural models that reflect the huge differences between countries. As suggested by Hofstede, Triandi, and others, collectivist culture supports group goals such as B. Family integrity, harmonious relationships, and group well-being, while individualism Culture supports independence and personal pursuits. Extensive cross-cultural (transnational) data shows that North America and most European countries (such as the United States, Canada, Germany, and Denmark) are individualistic societies that are not within a group, and most Latin American countries like China and South Korea. Japan and Mexico are collectivist societies. Recent studies have shown that, compared with collectivist culture, individualistic advertising information and collectivist advertising information are less in an individualistic culture. For example, a study conducted by Han and Shawitt in 1994 found that Korean advertisements tend to use appeals that emphasize corporate interests, harmony, and family integrity. Americans tend to use demands that emphasize personal pleasure, personal success, and independence. Other studies also have more compliance issues (p., Respect for collective values ​​and beliefs) and fewer uniqueness issues (such as rebellion against collective values ​​and beliefs) were found in advertisements in South Korea and the United States. Contains more group situations than Germany and the United States. Existing research also shows that culturally appropriate advertising viewing is more persuasive than calling outside the standard. Respondents found that, compared with South Korean respondents, advertisements focused on personal interests were more persuasive, while advertisements aimed at family or group interests were less persuasive. In addition, compared with individualistic calls (such as “enjoy self-expression”), Chinese participants responded more favorably to collective advertising calls (such as “sharing a moment of happiness”), while American participants did the opposite. In addition, in Mexico, advertisements describing values ​​consistent with local cultural norms and roles (such as family roles and norms in Mexican culture) produced more favorable attitudes and willingness to buy than advertisements with inconsistencies. Regardless of whether the product is a personal product or a public product (that is, a private product or a public product), it can reduce the persuasive influence of culture on the attractiveness of advertising. Only for products that are public or visible to society: products purchased or used by participants-in the 1994 study of Han and Shawitt, between Americans and Koreans, and in other studies, between Americans and Chinese, Is there a big difference in the above?

Historical background and perspective:

The German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnis used the term “community and society” to describe early models of collectivism and individualism. Community relations that prioritize communism are seen as characteristics of small villages. The anthropologist Redfield (1941) repeated this concept in his work to contrast mass society with urban society. Max Weber (1930) compared collectivism and individualism from a religious perspective and believed that Protestants are more individualistic and independent than Catholics. Geert Hofstede (Geert Hofstede, 1980) had a huge impact on the beginning of the era of cross-cultural research, comparing the dimensions of collectivism and individualism… Hofstede combined collectivism and Individualism is regarded as part of a unified unity, and each cultural structure is opposite. The author describes people who support high levels of collectivism as part of their social background and puts social goals above personal goals in life for the benefit of the team. Words such as “collective” and “mass” are often used in official languages ​​and are praised in blender literature, such as Vladimir Mayakovsky (“Who needs the number 1”) and Beto Brecht (“Decision-making, people equal people”).

Collectivism: Anarchic collectivism deals with collectivism in a decentralized anarchic system in which people get paid for their extra work. Their discretion. He usually talks to Miha Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian organization of the International Workers’ Association, which is linked to the early Spanish anarchist movement.

Individuality and cultural collectivist:


Cultural Point is a series of publications that can quickly explain common cultural concepts, communication methods, norms, values ​​, and orientations, and help us understand cultural differences and transform our judgment. This information is like one or more points of view that can help us stop and gain insight into any cross-cultural journey. They are part of the “Cultural Journey” step-by-step guide to living abroad. Culture conveys how we understand our relationships and how we interact with others. The type of culture lies between individualism and collectivism. Individualism values ​​individual independence. In an individualistic culture, people tend to separate themselves from others, define themselves according to their characteristics, and tend to regard their characteristics as relatively stable and unchanging. "The individualist’s view of himself depends to a large extent on his “internal” identity, thereby minimizing the influence of “external” factors, environment and people. Individualists usually use a simple way to Communicate: They express their meaning by prioritizing the clear and unambiguous exchange of information. European and “Western” cultures are generally more individualistic. Collectivism values ​​the interdependence of individuals. In a collectivist culture, people are more likely to see themselves "connect with others, define themselves based on their relationship with others, and believe that their characteristics are more likely to change in different environments. The self-awareness of a collectivist depends more on who he is with other people or whether he belongs to a group. In a collectivist culture, it is more important to maintain social harmony, get along with others and meet social expectations. Collectivists mean what they mean, but to avoid conflict or embarrassment, they can take a different view. For example, Asian and African cultures are more collectivistic. The idea of ​​individualism with a more constant true private self is not that attractive to collectivists. The manifestations and styles of individualism may even appear selfish, destructive, or alienated from more collectivist individuals or groups. On the contrary, the collectivist priority of socialist harmony and cooperation looks like a suffocating submissive, incompatible with the more individualistic personality. Generally, collectivists tend to obey the model, while individualists destroy the model (or at least appreciate and imagine it). The fact that a person’s cultural background is individualism should not be assumed. Everyone belongs to the category of individualism-collectivism. Even in a highly collectivist culture, you can find more individualistic people. Psychological research also shows that people are active in this range, and depending on the situation, they are more inclined to collectivism or individualism. This adaptability is more common in multicultural communities and environments. This is part of the reason why we strive to communicate across cultures: consider different cultural frameworks and learn to apply them in appropriate communities and environments.

SUMMARY:
The leading dimension of our society is individuality and collectivist culture. Individualism emphasizes personal goals and personal rights. Collectivism focuses on the group goals that best suit the collective, group, and individual relationships. Individualistic employees like to work independently and not be part of a team. Collectivists are motivated by group goals. Long-term relationship. You are very important. Collectivists can easily sacrifice themselves. Rewards or rewards to recognize and celebrate the success of the team. Emphasizing collectivists and respecting them like other team members can confuse them. Geographical groups of universal individualism can be found in Anglo-Saxon countries, Germanic Europe and Northern Europe. They are common in Arab countries, Latin America, Confucian Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. University individualism and collectivism are closely related to academic honesty information. Every student must do his job well, which has been widely accepted. This sometimes confuses international collectivist students studying in the United States. When another student who has a personal relationship with you needs your help, the collectivist wants you to help. Collective students have a social obligation to help another student succeed. In an individualistic academic environment, this higher collectivist social obligation will directly violate academic integrity. I can give an example of individualism. Is it collectivism? Share your example or story as a comment. Then read the examples and stories of classmates and join the discussion. If you don’t have a role model or personal experience, please take the time to search the Internet for information about individualism and collectivism. In the comments, find the website, video, resource, or picture you want to share with other students, and then join the discussion.

Conclusion:

The Collectivist culture is a fee this is characterized with the aid of using an emphasis on cohesiveness amongst people and prioritization of the organization over the self. Individuals or businesses that enroll in a collectivist worldview generally tend to locate not unusual place values and desires as especially salient and reveal more orientation closer to in-organization than closer to out-organization. The term “in-organization” is a concept to be greater diffusely described for collectivist people to consist of societal devices starting from the nuclear own circle of relatives to a nonsecular or racial/ethnic organization.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q1: Is the United States a collectivist culture?
A:The United States has one of the most individualistic cultures in the world. Compared with the more contact-oriented collectivist cultures such as Latin America or the Mediterranean, the distance between Americans and others is greater.

Q2: What is a collective society?
A: Collectivism refers to a society where society and individuals are firmly connected, and people are part of a strong cohesion, while individualism means that the connection between people is weak, so independence is emphasized.

Q3: What is the difference between personal culture and collective culture?
A: The culture of individualism emphasizes the importance of everyone taking care of themselves and not relying on the help of others.

Q4: What are collectivist values?
A: The culture of collectivism emphasizes the needs and goals of the entire group, rather than the needs of everyone. In this culture, relationships with other group members and relationships between people play a central role in each person’s identity.

Q5: What’s wrong with collectivism?
A: What makes collectivism therefore dangerous is what its followers do to people to confirm that they place the cluster first. this is often bad as a result of happiness, pain, motivation, and religious rights are mirrored on the individual level, not the level.

Q6: In short, what’s collectivism?
A: Collectivism could be an ideology connected to communism. sometimes people suppose that individuals ought to prioritize welfare over welfare. Collectivism is that the opposite of individualism. Partnership solutions profit everyone.

Q7: Why is Japan a collectivist culture?
A: In a collectivist society, people belong to a group that takes care of themselves in exchange for loyalty. The most popular explanation for this is that Japanese society has not formed a comprehensive family system based on collectivist societies like China and South Korea.

Q8: Which country is the most collectivist country in the world?
A: The most collectivist countries (South Korea and Chile) are more negative than the most individualistic countries (the United States), and Poland is between the two extremes in measuring negative emotions.

Q9: Is a collectivist society happier?
A: The link between individualism and happiness has been observed in many studies, while in a collectivist culture, the degree of happiness is low. It is often argued that this effect is because people in individualist countries have more independence and more freedom.

Q10: What are the main values ​​of collectivism?
A: The basis of collectivism As mentioned above, a collectivist society has several basic principles, including economic equality, public ownership, cooperation, collective interests, equality, and state supervision.

Q11: Why is the Philippines a collective society?
A: The Philippines scored 32 points and is considered a collective society. Society maintains close relations, and everyone is accountable to the other members of the group.

Q12: Which cultures are individualistic?
A: The national cultures of the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Ireland, Germany, and South Africa are considered highly individualistic cultures. The term individualistic culture was coined by Geert Hofstede in 1980.

Q13: What are the values ​​of individualism?
A: On the other hand, the value of individualism puts personal interests above the interests of group members and those outside the group. Therefore, they value the independence, autonomy, and self-realization of individuals through public, social, or national interests.

Q14: Is Japan a collectivist culture?
A: For example, your extended family and local community. According to Western standards, the Japanese are regarded as collectivists, while according to Asian standards, the Japanese are regarded as individualists. They are more withdrawn than most other Asians.