What is Intelligence?

Intelligence is the ability of human beings to think, to solve problem, to learn from experience, and to adapt to new situations in everyday life.It is basically the capacity for comprehending, self-awareness, logic, emotional knowledge, learning, reasoning, creativity, planning, problem-solving and critical thinking.

Introduction to the Intelligence

Researchers have suggested some different definitions of intelligence. While these definitions can differ considerably from one theorist to the next, current conceptualizations tend to proposed that intelligence is the capability to:

Learn from experience

The retention, acquisition, and use of knowledge is an essential component of intelligence.

Recognize problems

To put knowledge to use, people must be able to recognize possible issues in the environment that require to be addressed.

Solve problems

People should then be able to take what they have learned to come up with a valuable solution to a problem they have seen in the world around them.

:small_blue_diamond:Competitive intelligence is also a form of intelligence. It is used to gather information collected on competitors. Intelligence includes some different mental abilities involving reasoning, logic, problem-solving, and planning. While the subject of intelligence is one of the biggest and most laboriously researched, it is also one of the topics that generate the significant controversy.

:small_blue_diamond: Market intelligence is most useful to a marketing department might include data on existing clients and targeted consumers.

:small_blue_diamond: Emotional intelligence is the ability of individuals to identify their own emotions. It is the ability to manage your own emotions in positive ways to reduce the stress.

Brief History of the Intelligence

German psychologists named William Stern was first created the term “intelligence quotient,” or IQ in the early 20th century. The very first intelligence tests developed by the psychologist Alfred Binet to help the French government recognize schoolchildren who needed extra academic help. T1he concept of mental age or a set of abilities was first introduced by Binet that children of a certain age possess.

Since that time, intelligence testing has appeared as a largely used tool that has led to evolving many other tests of skill and competence. Although, it continues to stimulate debate and controversy over the use of such testing, cultural biases that may be involved, impacts on intelligence, and even the very way we define intelligence.

Fluid :vs: Crystallized Intelligence

Psychologist Raymond Cattle first presented the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence.

Fluid Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is the ability to recognize relationships independent of previous particular practice or instruction regarding those relationships."

Fluid intelligence includes being able to reason and think non-figuratively and solve problems. Fluid intelligence is considered independent of experience, learning and education.

Examples of the use of fluid intelligence involve solving the puzzles and coming up with the problem-solving strategies.

This aspect of intelligence includes the capability to solve the problems and reason about things independent of previously existing information. When you experience a completely new problem that cannot be solved with your existing information, you must depend on fluid intelligence to solve it. Fluid intelligence tends to decrease during late adulthood. Definite cognitive skills related with fluid intelligence tend to decrease as people reach later adulthood.

Crystallized Intelligence

The crystallized intelligence includes knowledge that comes from previous learning and past the experiences. Circumstances that need crystallized intelligence involve reading comprehension and the vocabulary exams.

Crystallized intelligence is basically based upon facts and it is rooted in experiences. As we age and accumulate new information and understanding, crystallized intelligence becomes more stronger. As you might expect, this kind of intelligence tends to enhance with age. The more experience and learning you have, the more you build up your crystallized intelligence.

Changes in Intelligence

Crystallized and fluid intelligence tend to change throughout an entire life, with definite mental abilities peaking at various points.

Fluid intelligence has long been thought to spire quite early in life, however research released in 2015 suggests that some aspects of the fluid intelligence may spire as late as age 39 to 40. Crystallized intelligence does tend to spire later in life, hitting its apex around age 59 or 71.

Some things that are important to remember about crystallized and fluid intelligence:

  • Both kinds of intelligence enhances throughout the childhood and adolescence.

  • Crystallized intelligence continues to build up throughout adulthood.

  • Many aspects of fluid intelligence spire in adolescence and start to decrease slowly beginning around age 29 or 41.

In Short
Intelligence is the ability of human beings to think, to solve problem, to learn from experience. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are the two types of intelligence. Fluid intelligence is ability to reason and think abstractly. The crystallized intelligence includes knowledge that comes from past the experiences.

Theories of Intelligence

Different researchers have presented a variety of theories to describe the nature of intelligence. Here are some of the significant theories of intelligence that have appeared during the last 100 years.

General Intelligence

The concept of general intelligence or the g factor was described by British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863–1945). After using a technique known as factor analysis to scrutinize some mental competence tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were noticeably similar.

Individual who performed best on one cognitive test inclined to perform best on other tests, while those who performed badly on one test tended to perform badly on others. Charles Spearman concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability and we can measured and numerically expressed this intelligence.

Primary Mental Abilities

Psychologist Louis L.Thurstone (1887–1955) offered theory of intelligence that differed from the theory of Charles Spearman. Thurstone’s theory focused on seven different primary mental abilities, Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability,

Associative memory: It is the ability to recall and memorize

Numerical ability: It is the ability to solve numerical problems

Perceptual speed: It is the ability to see similarities and differences among objects

Reasoning: It is the ability to find rules

Spatial visualization: It is the ability to visualize relationships

Verbal comprehension: It is the ability to understand and define words

Word fluency: It is the ability to produce words quickly

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Howard Gardner was the first who proposed the theory of multiple intelligences in his 1983 book “Frames of Mind”, where he elaborate the definition of intelligence and outlines various distinct kinds of intellectual competencies.

1. Linguistic Intelligence

Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory and it deals with sensitivity to the written and spoken language. Linguistic intelligence is basically the ability to learn languages, and capacity to use language to attain particular goals.

People with linguistic intelligence, such as Oprah Winfrey and William Shakespeare have an aptitude to analyze information and create products involving written and oral language such as books, speeches and memos.

2. Logical-Mathematics Intelligence

Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to the ability to analyze problems logically, solving mathematical problems and investigate problems scientifically.

People with logical-mathematical intelligence, such as Bill Gates and Albert Einstein have a capability to develop proofs and equations, make calculations, and solve abstract issues.
This intelligence is used mostly by the business individuals. Business intelligence is used by the individuals to build up their business profits and stocks. Collaborative business intelligence is the use of the collaborative software to share and institutionalize information.

3. Spatial Intelligence

Spatial intelligence attributes the ability to identify and influence the patterns of wide space (those used, for example, by pilots and navigators) as well as the patterns of more limited areas, such as those of significance to surgeons, sculptors, architects, chess players or graphic artists.

People with spatial intelligence, such as Amelia Earhart and Frank Lloyd Wright have a capability to identify and influence huge-scale and fine-grained spatial images.

4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

Bodily kinesthetic intelligence is the capability of utilizing one’s entire body or parts of the body (like the legs, hand, belly or the mouth) to tackle issues or to fashion items.

Individual with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, such as Simone Biles and Michael Jordan have a capability to utilize one’s own body to generate items, perform skills, or solve issues through mind–body union.

5. Musical Intelligence

Musical intelligence refers to the expertise in the composition, performance, and acknowledgement of musical patterns.

People with musical intelligence, such as Ed Sheeran and Beethoven have a capability to identify and create musical rhythm, pitch, tone and timbre.

6. Interpersonal Intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to comprehend the motivations, intentions and desires of other individual and consequently to work efficiently with others.

People with interpersonal intelligence, such as Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi have a capability to identify and comprehend other people’s desires, moods, intentions and motivations.

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence

Intrapersonal intelligence is simply the capability to comprehend oneself, to have an proficient working model of oneself-including own’s feelings fears, desires and capacities—and to utilize such data efficiently in regulating one’s own life.

People with intrapersonal intelligence, such as Maya Angelou and Aristotle have a capability to identify and comprehend his or her own desires, moods, motivations,(intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivations) and intentions. This kind of intelligence can help a person to comprehend which life goals are essential and how to attain them.

8. Naturalistic Intelligence

Naturalistic intelligence involves skill in the identification and classification of the several species the fauna and flora of his or her environment.

People with naturalistic intelligence, such as Jane Goddall and Charles Darwin have a capability to recognize and distinguish among different kinds of animals, plants and weather formations that are found in the natural world.

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Psychologist Robert Sternberg described the intelligence as “mental activity guided toward willful adaptation to, selection, and framing of real-world environments pertinet to one’s life.”

While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much wider than a single, general ability, he recommended that some of Gardner’s types of intelligence are better viewed as individual talents. Sternberg presented what he referred to as “successful intelligence,” which includes three different factors:

1. Practical Intelligence

Sternberg called one’s capability to successfully interact with the everyday world practical intelligence. Contextual theory is related to the practical intelligence. Practically intelligent individual are especially expert at behaving in successful ways in their external environment.

2. Creative Intelligence

The creative intelligence is basically related to experiential subtheory, which is one’s capability to utilize existing information to generate new ways to solve new problems or cope in new circumstances.

3. Analytical Intelligence

The analytical intelligence is related to the componential subtheory, which is essentially academic intelligence. Analytical intelligence is used to solve issues and is the type of intelligence that is measured by a standard IQ test.

Sternberg observed that all three kinds of intelligence are important for successful intelligence, which refers to the capability to be successful in life based on one’s capabilities, personal desires, and environment.

:small_blue_diamond: Concept of Artificial intelligence: is also necessary to understand. Artificial intelligence is associated with computer sciences that focus on the developments of intelligence machines, working and thinking like humans.

:small_blue_diamond: Concept of Cultural Intelligence: Cultural intelligence is used in education, business, academic research and government. Cultural intelligence is the ability to work effectively across cultures. In cross-cultural psychology the researchers also examine the intelligence level of the people of different cultures.

Summary
Intelligence includes different theories. Different researchers have presented a variety of theories to describe the nature of intelligence. Gardner’s theory of intelligence includes 9 multiple intelligences and the Robert Sternberg theory of intelligence includes three different intelligences.

The First Intelligence Test used in the field of Psychology

The scales created by Binet and Simon were the first intelligent tests that became broadly accepted at the beginning of the 20th century. The Alpha and Beta army tests, that were utilized in World war I to assess military faculty, became very famous.

In current years, the Wechsler scales are the most broadly utilized instruments in the field of psychology for measuring the intelligence. The creator of these tests, Wechsler, published his first scale in the 1930s. He utilized material from the Binet Alpha and Beta tests to make his test. An essential feature of his test was, that when calculating the IQ, this test took age into account. In other words, in the calculation of the IQ, an age-correction takes place. Because of this component, the IQ remains constant over the life expectancy.

Intelligence Quotient

IQ is an abbreviation for Intelligence Quotient. So what is Intelligence Quotient? The Intelligence Quotient is the measurement of your intelligence and is expressed in a number.

An individual’s IQ can be calculated by having the individual take an intelligence test. The average IQ is 100. If you attain a score higher than 100, you are more intelligent than the average person, and a lower score means you are (somewhat) less intelligence.

An IQ tells you what your score is on a specific intelligence test, frequently contrasted with your age-group. The test has a standard deviation of 15 points and a mean score of 100 points. What does this standard deviation mean? It implies that 68 percent of the population score an IQ within the interval 85-115. Furthermore, that 95 percent of the population scores within the interval 70-130.

Measuring of Intelligence Quotient

If we compare the mental age of an individual to the individual’s chronological age, the result of this is the IQ, a measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age. A simple method to calculate IQ is by utilizing the following formula:

IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age × 100

Thus a 10-year-old kid who perform as well as the average 10-year-old kid has an IQ of 100 (10 ÷ 10 × 100), while an eight-year-old kid who perform as well as the average 10-year-old kid would have an IQ of 125 (10 ÷ 8 × 100). Most modern intelligence tests are based the relative position of a person’s score among people of the similar age, as opposed to based on this formula, however, the idea of an intelligence ratio or quotient provides a good explanation of the score’s meaning.

IQ

7 Daily Habits to Sharpen the Intelligence

Here are seven daily habits you can work into your routine to sharpen your intelligence:

1. Engage in stimulating conversation
In real life–outside the computer or cell phone screen. The art of conversation needs that we think and react quickly, and conversing with someone more intelligent than you can be a fantastic exercise in rapid thinking as well as an opportunity to learn something new. Search out interesting individual and engage them in conversation, however concise.

2. Add 10-25 minutes of aerobic exercise to your day

Aerobic activity slit our lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s in half and our danger of general dementia by 59 percent, according to John Medina, PhD, director of the Seattle Pacific University Brain Center for Applied Learning Research. Hopefully, you’re practicing already for the physical advantages, but if not, the fact it can keep you sharp and even improve your creativity should be incredible motivators!

3.Take online courses

You can learn about anything online–even on a mobile device. Focus on gaining something new every day, whether it’s during your travel to work, on your mid-day break, or in the five extra minutes you have between meetings. Even better, make it something excessively useful, such as coding. You can take online courses on udemy. Udemy is an online education platform and provides education on many courses. It is the best online education resource.

4. Look, Listen, Learn

Have a go at working a variety of media types into your day. Read the reports, listen to podcasts, watch video clips where you can, and utilize gamified applications or sites when possible. Switch it up so you’re using more of your senses to take in knowledge, and remaining more engaged to retain more amount it. If you’re finding yourself bored with perusing or impeded down in audio files, take a break and attempt a new media type.

5. Practice a hobby

Ensure you’re accomplishing something you love every day. If your brain is constantly impeded in work, it has no time or space to investigate creative, fun ideas and concepts. In fact, some hobbies like playing video games or rehearsing a musical instrument–can assist sharpen your intelligence as well!

6. Give your brain a break
You can’t be “on” constantly. Make productivity application a part of your daily routine, to automate excess tasks that occupy your time and brain space.

7. Follow ideas through to various outcomes
Business visionaries are often tormented with more ideas than time to deal with them in. Make it a habit to do thought exercises–come up with three possible outcomes for your next thought, regardless of whether there’s only one way you expect it to turn out. Visualize your idea in alternative ways. Make it a habit to think about more alternatives.

Summary
The scales created by Binet and Simon were the first intelligent tests. The Intelligence Quotient is the measurement of your intelligence and is expressed in a number. There are seven simple daily habits that we can utilize to sharpen our intelligence.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some frequently asked questions.

How do you define intelligence?

Intelligence is the capability to think, to learn from the experience, to solve issues, and to adapt to new circumstances. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is basically a measure of intelligence that is regulated for age. The Wechsler Adult lntelligence Scale (WAIS) is the most broadly utilized IQ test for adults.

Which intelligence is most important?

In terms of importance it used to be that cognitive intelligence was the king of the hill. Then emotional intelligence appeared. But now Robert J. Sternberg, Cornell University’s professor of human development, says “successful intelligence” likely matters more than all the other intelligence kinds you’ve heard about.

What does it mean to be smart or intelligent?

Smart can be explained as a student that has a correct answer of any question but, intelligent can be explained as a student that solves the problem or tries to answer the question from a various perspective or by using other means/resources. I would think intelligence shows our own degree of sophisticated knowledge.

Does reading increase IQ?

Reading increases the crystallized intelligence. That describes why some IQ tests include vocabulary words, which typically serve as a reliable representative of how clever you are. “Fluid intelligence” is that capability to solve the problems, comprehend things and detect meaningful patterns.

What is the level of IQ?

The number actually indicates how your results contrast to those of other people your age. The IQ is considered above the average if the score is 116 or more. The score of 130 or higher signals a high IQ. Membership in Mensa, the High IQ society, involves people who score in the top 2 percent, which is generally 132 or higher.

Conclusion

Intelligence is the ability of human beings to think, to solve problem, to learn from experience. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are the two types of intelligence. Fluid intelligence is ability to reason and think abstractly. The crystallized intelligence includes knowledge that comes from past the experiences. Intelligence includes different theories. Different researchers have presented a variety of theories to describe the nature of intelligence. Gardner’s theory of intelligence includes 9 multiple intelligences and the Robert Sternberg theory of intelligence includes three different intelligences, Practical, Analytical and Creative intelligence.

The scales created by Binet and Simon were the first intelligent tests. Wechsler scales are the most broadly utilized instruments in the field of psychology for measuring the intelligence. The Intelligence Quotient is the measurement of your intelligence and is expressed in a number. If we compare the mental age of an individual to the individual’s chronological age, the result of this is the IQ. There are seven simple daily habits that we can utilize to sharpen our intelligence.

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