What is the Perception?

What is the perception?: Perception is defined as the sensory experience of the world. It includes both identifying environmental stimuli and the actions in response to these stimuli. Perception basically includes the five senses; smell, taste, sound, touch, and sight. Perception creates our experience of the world around us and it also allows us to act within our environment.


Introduction to Perception

After discussing brief introduction to what is the perception now we discuss perception in detail. Perception refers to the set of processes that we use to make sense of all the stimuli we encounter every second, from the glow of the computer screen in front of us to the smell of the room to the itch on your ankle. How we interpret all these different sensations, our perception basically based on it, which are sensory impressions we get from the stimuli in the world around us. Perception permits us to steer the world and to make decisions about everything, from which T-shirt to wear or how fast to run away from a bear.

Close your eyes. What do you remember about the room you are in? The shade of the walls, the angle of the shadows? Regardless of whether we know it, we selectively encounter to different things in our environment. Our brains simply don’t have the capacity to encounter to every single detail in the world around us. Optical illusions basically highlight this tendency. Have you ever gazed at an optical illusion and seen one thing, while a companion sees something completely different? Our brains involved in a three-step process when introduced with stimuli: selection, organization, and interpretation.

Concept of Selective Perception: Selective perception is a psychological cognitive bias related to how a persons expectations or the degree to which something stands out can affect observations. Selective perception can be used by a business to target its marketing campaigns to influence and appeal to desirable potential customers for its product or service.

The Perception Process

The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that starts with stimuli in the environment and ends with our interpretation of those stimuli. This process is generally unconscious and happens countless times a day. An unconscious process is basically one that happens without intention or awareness. When you open your eyes, you do not require to tell your brain to interpret the light falling onto your retinas from the object in front of you as “computer” because this has happened unconsciously. When you step out into a cold night, your brain does not require to be told “cold” because the stimuli activate the processes and categories spontaneously.


The world surrounding us is loaded with an endless number of stimuli that we might encounter, but our brains do not have the resources to pay attention to everything in our surrounding Thus, the first step of perception is the (usually unconscious, but sometimes intentional) decision of what to encounter to. Relying on the environment, and relying on us as individuals, we might focus on a familiar stimulus or something new. When we encounter to one specific thing in our environment—whether it is a smell, a feeling, a sound, or something else completely—it becomes the encountered stimulus.


Whenever we have decided to attend to a stimulus in the environment (deliberately or unknowingly, though usually the latter), the selection sets off a series of responses in our brain. This neural process begins with the activation of our sensory receptors (touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing). The receptors transduce the input energy into neural activity, which is transmitted to our minds, where we develop a mental representation of the stimulus (or, in most cases, the numerous related stimuli) called a percept. A vague stimulus might be converted into various percepts, experienced randomly, one at a time, in what is called “multistable perception.”


After we have taken care of an improvement, and our minds have gotten and coordinated the data, we decipher it such that bodes well utilizing our current data about the world. Understanding basically implies that we take the data that we have detected and coordinated and transform it into something that we can arrange. For example, in the Rubin’s Vase fantasy referenced before, a few people will decipher the tangible data as “jar,” while some will decipher it as “faces.” This happens unknowingly a huge number of times each day. By placing various upgrades into classes, we can all the more likely comprehend and respond to our general surroundings.

Concept of Customer Perception: Customer perception is a marketing concept that encompasses a customers impression, awareness and/or consciousness about a company or its offerings. Customer perception is typically affected by advertising, reviews, public relations, social media, personal experiences and other channels.

In Short
What is the perception?: Perception is the sensory experience of the world and it refers to the set of processes that we use to make sense of all the stimuli we encounter every second. The perceptual process is a sequence of steps. The first step of perception is the decision of what to encounter to.

Types of Perception

Some of the main types of perception include:

  • Vision

  • Touch

  • Smell

  • Sound

  • Taste

There are also other senses that permit us to perceive things for example time, balance, body position, acceleration, and the perception of internal states. Many of these are multimodal and include more than one sensory modality. Social perception, or the ability to recognize and utilize social cues about individuals and relationships, is another significant type of perception.

How it Works?

What is the perception and how it works it is necessary to know. The perceptual process is a series of steps that starts with the environment and leads to our perception of a stimulus and action in reaction to the stimulus. It occurs constantly, but you do not spend a significant deal of time thinking about the real process that occurs when you see the many stimuli that surround you at any given moment.

For instance, the process of modifying the light that falls on your retinas into an actual visual image happens unknowingly and spontaneously. The subtle alters in pressure against your skin that permit you to feel objects happen without a single thought.

Perception acts as a filter that permits us to exist and transcribe the world without becoming inundate by the profusion of stimuli.

Steps in the Perceptual Process

Steps in the perceptual process are following:

1. Environmental Stimulus

The world around us is full of stimuli that can attract attention through different senses. The environmental stimulus is everything in the environment that has the capability to be perceived.

2. The attended stimulus

The attended stimulus is the particular object in the environment on which attention is basically focused.

3. The image on the retina

This includes light actually passing through the cornea and pupil and onto the lens of our eye. The cornea assists focus the light as it enters the eye, and the iris of our eye controls the size of the pupils in order to recognize how much light to let in. The cornea and lens act together to project an inverted image onto the retina.

4. Transduction

In a process known as the transduction, the image on the retina is then converted into electrical signals. This permits the visual messages to be transferred to the brain to be interpreted.

5. Neural processing

After that the electrical signals then undergo neural processing. The path followed by a specific signal depends on what kind of signal it is (i.e. a visual signal or an auditory signal).

6. Perception

You perceive the stimulus object in the environment in this process of perception. It is at this point that you become deliberately aware of the stimulus.

7. Recognition

Perception doesn’t just include becoming deliberately aware of the stimuli. It is also essential for the brain to arrange and interpret what you are sensing. The next step is the recognition and it is the capability to interpret and give meaning to the object.

8. Action

The action phase of perception includes some kind of motor activity that occurs in reaction to the perceived and identified stimulus. This might include a major action, like running toward a person in distress, or something as tenuous as blinking your eyes in reaction to a puff of dust blowing through the air.

Concept of Risk Perception: Risk perception is a belief (whether rational or irrational) held by an individual, group, or society about the chance of occurrence of a risk or about the extent, magnitude, and timing of its effect(s).

Tips and Tracks

There are few things that we can do that might assist us perceive more in the world around us—or at least focus on the things that are essential.

Pay attention

Perception requires us to encounter to the world around us. This might involve anything that can be seen, tasted, touched, smelled, or heard. It might also include the sense of proprioception, like the movements of the arms and legs or the alerations in position of the body in relation to particular objects in the environment.

Make meaning of what you perceive

The identification stage is an important part of perception since it permits us to make sense of the world around us. By placing objects in meaningful arrangements, we are able to comprehend and react appropriately.

Take action

The last and final step of the perceptual process includes some kind of action in reaction to the environmental stimulus. This could include a variety of actions like turning your head for a closer look or turning away to look at something else.

Our senses are the main types of perception. There are 8 steps in the perceptual process. This process is a series of steps that starts with the environment. There are some tips that we might assist us to perceive more in the world.

Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization

Gestalt psychology was proposed by German thinkers Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka and they focused on how people interpret the world. The Gestalt perspective basically formed partially as a reaction to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt who basically focused on breaking down mental events and experiences to the smallest elements.

Max Wertheimer noted that quick series of perceptual events, like rows of flashing lights, create the illusion of motion even when there is none. This is actually known as the phi phenomenon. The motion pictures are based on this principle, with a sequence of still images appearing in quick succession to form a seamless visual experience.

These principles are frequently referred to as the “laws of perceptual organization.” But, it is necessary to note that while Gestalt psychologists name these phenomena “laws,” a more appropriate term would be “principles of perceptual organization.” These principles are much like the heuristics, which are mental shortcuts for solving issues.

Law of Similarity

The law of similarity recommends that similar things tend to appear grouped together. Grouping can occur in both auditory and visual stimuli. In the image below, for instance, you likely see the groupings of colored circles as rows rather than just a grouping of dots.
Similarity law

Law of Pragnanz

The word pragnanz is actually a German term which means “good figure.” The law of Pragnanz is sometimes referred to as the law of simplicity or the law of good figure. This law holds that particular objects in the environment are perceive in a way that makes them appear as simple as possible. You see the image below as overlapping circles rather than a mixture of curved, connected lines.
Pragnanz law

Law of Proximity

According to the law of proximity, things that are close each other perceived to be grouped together. In the image below, the circles on the left appear to be part of one assemblage while those on the right appear to be part of another. Because the objects are near to each other, we assemble them together.
Proximity law

Law of Continuity

According to the law of continuity points that are connected by straight or curving lines are perceived in a way that follows the simplest path. Rather than perceiving separate lines and angles, lines are perceive as belonging together.
Continuity Law

Law of Closure

The law of closure holds that things are assembled together if they seem to complete some entity. Our brains sometimes ignore contradictory knowledge and fill in gaps in knowledge. In the image below, you likely see the shapes of a circle and rectangle because your brain fills in the missing gaps in order to form a meaningful image.
Closure Law

The Law of Common Region

This Gestalt law of perceptual organization holds that elements that are assembled together within the same region of space tend to be assembled together.

For instance, imagine that there are almost three oval shapes drawn on a piece of paper with the two dots located at each end of the oval. The ovals are right next to each other so that the dot at the end of one oval is actually nearer to the dot at the end of a separate oval. Notwithstanding the proximity of the dots, the two that are inside each oval are perceived as being a group rather than the dots that are actually the closest to each other.

What Influences our Perception?

There are a number of factors that influence our perception. First, Major influencers of our perception can be our heredity. Skin color, height, and gender influence the way we see the world. For instance, someone who is 5’ 2” may see an object to be stored too high, while someone who is 6’ 2” may not have that similar perception.


Our needs influences our perception as well. Physiological needs, such as water and food (or lack there of), can impact how we feel about certain circumstances. Have you ever been in a circumstance where you were very hungry? If so, you know this influenced your ability to socialize with other people. You may have found yourself less patient to listen because you were anxious about when you were going to eat! Or if you have ever taken a road trip and in this trip you needed to use the restroom, your perception may be that the highway lacks a sufficient number of rest areas.

Pear Group

Our peer group can also influence our perception. Our peers tend to determine what is undesirable or desirable, thereby giving us knowledge on how to interpret information around us. No doubt you have experienced this personally. If you perceive a brand of clothing undesirable, it is more likely that your friends also feel undesirable regarding a band of clothing. The same thing happens at work; for instance, suppose a supervisor uses Skype to conduct meetings because her perception is that it is a significance way to do business. It is highly possible that others in your workgroup will perceive it as a useful tool, also.


Our interests influence our perception. If you like running marathons, your perception on how much to spend on running shoes will be different from someone who favors kayaking for fun and needs a pair of athletic shoes. Assume your interest at work is to be promoted. Your perception of work is very alternative than someone who can’t stand the job and is looking for a position with an alternative company.

What is your perception of yourself?

There are two types of the perception: the way you perceive yourself and your world and the way others see you and their world. The only perception you have control over is your own. How you perceive your world impact your attitude, which in turn influence what you attract. If you see a world of profusion, your actions and attitude attract profusion.

Conversely, if you see your life as lacking what you need, you panic more about conserving what you have rather than attaining those things you want and require. Our brains spontaneously process what we panic about as a threat. This then alters our perception and even our body chemistry.

Potential Pitfalls

The perceptual process does not always go easily and there are various things that may impede with perception. Perceptual problems are cognitive conditions that are marked by an impaired ability to see objects or concepts.

Some disorders that may affect perception include:

  • Spatial neglect syndromes, which include not attending to stimuli on one side of the body

  • Prosopagnosia, a disorder that makes it hard to identify faces

  • Aphantasia, a disorder characterized by an inability to visualize things in our mind

  • Schizophrenia, which is characterized by abnormal perceptions of reality

Some of these conditions may be impacted by genetics while others result from brain injury or stroke.

Gestalt psychology focused on how people interpret the world. Some laws regarding the perception are presented by the Gestalt psychology. Our hereditary, color, skin, needs and our interest influenced our perception.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some frequently asked questions regarding what is the perception:

What are the characteristics of perception?

Personal characteristics that influence perception include a person’s attitudes, motives, personality, interests, expectations and past experiences. There are some factors that affect the target such as- novelty, sounds, motives, size, background, similarity, proximity etc.

What is perception of the world?

The nature of living in a material world means our reality becomes the canvas upon which we make sense of our environment. Perception is based on our mind-constructed model of the world, such that life reflects our held opinions and beliefs. Their perception is coloured by their experience of reality.

Why Is perception reality?

Perception basically acts as a lens through which we view the reality of world. Our perceptions impact how we focus on, process, interpret, remember, comprehend, synthesize, decide about, and act on reality. In doing so, our aptness is to assume that how we see the reality is an accurate representation of what the reality truly is.

How perceptions are formed?

Our perceptions are based on how we explain different sensations. The perceptual process starts with receiving stimuli from the environment and ends with our interpretation of those stimuli. This process is generally unconscious and happens many times a day.

What is perception study?

Perception surveys are most frequently utilized when one is trying to find out how people comprehend or feel about their situations or environments. They are utilzed to assess needs, answer questions, solve problems, establish baselines, analyze trends, and select goals.


What is the perception?: Perception is the sensory experience of the world and it refers to the set of processes that we use to make sense of all the stimuli we encounter every second. Perception basically includes the five senses. The perceptual process is a sequence of steps. The first step of perception is the decision of what to encounter to. Our senses are the main types of perception. There are 8 steps in the perceptual process. This process is a series of steps that starts with the environment. There are some tips that we might assist us to perceive more in the world such as pay attention, making meaning of what you perceive and taking action etc. Gestalt psychology focused on how people interpret the world. Some laws regarding the perception are presented by the Gestalt psychology. Our hereditary, color, skin, needs and our interest influenced our perception.

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