Bones are the composition of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. It forms a skeleton of human body. It also serves as the protection of different organs. Most of the bones contain bone marrow which produce red and white cells, store minerals, enable movement and give shape and support of a human body.
An infant has more bones then an adult. Yes a baby’s skeleton contain 300 bones which is greater than an adult’s skeleton. The baby’s bone later grow together and defuse to form an adult skeleton having 207 bone.
Apparently male and female both have same number of bones i.e 207 bones. But bones of male skeleton is comparatively stronger, wider, thicker and high in density then a female bones.
Difference between male and female bones:
There are number of features which differentiate male skeleton from female. The differences are following:
- Female frontal bone is rounded while male have less round frontal bone then a female skull.
- Female has smooth brow bone while male have prominent ridge (brow).
- Female has rounded eye orbit and male has square eye orbit.
- Female skull has pointed chin and male skull has square chin as most of them contain square shape faces.
- Female skull form obtuse angled jaw line while male skull has acute angled jaw line.
- Female skeleton is smaller and lighter in weight while male has large and heavy skeleton.
According to the shape a human skeleton is classified into five categories of bones:
- Long bones
- Short bones
- Flat bones
- Irregular bones
- Sesamoid bones
Long bones are the bones which are longer than its width. They are cylinder in shape. Long bones are comparatively hard bones that gives our body strength, shape and helps in movement.
Long bones include the bones of:
- Arms (humerous, ulna, radius)
- Legs (femur, tibia, fibula)
- Finger (metacarpals, phalanges)
- Toes (metatarsals, phalanges)
Short bones are equal by mean of length, width and thickness. They are cubic in shape. These bones also help in some amount of mobility, provide support and strength of a human body.
Short bones of a human body include the bones of:
- Wrists (carpals)
- Ankle (tarsals)
Flat bones are usually thin and curved, it works as an adhesive for muscles and also protects internal organs.
Example of flat bone are:
- Skull bones (cranial)
- Shoulder blades (scapulae)
- Breast bone (sternum)
Irregular bones as its name define that it is irregular in shape that’s why it does not lie in any of the above mentioned category. It is complex and does not have any define shape. It also protects internal organs.
Example of this most complex bones include:
Sesamoid bones are small round shape bones which looks like sesame seed. These bones are found in tissues which connect bones with muscles (tendons) which protect tendons from heavy pressure and stress. The number of sesamoid bones can vary from person to person.
The patellae is the only example of sesamoid bones.
There are approx. 300 bones in human body by birth which is reduce and become 206 bones in adulthood. Bones are the fundamental part of the human skeletal system. Following is the list of bones which is found in human skeleton:
- skull (forehead, brow bone and jaw bones)
- spine (lumbar vertebrae, tail bone)
- chest (ribs, chest bone)
- arms (shoulder blade, collar bone, humerus)
- hand (carpals, meta carpals, phalanges)
- pelvis (hip bone)
- legs (thigh bone, knee cap, fibula)
- feet (tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges)
The human skeleton is a framework of body which provide support, movement, protection of internal organs, production of red blood cell and storage of minerals. The number of bones in male and female skeletal system is almost same but female contain penile bone which helps in childbirth.
A human skeleton can be divided into two parts:
- Axial skeleton
- Appendicular skeleton
Axial is derived from the word Axis which means central point. Axial means the bones of axial skeleton located along with the center of body. Axial skeleton is the part of skeleton which contains the bones of major part of a human body, i.e. bones of head and vertebrate. Axial skeleton consists of 80 bones which includes:
- Rib cage
- Vertebrate column
A human skull contain 22 bones including cranium and facial bones. Cranium has the important function to protect human brain while there are 14 facial bones in human skull which gives the shape to human face. A human infant has 8 separate plate in their head which later fuse together and form a skull.
A rib cage contain 12 pair of ribs and a sternum of 25 separate small bones. It protects the vital organs of human body such as: heart and lungs. It looks like crescent with one flattened and other is rounded. The rounded end joint with vertebrae at the back and flattened end come together at front.
The rib cage is further divided into three types:
- True ribs (upper seven pair of ribs attach with cartilage)
- False ribs (8th to 10th pair of ribs which does not attach with cartilage)
- Floating ribs (the last two ribs do not attached and simply float or hanging)
Did you know?
The first rib of the cage is comparatively short, flat and more curved then other rib.
Vertebral column is the longest series of bones which join skull with pelvic bones and also gives support to the rib cage. At the time of birth a human have 33 vertebrae which then later fuse together and becomes 24 in normal development. The vertebral column consists of 5 parts:
- Coccygeal vertebrae
There are 80 bones in Axial Skeleton:
Appendicular skeleton is another set of bones which includes bones of upper and lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic. It involves in mobility more than axial skeleton. It contains 126 bones which includes:
- 4 bones of shoulder girdles
- 6 bones of arms and forearms
- 54 bones in hands including fingers and wrist
- 2 bones of pelvic
- 8 bones of thigh and legs
- 52 bones of foot including fingers and ankles.
Appendicular bones further divided into two types:
- The bones that are located within the limbs.
- The bones which attach limbs with axial skeleton.
Did you know?
There is one bone in human body which is not connected with any other bone and that bone is hyoid bone (bone in tongue)
Skeletal system is the framework of human body which consists of bones (the essential component), tissues (connective tissues), cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
Except providing support, shape and movement of human body the skeletal system of a human body serves in the following ways:
- Produce blood cells: bones contain bone marrow which is responsible to produce red and white blood cells.
- Protects vital organs: it support and protect the vital organ of human body, bones in human skeletal system include skull (which protects brain), rib cage (protects heart and lungs) and vertebral column (protects spinal cord).
- Store and supply minerals: bones of human body store and supply minerals of human body such as calcium and vitamin D.
Each bone of human skeleton (any type of bones) contains these layers:
- Compact bones
- Spongy bones
Periosteum is the outer surface of the bone in human body. It contains connective tissues wrap around all over the bone except joints spaces. Periosteum layer help in defining shape of bones in growing period and it also help in recovery of bones.
It is the heaviest and strongest layer of the bone which is also known as cortical bone. It has to be very hard because it gives support to the muscles during mobility also it is responsible for store and release minerals.
Spongy bones are comparatively soft then cortical bone or compact bone. It is the inner layer of bone which is also known as cancellous bone. It is usually found near joints and inside the vertebrae. It contains small holes which is the house of bone marrow, these holes are involve in production of red blood cells.
Cartilage is the smooth substance present on the tip of every joint of bone which helps in reduction of friction in bone and provide then mobility without rubbing with each other.
Joints are the area where bones meet together and allow body to move. There are three types of joints:
- Immoveable joints: these joint can join bones together but never allow them to move. The joints of skull bones are the example of immoveable joints.
- Partially moveable joints: these joints of bone can move but have very limited mobility or very less movements. Joints of rib cage is the example of partially moveable joints.
- Moveable joints: these joints can move in wide range. Example of moveable joints are: shoulder, elbow, knees.
Package of connective tissues which hold bones with each other. It limits the joints to move abnormally to protect bones from injuries due to stretching. There are 900 ligaments in human body.
Package of connective tissues which connect muscles with bones.
A bone of human body is the composition of Periosteum, Compact bones, Spongy bones, Cartilage, Joints, Ligaments and Tendons. The outer surface of a bone enveloping with connective tissues are known as PERIOSTEUM which helps in modeling or giving shape of bone and recover from injury. COMPACT BONES are the hardest layer of bone which protects internal layers of bones. The bone marrow holes are present in SPONGY BONES are soft inner layer of bone then comes CARTILAGE which works as the greasing substance for bones which provide rub free movement. The point where bones meet together is JOINT. LIGAMENTS and TENDONS are almost similar but ligaments holds bones with each other while other one connects muscles with bones.
There are three types of bone cell:
- Osteoblasts: involve in formation of bone cells.
- Osteoclasts: manage break down and absorption of bone tissues.
- Osteocytes: these are complete and mature blood cells.
Some of the common bone diseases include:
- Bone infection
- Bone cancer
A human body consists of 206 bones which develop skeletal system of human body. Skeleton provide shape, structure and protection of human body. There are two parts of skeletal system i.e. axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. Axial skeleton holds major parts of human body while on other hand appendicular skeleton decorates the axial skeleton. Bone of human body further divided into five types, long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bone and sesamoid. A complex human bone is layered with periosteum, compact bones, spongy bones, cartilage, joints, ligaments and tendons.
Not exactly! The number of bone either in male or female are same but the only difference between both skeleton is the skeleton of male is heavy, strong and high density then a female.
All 300 bones of infant body are not actually bones some of them are cartilage which become strong when they grow up and some of them fuse and grow together.
“STAPES” are the shortest bone of human body which is present in the middle ear.
“FEMUR” is the longest bone of human body of 19.9 inches in length. It is commonly known as thigh bone.
An irregular bone can vary from person to person by mean of its shape and size. The shape of irregular bone is not fixed that’s why it does not lie in any category of bone and known as irregular bone.
The chances of fracture increase due to a bone diseases called osteoporosis. It cause decrease in bone mass and minerals.
Floating ribs are top most rib of cage which is hang freely and does not connected like others. It is more curved and deep then other rib.
Axial skeleton is the part of skeleton which holds the bone of main parts of human body like skull, rib cage and vertebrae which protects the vital organs of human body while appendicular skeleton is the accessory of axial skeleton and contains the bone of upper and lower limbs and shoulder.
“LIGAMENTS” are the package of connective tissues which holds or connects bones with each other.
SPONGY BONES are the inner layer of bone which contain holes for bone marrow.
No! The tongue is itself not the part of skeletal system but it contains a horse shoe shaped bone in neck which somehow connect with vertebrae column.
A bone is covered with periosteum layer which is envelop with connective tissues. It heels bone injury faster. The joint surface is the only area which does not connected with periosteum layer.
The collar bone is consider as the weakest bone of human skeletal system.
There are two types of bone tissues: cortical and cancellous, cortical or compact bones are the hardest tissue which is the outer surface of bone and covers and protects all inner layer while cancellous bone or spongy bones are soft inner layer of bone which contain bone marrow.
The number of ligaments is equal in both infants and adults i.e. 900 but the infant bones’ ligaments are softer than an adult and can be slip easily with minor stress.
No way! A body can never survive without bones. With the absence of bone a body will look like a sac of skin having different organs and fats. As only the bone is responsible for maintain the shape of body.
The rare bone diseases is scientifically termed as Gorham-Stout diseases in which bone loss occurred. Infected bones start vanishing or start abnormal growth.
Teeth also have minerals, blood vessels and cells but it cannot consider as bone because it doesn’t grow together if broken or they cannot regenerate themselves.