What is cognitive psychology?

Cognitive psychology is a study of motivation, learning, problem solving, memory, thinking, perception, etc. It deals with everything that goes on in our brain that is related to our mental health and cognitive functioning.

Cognitive perspective psychology:

Cognitive perspective psychology

When it comes to human behavior, cognitive perspective psychology explains what goes on in our brain and how it processes to which influences our behavior. When it comes to stress, cognitive psychology plays a huge role in reacting to it. Read the heading below to get to know about it deeply.When a person goes through stress, cognitive psychology explains what happened inside the brain and how the entire situation was processed which helped a person react in a way which they did. Stress has a person react in so many ways that we wouldn’t normally comprehend. Any situation which is different from a regular one can disturb anyone’s thought processes and puts them in an uncomfortable position.

Summary: How a person solves that particular problem that became a source of their stress is also related to cognitive psychology.

For example, a school boy wants to go to his friend’s birthday party but he has an exam the next day. This situation is putting that boy into a worrying situation and he couldn’t seem to find a solution. Here, cognitive psychology steps up and helps a person think about possible situations that will help him figure out a favorable solution. At the end, the problem solving skills of this boy will help him study till late for his exam after attending his friend’s birthday party. This is what is cognitive psychology.

Cognitive functions under stress:

cognitive functions under stress

Stress is like a little virus that no one takes seriously at first but it ends up engulfing everyone who is vulnerable. Our entire personality, daily routine, and other areas of life depend on cognitive functioning. If one of them is impaired, the rest get affected too. Human beings have their cognitive functioning related to many important aspects of their lives and stress can end up slowly destroying it one by one. Stress can have a person lose their ability to reason and sort things out. With no problem-solving abilities active, things can actually become worse.

The learning abilities also gets affected which becomes worst especially for a student or a professional. Even memory problems arise if stress isn’t dealt with effectively.

Summary: Stress doesn’t directly cause all these issues, it gives birth to various mental disorders which results in their symptoms causing cognitive impairment.

A stressed out teen with his parents getting divorced could get stressed out so much that he would sink into depression. This depression would result in him getting distracted and not being able to focus on anything for a long time.

Memory problems due to stress:

We all think memory problems don’t occur until an individual catches some serious neurological disorders. But the truth is, various mental disorders have symptoms that include memory loss or weakened memory. Too much stress makes a person depressive and anxious and it contributes to memory impairing or forgetfulness. However, over-stressing has said to improve short term memory which is specifically related to emotional memory. >Summary: The mechanism of cognitive psychology with memory loss is due to anxiety. And when any situation stresses us out, our brain activates its fight-or-flight response.

Too much stress and over-releasing of stress hormones causes the brain to get tired. This is where memory loss starts to take place. It is not uncommon for people who have lived a traumatic or stressful to not lose their memory or at least some parts of it. The trauma and excessive worrying can trigger potential brain damage as well. A lot of other factors also causes memory loss, like thyroid problems, dehydration, overthinking, lack of sleep, etc. However, this kind of forgetfulness and memory loss is not permanent. It can easily be reversed by taking care of one’s mental health and maintaining a healthy routine throughout.

Maintaining cognitive functions and coping with stress:

There are a lot ways where one can improve their cognitive functions and eradicate stress from their lives. Some of them are:

  • While it may sound completely mediocre, but physical activity goes a long way to improve one’s physical and mental health. It can get rid of fatigue, insomnia, and other bodily issues. It will also help calm your nerves and work as a way to give you mental and physical strength.
  • Get out of your comfort zones and explore. It may seem a bit uncomfortable for some, but it will help open your brain to new experiences and nourish it with learning and good energies. We need to get our minds and bodies used to new experiences and growth.
  • Playing different mind games help a lot in challenging the brain, which as a result, helps strengthen one’s mental skills.
  • Stay in touch with your loved ones. It may seem like a simple or routinely thing to do but trust us, it goes a long way in keeping you mentally sane. Its also great to go out and meet new people. Social interactions help the mind more than we realize.
  • Last but not the least, improve your routine. Cut off a little bit of junk food every day from your life and adapt to a healthier practice of eating. Also, sleep at least 8 hours a day to improve your mental and physical health.

Final thoughts:

To answer what is cognitive psychology, we now know that it has a deep and meaningful relationship with stress that we often don’t pay attention to. It has a direct connection with our body reacting in a negative manner due to environmental stressors and triggers. With the points mentioned above, keep your mental health in check and make yourself habitual of activities that will keep stress away from you.

Also, visit the following articles:

What is a positive psychological response to stress?

How does stress affects us psychologically?

What is Diathesis Stress Model of Psychology?

Get to know the psychological symptoms of stress:

Psychological effects of stress on a human body and mind:

FAQs:

Q1: What is the meaning of cognitive psychology?

A: Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology which deals with the study of memory, problem-solving, perception, learning, motivation, and thinking.

Q2: What is an example of cognitive psychology?

A: The example of cognitive psychology is, you just witnessed an injured person. Your reaction on this situation to help or ignore them would be based on your judgement through the information your brain received.

Q3: What is cognitive psychology used for?

A: Cognitive psychology is used to understand what goes on inside a person’s mind.

Q4: What is the definition of cognitive?

A: Cognitive means thought processes, or mental functioning regarding memory, problem-solving, perception, learning, motivation, and thinking.

For the knowledge of cognitive psychology, it is very important to know about cognition. What actually the cognition is? Actually, the term Cognition refers to a range of mental processes relating to the acquisition, storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information. The term “cognition” stems from the Latin word “ cognoscere” or “to know”. It underpins many daily activities, in health and disease, across the age span. Cognition can be separated into multiple distinct functions, which depend on particular brain circuits and neuromodulators.

Cognitive psychology is the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all your mental abilities perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding. Fundamentally, cognitive psychology studies how people acquire and apply knowledge or information. It is closely related to the highly interdisciplinary cognitive science and influenced by artificial intelligence, computer science, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, biology, physics, and neuroscience.

Summary
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as “attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking”.

cognitive psychology

What is the history of cognitive psychology?

Cognitive psychology in its modern form incorporates a remarkable set of new technologies in psychological science. Although published inquiries of human cognition can be traced back to Aristotle’s ‘’De Memoria’’ (Hothersall, 1984), the intellectual origins of cognitive psychology began with cognitive approaches to psychological problems at the end of the 1800s and early 1900s in the works of Wundt, Cattell, and William James (Boring, 1950).

Cognitive psychology declined in the first half of the 20th century with the rise of “behaviorism", the study of laws relating observable behavior to objective, observable stimulus conditions without any recourse to internal mental processes (Watson, 1913; Boring, 1950; Skinner, 1950). It was this last requirement, fundamental to cognitive psychology, that was one of behaviorism’s undoings. For example, lack of understanding of the internal mental processes led to no distinction between memory and performance and failed to account for complex learning (Tinklepaugh, 1928; Chomsky, 1959). These issue led to the decline of behaviorism as the dominant branch of scientific psychology and to the “Cognitive Revolution”.

The Cognitive Revolution began in the mid-1950s when researchers in several fields began to develop theories of mind based on complex representations and computational procedures (Miller, 1956; Broadbent, 1958; Chomsky, 1959; Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958). Cognitive psychology became predominant in the 1960s (Tulving, 1962; Sperling, 1960). Its resurgence is perhaps best marked by the publication of Ulric Neisser’s book, ‘’Cognitive Psychology’’, in 1967. Since 1970, more than sixty universities in North America and Europe have established cognitive psychology programs.

Summary
The cognitive approach began to revolutionize psychology in the late 1950sand early 1960’s, to become the dominant approach (i.e., perspective) in psychology by the late 1970s. Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman. Tolman was a ‘soft behaviorist’.
history of cognitive psychology

Sub-disciplines of Cognitive Psychology

1. Experimental cognitive psychology

This discipline of cognitive psychology uses experiments and hypothesis testing to study the representations and processes underlying cognition. According to David Marr(neuroscientist), one should understand any cognitive process at three levels of analysis:
a) Computational: what does a certain system do, which problems it solves and why (for example, which brain area contains the rules of arithmetic to solve 2+2 problem)
b) Algorithmic/representational: how systems do what they do and what representations and processes they use.
c) Physical: how does the system physically work; its physical substrate (which neural structures are involved etc.).

2. Cognitive neuropsychology

This discipline traditionally studies developmental and accidental brain injuries and neurological illnesses in order to understand functioning of a normal brain. Cognitive neuropsychology accepts the idea of a functional localization: that if a specific cognitive problem is found after an injury to a specific brain area, it is possible that this part of the brain is in some way involved.
However, cognitive neuropsychology has numerous limitations. Firstly, it is possible that the link is not that simple; functions may be much more distributed across the brain - rather than being performed by one area. Secondly, there are great individual differences, which make it quite problematic to generalize results based on a single case.
Also, often brain ‘relocates’ the functions which can not longer be performed by a damaged area to other parts of the brain; this is what is referred to as brain compensatory strategies. They are more frequent in patients with developmental injuries, but may occur in those with accidental damages as well - especially in younger age, when the brain is still flexible. This short video offers a great example of such a case: a child had a stroke during the pre-natal period, which led to the huge loss of white and grey matter in the language areas of her brain. However, by the age of 6 she could produce and comprehend speech like normal children.

3. Computational cognitive science

Computational cognitive science uses computational modelling in order to symbolically represent functioning of the brain and its systems in a formal and logical way. One of such well-known models is a dual-route cascaded model of reading (Coltheart et al., 2001) which is described in one of the Psychology of Language.

[computational cognitive science

Computational models of cognition have been used in artificial intelligence in attempts to create an artificial neural network which would replicate human mental processes. For example, in their research Sejnowski and Rosenberg (1987) created a program called NetTalk, which could learn to pronounce English words by being shown text as input and matching phonetic transcriptions for comparison. Their aim was to explore the mechanisms of learning to pronounce words.

4. Cognitive Neuroscience

This field studies biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on neurology of mental processes. Its main question is: how does brain perform its cognitive functions? The methods used in the field are numerous, and they quickly develop. Some of them are:

a) Single unit recordings
This method allows to measure activity of a single neuron by inserting a microelectrode in the brain. When a neuron generates action potential, the electric current goes through the membrane in the axon and soma; microelectrode then records the rate of change in voltage in respect to time. The microelectrodes can be placed either within or very close to the membranes of the cells, thus recording signals either intracellularly or extracellularly.

single unit recordings Picture

b) Event-related potentials (ERPs)
ERP is a measured brain response to a specific sensory, cognitive or motor stimuli. Its big plus is that it is a non-invasive way of evaluating activity and functioning of the brain. It is also much cheaper than inserting microelectrodes and using fMRI and PET. However, it only produces temporal, but not spacial resolutions. In other words, it can show very precisely when brain activates - however not where it activates.

ERPs

ERP waveform showing several components including waves N100 and P300

c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and fMRI)
fMRI measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow; the idea is that blood flows to the the parts of the brain which are ‘at work’ during a particular cognitive activity/task. The procedure uses the change in magnetization between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood as its basic measure. Brain activation can be presented graphically by color-coding the strength of activation across the brain or the specific region studied. The technique can localize activity to within millimetres but, using standard techniques, within a window of a few seconds.

[MRI

Summary
Cognitive Psychology is a broad field with many sub-disciplines. Each focuses on a different condition or group of people.

What are cognitive processes?

There are many different types of cognitive processes. These include:

  • Attention : Attention is a cognitive process that allows people to focus on a specific stimulus in the environment.
  • Language : Language and language development are cognitive processes that involve the ability to understand and express thoughts through spoken and written words. It allows us to communicate with others and plays an important role in thought.
  • Learning : Learning requires cognitive processes involved in taking in new things, synthesizing information, and integrating it with prior knowledge.
  • Memory : Memory is an important cognitive process that allows people to encode, store, and retrieve information. It is a critical component in the learning process and allows people to retain knowledge about the world and their personal histories.
  • Perception : Perception is a cognitive process that allows people to take in information through their senses (sensation) and then utilize this information to respond and interact with the world.
  • Thought : Thought is an essential part of every cognitive process. It allows people to engage in decision-making, problem-solving, and higher reasoning.

Summary
Cognition includes basic mental processes such as sensation, attention, and perception. Cognition also includes complex mental operations such as memory, learning, language use, problem solving, decision making, reasoning, and intelligence.

cognitive processes

What is the impact of cognitive processes?

The cognitive processes have a wide-ranging impact that influences everything from daily life to overall health.

Perceiving the World

As people take in sensations from the world around them, the information that they see, hear, taste, touch, and smell must first be transformed into signals that their brain can understand. The perceptual process allows them to take in sensory information and convert it into a signal that their brain can understand and act upon.

Forming Impressions

The world is full of an endless amount of sensory experiences. To make meaning out of all this incoming information, it is important for our brain to be able to reduce our experience of the world down to the fundamentals. We remember everything, so events are reduced down to the critical concepts and ideas that we need.

Filling in the Gaps

In addition to reducing information to make it more memorable and understandable, people also elaborate on these memories as they reconstruct them. In some cases, this elaboration happens when people are struggling to remember something. When the information cannot be recalled, the brain sometimes fills in the missing data with whatever seems to fit.

Interacting With the World

Cognition involves not only the things that go on inside your heads but also how these thoughts and mental processes influence your actions. Your attention to the world around you, memories of past events, understanding of language, judgments about how the world works, and abilities to solve problems all contribute to how you behave and interact with your surrounding environment.

Summary
Cognition includes different cognitive processes, like learning, attention, memory, language, reasoning, decision making, etc., which are part of our intellectual development and experience. This is important for understanding cognitive processes and how they influence our behavior and emotions.

Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology

  • Mediational processes occur between stimulus and response:

Behaviorists rejected the idea of studying the mind because internal mental processes cannot be observed and objectively measured.

However, cognitive psychologists regard it as essential to look at the mental processes of an organism and how these influence behavior.

Instead of the simple stimulus-response links proposed by Behaviorism, the mediational processes of the organism are important to understand. Without this understanding, psychologists cannot have a complete understanding of behavior.

  • Psychology should be seen as a science:

Cognitive psychologists follow the example of the behaviorists in preferring objective, controlled, scientific methods for investigating behavior.

They use the results of their investigations as the basis for making inferences about mental processes.

  • Humans are information processors:

Information processing in humans resembles that in computers, and is based on based on transforming information, storing information and retrieving information from memory.

Information processing models of cognitive processes such as memory and attention assume that mental processes follow a clear sequence.

For example:

  • Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli.
  • Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli.
  • Output processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate response to a stimulus.

Summary
Human mind actively processes information from senses (touch, taste etc.). Between stimulus and response are complex mental processes, which can be studied scientifically. Humans can be seen as data processing systems.

Application of Cognitive Psychology

Abnormal psychology

Cognitive psychology can be widely used in abnormal psychology as only 60% to 65% people all over the world who are suffering from depressions used antidepressants. Researches also showed the adverse effects of taking different types of drugs. Beck showed hoe these drugs break down different physiological mechanisms of our body. For these reasons, Beck tried to motivate patients to use the cognitive therapy as a remedy for their depressive diseases.

Social psychology

Social cognition is a sub division of social psychology. It is mainly applied to human interactions in the society. Social cognition can be defined as the scientific study of the human minds those are involved in different functions like perceiving, remembering, memory or making senses about the people of the social world.

Development psychology

The field of the development psychology is mostly based upon the developments on cognitive models. This helps mainly the children of ages 4 to 6 to develop their understanding, mental capability, ideas, thoughts, feelings and other mental criteria as well. It helps the children to recognize their thoughts and individual mental states. It also helps to develop them.

Educational psychology

The study of cognitive psychology helps the people in a wide range for their purposes of education and gathering knowledge. We know metacognition, which is a wide concept of the cognitive study helps to focus on the self-monitoring. Thus, it helps the students to evaluate their knowledge and experiences, which helps them to improve their areas of knowledge. The study of cognitive psychology also helps the students to integrate their specific knowledge with the particular tasks which suit perfectly for the knowledge.

It helps to develop the students’ skills and abilities. It also helps the students to be more efficient on their tasks for which they are assigned to. Cognitive psychology works on the understanding of how the brain holds the knowledge, memory, skills and other abilities in an organized way. This mapping of the brain is also hugely beneficial for the students on their field of education.

Personality psychology

Cognitive psychology and cognitive therapy is widely used for the treatment of the different personality disorders in the recent years with the immense development of this side. Thus, the scientific study of the cognitive psychology plays some crucial role in our day to day life and it helps to make some better future for us.

Summary
Cognitive psychology has several practical applications in real world which are: Moral development, eyewitness testimony, forgetting, selective attention, perception, child development, cognitive behavioral therapy, learning styles, information processing, cognitive interview, education, and face recognition

Frequently asked questions

  • Where is cognitive psychology used?

Cognitive psychologists conducts research on human thoughts processes. Cognitive psychologists works in many areas like universities, government agencies, corporate businesses. They study thinking, perception, decision making, memory and judgment.

  • What are some examples of cognitive psychology?

Following are the examples of cognitive psychology:

  • Making a judgment about something based on information you received that your brain processes.

  • Learning is an example of cognition.

  • Our ability to reason through logic is a prime example of cognition.

  • Our ability to solve problems has to do with cognitive brain functions.

  • How is cognitive psychology used today?

Cognitive psychology is very useful and popular because it can be applied to many fields in psychology, which includes memory, attention, perception, child development, problem solving, eyewitness testimony and gender role development. They study thinking, perception, decision making, memory and judgment.

  • What is the cognitive perspective of psychology?

The cognitive perspective is concerned with “mental” functions such as memory, perception, attention, etc. It views people as being similar to computers in the way we process information (e.g., input-process-output).

  • What are the principles of cognitive psychology?

Cognitive scientists propose a high-level list of cognitive processes: Attention, Perception, Learning, Remembering, Speaking, Problem-solving, Reasoning , and Thinking.

Conclusion

Cognitive Psychology is concerned with our inner mental processes such as attention, perception, memory, action planning, and language. Each of these components are important in forming who we are and how we behave.

The thoughts related to the concept of cognitive psychology can be conscious or nonconscious, we might consciously make an effort to focus our attention on a lecture for example, but the light flickering in the room could trigger a nonconscious shift elsewhere.

Related Searches

Cognitive psychologists try to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s minds, attention, perception, memory, language, consciousness and thinking. Cognitive psychology is basically the science of how we think. It’s interested with our inner mental processes such as perception, attention, language, action planning, and thinking. Each of these components are important in forming who we are and how we behave.The thoughts associated to these concepts can be unconscious or conscious – we might consciously make an effort to focus our attention on a lecture.

cognitive psychology

Definition of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way people process information. It works on how we process and receive the information and how the received information leads to our responses.

Cognitive psychologists study internal processes that include attention, perception, language, thinking, and memory. They ask questions like:

  • How do we process and store information?

  • How do we receive information about world?

  • How do we solve different issues?

  • How do errors in our thinking lead to negative behaviors and emotional distress?

  • How does a breakdown in our perceptions cause errors in our thinking?

Summary
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychologists study internal processes that include attention, perception, language, thinking, and memory.

The History of Cognitive Psychology
It’s essential to consider the time and context in which cognitive psychology develop, to really understand the basis for these overlaps. Beginning as a disciple in the 1950’s, the field was in some sense a reaction to the dominant psychology.

Behavioral psychology begins with the precept that all human behavior is adaptable and learned to the environment and context it’s in. Behavior can be punished or reinforced in various ways, leading to decrease or increase of certain actions. As life progresses, a set of behaviors is ultimately shaped by these experiences giving arouse to a multifaceted human with varying desires, interests, habits, skills, and pursuits.

Cognitive psychology essentially assumes more agency. In the process of behavior information feelings and thoughts are seen as more active. Individuals are perceived to process thoughts that determine if and how behaviors are to be carried out.

Summary
Beginning as a disciple in the 1950’s, the field was in some sense a reaction to the dominant psychology. Behavioral psychology begins with the precept that all human behavior is adaptable and learned to the environment and context it’s in.

Overview of the Cognitive Psychology
In 1967 the term ‘cognitive psychology’ was first used by Ulric Neisser. Since then, a lot interventions have developed from cognitive study that have benefited the field of psychology. Cognitive psychology also linked with many other disciplines. Due to this it is sometimes studied by people in a number of different fields including business, education, and medicine.

Cognitive psychology is problem focused and goal oriented from the starting. Imagine you are getting treatment from a cognitive psychologist. One of the first things you will be asked to do is recognize your problems and formulate some specific goals for yourself. Then you will be helped to establish your problems in a way that will enhance the chances of meeting your goals.

All kinds of cognitive psychology have these four characteristics:

1 . A time-limited, educational treatment that focuses on specific issues.

2 . A focus on altering cognition to create desired alterations in behavior or emotions.

3 . A focus on changing cognition to produce desired changes in emotions and/or behavior.

4 . A collaborative relationship between therapist and client.

Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT). CBT and CT are very similar in their application and theory. The difference is that cognitive behavioral therapy targets the removal of negative behavior as well as cognitive therapy focuses on removing psychological distress.

Summary
In 1967 the term ‘cognitive psychology’ was first used by Ulric Neisser. Cognitive psychology is problem focused and goal oriented from the starting. Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT).

Theories of Cognitive Psychology
There are three theories in cognitive psychology:

  1. Cognitive Therapy
  2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  3. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive therapy instead on focuses on past experiences focuses on the current behavior, thinking, and communication and is oriented toward problem solving. Cognitive therapy has been applied to a wide range of problems including anxiety, depression, fears, panic, eating disorders, substance abuse, and personality problems.

Cognitive therapy is often called cognitive behavior therapy because it intend to aid people in the ways they act and in the ways they think. Cognitive therapy has been used to aid cocaine-dependent individuals become abstinent from cocaine and other substances.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy aids us become aware of negative or inaccurate thinking so we can view challenging situations more evidently and respond to them in a more better way.

Cognitive behavior therapy can be a helpful tool either in combination or alone with other therapies in curing mental health disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, eating or depression disorder. Not every individual who benefits from cognitive behavioral therapy has a mental health problem. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be a useful tool to aid anyone learn how to better manage stressful life situations.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a helpful tool to guide emotional challenges. it may help the person:

  • Manage chronic physical symptoms

  • Learn techniques for coping with stressful life situations

  • Cure the mental illness when medications aren’t a good option

  • Prevent a worsening of mental illness symptoms.

  • Cope with a medical illness

  • Cope with loss or grief

  • Learn better ways to communicate and resolve relationship conflicts.

  • Overcome emotional trauma related to abuse or violence

  • Recognize ways to manage emotions

  • Manage symptoms of illness

Mental health disorders that may better with cognitive behavioral therapy include:

  • Sleep disorders

  • Anxiety disorders

  • Eating disorders

  • PTSD

  • Depression

  • Phobias

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • Sexual disorders

  • Schizophrenia

  • Bipolar disorders

  • Substance use disorders

How to get rid of depression
Here it is essential to know how to get rid of depression? This disorder is often treated with medication and psychotherapy. Adjustments of some lifestyle can also help ease certain symptoms.

People who have severe major depressive disorder or who have thoughts of harming themselves may need to stay in a hospital during treatment to protect them from harm. Some patients might also need to take part in an out patient treatment program until unless symptoms improve.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings and self-defeating thoughts, challenge the rationality of those feelings, and replace them with healthier beliefs.

Rational emotive behavior works mostly on the current time to help the person understand how unhealthy beliefs and thoughts create emotional distress which, in turn, leads to unhealthy behaviors that interfere with present life goals. Once recognized and understood, negative actions and thoughts can be replaced and changed with more productive behavior, allowing the person to develop more successful professional and personal relationships.

How it works
In the mid 1950s rational emotive behavior therapy evolved from the work of psychiatrist Albert Ellis as the original form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Ellis believed that most people are not alert that many of their thoughts about themselves negatively affect the way they behave in essential situations and relationships.

According to Ellis, it is these thoughts that lead people to suffer negative emotions At the same time, humans are capable of changing their irrational beliefs, if they are willing to do the work. However specific life events may devote to mental health problems, Rational emotive behavior therapist therapists believe that it is an individual’s own irrational belief system that causes the most problems.

Summary
Cognitive psychology have three theories : Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings.

Applications of Cognitive Psychology

Social psychology
Social cognition is a sub division of social psychology. It is basically applied to human interactions in the society. Social psychology is the scientific study of the human minds those are involved in different functions like remembering, perceiving, memory or making senses about the people of the social world.

Educational psychology
In educational psychology there are various applications of the cognitive psychology. The study of cognitive psychology aids the people in a broad range for their purposes of educational gathering knowledge. We know metacognition, which is a broad concept of the cognitive study helps to focus on the self-monitoring. Thus, it helps the students to check out their experiences and knowledge, which helps them to better their areas of knowledge and education.

In educational psychology the study of cognitive psychology also aids the students to assimilate their specific knowledge with the specific tasks which suit betterly for the knowledge. It helps to develop the students’ abilities and skills. It also aids the students to be more efficient on their specific tasks for which they are assigned to.

In educational psychology the main application of the cognitive psychology is that it focuses on the understanding of how the brain holds the memory, knowledge, skills and other abilities in an organized way. This mapping of the brain is also largely beneficial for the students on their field of education.

Development psychology
The field of the development psychology is mainly based upon the developments on cognitive models. The developmental psychology aids mainly the children of ages 4 to 6 to develop their mental capability, understanding, ideas, feelings, thoughts and other mental criteria as well. It helps the children to identify their thoughts and individual mental states. It also aids to develop them.

Personality psychology
Personality psychology includes many applications of cognitive psychology .Cognitive therapy and cognitive psychology is broadly used for the treatment of the different personality disorders in the recent years with the huge development of this side. All the personality disorders come under the personality psychology. Thus, the scientific study of the cognitive psychology plays important role in the field of personality psychology and in our day to day life and it aids to make some better future for us.

Abnormal psychology

In Abnormal psychology the cognitive psychology is broadly used. According to the Aaron T.Beck works, who is the father of cognitive therapy, in abnormal psychology the cognitive psychology has many applications as he indicate only 60% to 65% people all over the world who are suffering from depressions . He also indicate the adverse effects of taking different types of drugs. Beck tried to motivate patients to use the cognitive therapy as a remedy for the depressive problems.

Summary
There are five applications of cognitive psychology. Abnormal psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology and personality psychology.

Applications of cognitive psychology

What are the cognitive processes
Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment. Imagine you are sitting on your bed while watching a drama. Even though the movie is amazing, you start smelling something burning. What do you do? Fortunately, your brain will center all of its attention.

After a while, Suddenly you remember that you had a pizza in the oven. You will run to the kitchen as fast as you can and coordinate a series of motor movements to take the pizza out of the oven. Then you will decide whether to eat the less burnt parts or go back to the room. Cognitive processes have guided this whole actions and scenarios.

Summary
Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment.

Basic Cognitive Processes

Attention
Life has various different happening at the same time, but, we are capable of centering our attention on the stimuli that interest us. Some actions such as chewing and walking need a little bit attention. Other activities such as body language and speaking need focus, especially when we are giving a lecture.

There are different types of attention including focused attention, arousal, selective attention, sustained attention, divided attention, and alternating attention. Attention is the cognitive process that makes it possible to position ourselves towards relevant stimuli and consequently respond to it.

Perception and Sensation
We are using our perception continuously without even noticing it. We are conscious of messages we receive on our phone other people’s movements, our posture, food flavors, etc. Our past experiences also play a role in the explanation of different stimuli.

Sensations are caused by different incentives in environment. The stimuli first reach our senses and allow us to filter information from the outside world. Perception takes over Once we receive this information, and we start explaining these stimuli.

Memory
We have different kinds of memory; short-term memory, sensory memory, semantic memory, working memory, etc. All these kinds of memories interact together but they don’t all depend on the same brain areas. Cognitive processes such as memory are important for daily life.

Memory, as a cognitive process, involves encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the mechanism where information is altered from the moment it reaches us to a form that our brain can store. Storage refers to how long the memory lasts for, and what kind of information is held. Finally, retrieval refers to getting information out storage. We can also improve the memory by the help of various factors.

How to improve the memory?
Here it is essential to know how to improve the memory.. Here are some evidence-based ways to improve your memory naturally.

  • Eat Less Added Sugar

  • Try a Fish Oil Supplement

  • Make Time for Meditation

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight

  • Get Enough Sleep

Summary
Basic cognitive processes are the sensation and perception, attention and memory. Attention is the cognitive process that makes it possible to position ourselves towards relevant stimuli and consequently respond to it. We are using our perception continuously without even noticing it. Memory, as a cognitive process, involves encoding, storage, and retrieval.

Complex Cognitive Processes

Language
We are capable of comprehending and producing different words and sounds, combine different phrases and letters and expressing with precision what we want to communicate, even in different languages. We use our body language to communicate.

Language development is produced all throughout our lifetime. The communicative skills of each individual vary significantly and can be make better by practice. Some language disorders make it difficult to communicate for different reasons, however it is also possible to aid people with these problems.

Intelligence
There is not only one intelligence according to the Gardner’s multiple bit of intelligence. He established that linguistic intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, musical intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence, are examples of higher cognitive processes. Emotional intelligence has caught people’s attention, it is the ability to manage the difficulties we face daily.

We can always work to boost and enhance our different types of intelligence and we shouldn’t limit ourselves to a number given from a specific intelligence test.

Thought
The heterogeneity and complexity of our thoughts are interesting. This higher mental process is responsible for tasks related to reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, divergent thinking, creative thinking, etc.

Concepts are create by our brain. We need to group objects, ideas, people or any other kind of elements that come to mind. Commonly, this helps us streamline our cognitive processes. However, often ignore how irrational we can be and often we try to be logical. We take shortcuts to process information faster not taking into account the details that might be essential. This can cause cognitive biases which are changes from the normal process of reasoning.
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Summary
Complex cognitive processes include: Intelligence, language and thoughts. There is not only one intelligence according to the Gardner’s multiple bit of intelligence. Language development is produced all throughout our lifetime. The heterogeneity and complexity of our thoughts are interesting.

Cognitive psychology

How can we improve our Cognitive processes
We can improve our cognitive processes at any stage in our lives. Here are some tips on how to improve and take care of our cognitive processes.

  • Avoid Multitasking
    It is general that our requirements are many and we don’t know how to get all of them done. It’s normal that we try to multitask so we can finish our whole work fastly. But, this can be counterproductive because our attention is not centered on one activity. For instance, if you are watching a drama while you are answering an email, cooking and writing a paper it is very likelihood that one of those things will turn out wrong. It’s suitable to center your attention in the present in order to enjoy each activity to the fullest and be more efficient.

  • Develop Critical thinking
    Try to look for different arguments and ask yourself questions This allows for critical thinking to develop, and in turn enhances creativity, language and reasoning. Curiosity is necessary in order to develop our full potential. Critical thinking can be developed from childhood, by asking children to reason, debate and explain their actions and decisions. You can also put these into practice!

  • Take Care of your health
    Our mental and physical health is inseparable from our cognitive processes. There are many bad habits that harm our brains and worsen our performance in different aspects of our lives. For Instance, neglecting our social relationships , underestimating ourselves, being on our cell phone before going to bed, or not eating properly can affect our mental processes.

  • Dedicate time to creative activities
    Writing short stories, painting, dancing, composing songs, and performing. It doesn’t matter the activity you choose, the necessary thing is that creativity is being used. Creativity is all about practice, so go out and try something new!

    Creativity allows us to develop our concentration, intelligence, sustained attention, problem-solving, and ability to relax and de-stress.

  • Read
    Reading implies lots of cognitive processes as described above. Other than producing great knowledge and satisfaction, reading is also a way to learn to work and focus on our communication skills.

Summary
We can improve our cognitive processes by avoiding multitasking, taking care of our health, developing critical thinking, dedicating time to creative activities and reading.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is cognitive psychology used for?
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychologists try to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s mind including attention, perception, memory, thinking, consciousness and language.

What is the example of cognitive psychology?
Example of cognitive psychology : Making a judgement about something based on information received that brain processes. If one were to major in cognitive psychology the person would study memory, attention span and reasoning.

Is cognitive psychology hard?
A study of the basic internal psychological processes that are involved in making sense of the environment and deciding what action might be appropriate. Cognitive psychology is a hard subject to study because it is invisible to human eyes.

What are the 8 cognitive skills?

  • Working memory

  • Pattern recognition

  • Speed of information processing

  • Sustained Attention

  • Cognitive flexibility and control

  • Category formation

  • Multiple simultaneous attention

  • Response inhibition

What is the difference between cognitive impairment and dementia?
Dementia is more severe than mild cognitive impairment. A person with Alzheimer’s disease or a related illness will have issues with everyday activities such as keeping track of medications or driving than someone with mild cognition impairment.

Conclusion
Cognitive psychology is basically the science of how we think. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way people process information. It works on how we process and receive the information and how the received information leads to our responses. Cognitive psychology is problem focused and goal oriented from the starting. Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT). Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings and self-defeating thoughts. Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment.

Related Articles

Cognitive perspective Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance

“What is cognitive psychology?” is one of the most common question asked in the field of psychology. In the beginning, psychology was a subject to assimilate the different behaviors of people and trying to comprehend what is the root cause of it. Though the psychology only revolved around the behaviors of the people and so in a grand shift cognitive psychology entered into the picture. Cognitive psychology deals with mental processed and complex behaviors.

Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the brain or mind and the processing occurring inside it which includes memory, thinking, perception and critical thinking, etc. While the psychologist thought that the study of external behaviors is important they also thought the study of internal behaviors necessary as well and to link them together to understand human practices.

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY RELEVANCE WITH COMPUTER:

It is said by many psychologists that a human brain process works analogously to that of a computer. Primarily Herbert Simon was the person who figured that the computer processing system is quite similar to the human mind system. He said that our brain functions exactly like a computer’s hardware while our mind is like a computer’s software.

In the 1950s, the development in the field of the computer also helped bring the importance of cognitive psychology to light. Psychologists used computer processes as a metaphor to explain brain activity. It shows that a human mind is a processor of information; it receives the information from outside, follows the steps coded in the brain, and produces an output. All of this is the result of neural networks in our brains.

INFORMATION PROCESSING IN HUMAN MIND:

It is to be assumed by many psychologists that there is a series of steps that our brain goes through in order to process data and give output. The processes take place in the following way for example the human eye sees a flying creature with wings. It is the input or visual information. To understand what this creature is this information is coded into neural activity. The brain makes new neural pathways or neural connections through which the data is stored or coded. This coded information then helps to give the output which will be the human recognizing that living species with wings as “bird”.

LIMIT OF INFORMATION PROCESSING:

When psychologists got into the depth of the internal processes some questions aroused for example can the brain focus on more than one task at a time? Or how can the brain focus on one thing and if required, divert its attention to the other task in the nick of time?

The researchers found that when the brain tries to focus on two things at once it divides and tries to distribute the gray matter to each task equally but is not able to perform tasks efficiently. Research shows that the brain cannot perform more than two tasks simultaneously since there are two hemispheres present that manage the tasks.
Even if the brain is able to give its divided attention to two tasks at a time it still reduces the efficiency of the performance because it is out of the capacity of the brain. There could be certain arguments against this statement. For example, some people are good at doing work while eating food. One reason could be that the practice of the motor skills enables the person to perform two tasks simultaneously and does not overlap with the other complex processes.

MEASUREMENT OF BRAIN ACTIVITY:

Brain activity can be measured by certain methods which are as follows:

  1. EEG (Electroencephalography): It is considered to be the second-best method to determine brain activity it uses small metal discs that are attached to the scalp near the eyes and forehead to detect the electrical activity in the brain.
  2. fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging): It detects changes in the blood flow in response to neural activity. For the brain to be active it requires oxygen and so to get the required oxygen the blood flow increases which make it clear in fMRI that a certain part of the brain is active.
  3. ECoG (Electrocorticography): It is similar to how EEG works but it measures the combined neural activity. It requires the metal electrodes to be inserted under the scalp and so surgery has to be done which can be risky.

CONCLUSION:

Cognitive psychology has itself taken a stream and is now implied to sociological perspectives as well. When studying this particular topic a whole new world of research opportunity was born in which researchers were able to see the learning as it happened and see memories being coded or recalled. With technological developments, we are able to explore the internal neural wiring. Our whole human body will not function well if there is a hindrance to the activity of the brain. However, the methods above used to measure brain activity are not really precise. We are still not able to get detailed data on neuron activity. This might improve from time to time with technological developments.