What is Memory? Memory is the capacity of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and recovered when required. It is the reservation of information over time to control future action. Memory loss is commonly described as amnesia or amnesia.
What is Memory
Memory is often understood as rectifying an information system with explicit and implicit functions consisting of a sensory memory, short-term (or operating) memory, and long-term memory. It may be linked to the neuron.
The sensory processor permits information from the outside world to be sensed in chemical and physical stimuli and participates in different levels of focus and intention. Working memory acts as an encoding and retrieval processor.
1. Sensory memory
Sensory memory consists of information received from the senses less than a second after perceiving an object. An example of sensory memory is seeing an object and remembering what it looks like with only a split second of observation or recall.
It is out of control and is automatic feedback. With brief presentations, participants often report that they seem to “see” more than they can report.
The first pinpoint experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were organized by George Sperling (1963) using the “partial report paradigm.” Subjects were performed with a grid of 12 letters set out in three rows of four.
After a brief presentation, subjects were played in either a high, medium, or low tone, telling them which lines to report.
2. Short term memory
Short-term memory is also called working memory. Short-term memory permits recall for periods ranging from several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. However, its potential is minimal. In 1956, George A. Miller (1920–2012), working at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showing that short-term memory reserves were 7±2 items. (Hence, the subject of his famous paper, “The Magical Number 7±2.”)
Current approximate short-term memory capacity is low, usually on 4–5 items; However, the memory capacity can be increased through chunking.
For example, remembering a ten-digit telephone number, a person can divide the digits into three groups:
the area code (such as 123),
three-digit chunk (456)
a four-digit chunk (7890).
3. Long term memory
Sensory and short-term memory storage generally have limited capacity and duration, meaning that information is not preserved indefinitely. As supposed to, long-term memory can store much larger information for a potentially unlimited period (sometimes the entire life span). Its potential is incomparable.
Olin Levy Warner, Memory (1896). Bibliotheca of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.
For example, given a random 7-digit number, one can only remember it for a few seconds before forgetting, suggesting. On the other hand, telephone numbers are remembered for many years through repetition; This information is stored in long-term memory.
The multi-store model (also known as the Atkinson–Shifrin memory model) was first described by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968.
The multi-store model has been condemned for being too simple. For example, long-term memory is thought to have several subcomponents, such as contextual and procedural memory. It also suggests that rehearsal is the only mechanism by which information eventually reaches long-term storage, but evidence suggests that we can remember things without rehearsal.
In 1974 Badgley and Hitch proposed a “working memory model,” which replaced the general concept of short-term memory with the active maintenance of information in short-term storage. In 2000, the model expanded with multimodal episodic buffers (Badley’s working memory model).
The central executive essentially functions as an attention sensory store. It conveys information to three-component processes:
Types of working memory
Researchers differentiate between recognition and recall memory. Recognition memory tasks need individuals to indicate whether they have previously encountered a stimulus (a picture or a word).
Recall memory tasks require contributes to retrieve previously learned information. For example, individuals may be asked to design a series of actions they have seen before or say a list of words they have heard before.
By information type
Topographic memory includes the ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar places. Getting lost while travelling alone is an example of a failure of topographic memory.
Anderson (1976) divides long-term memory into declarative and procedural memories.
Declarative memory requires conscious recall, in which some conscious process must recall the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory because it contains information that is explicitly stored and retrieved.
Declarative memory can be split into semantic memory and episodic memory:
Semantic memory, which deals with principles and facts independent of context
Episodic memory, which deals with information specific to a particular context, such as time and space.
In contrast, procedural memory is not based on conscious recall of information but implicit learning.
Procedural memory is essentially used in learning motor skills and can be considered a subset of implicit memory. It appears when a person does better in a given task simply because of repetition - no new clear memories are formed.
Yet, one is unconsciously accessing aspects of those past experiences. The procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
By temporal direction
Another critical way to differentiate the different memory functions is whether the material is remembered in the past, retrospective memory, or future, prospective memory.
John Meacham launched this distinction in a paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in 1975. Ulric Neisser later included it in his 1982 edited volume, Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts.
To assess infants
Babies do not have the language ability to report their memories, so verbal reports cannot assess very young children’s memory. However, researchers have adapted and developed several measures over the years to assess both infants’ identity memory and their recall memory. Habit and operant conditioning techniques have been used to assess infants’ recognition memory, and deferred and acquired imitation techniques have been used to assess infants’ recall memory.
Transience - Memories fade over time. It is in the storage phase of memory when information is stored and retrieved. It occurs in sensory, short-term, and long-term storage. It follows a general pattern in which information is rapidly forgotten during the first few days or years, followed by small losses in the final days or years.
Absent-mindedness - memory failure is caused by a lack of attention. Attention plays a vital role in storing information in long-term memory; Without proper attention, information cannot be stored, making it impossible to retrieve later.
Brain regions involved in the neuroanatomy of memory, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, or mammalian bodies, are thought to be involved in particular types of memory.
For example, the hippocampus is thought to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learning, while the amygdala is involved in emotional memory.
Epigenetics in learning and memory
Studies of the microscopic basis for memory formation designate that epigenetic mechanisms in brain neurons play a central role in determining this ability. Fundamental epigenetic mechanisms involved in memory include methylation and demethylation of neuronal DNA and modification of histone proteins, including methylation, acetylation, and deacetylation.
Excitation of brain activity in memory formation is often conducted by damage in neuronal DNA followed by repair associated with persistent epigenetic changes. Mainly, the DNA repair processes of non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair are employed in memory formation.
Memory and Aging
One of the crucial concerns of older adults is the experience of memory loss, mainly because it is one of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. However, memory loss in normal aging differs qualitatively from the type of memory loss associated with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s (Budson & Price, 2005).
Research has shown that individuals’ performance on memory tasks dependent on frontal regions declines with age. Older adults exhibit deficits in tasks that involve knowing the temporal order in which they have learned details; Source memory tasks that require them to remember the specific circumstances or context in which they learned the information; and future memory tasks that involve remembering to perform a task in the future.
Much of the current proficiency of memory has come from the study of memory disorders, particularly amnesia. Memory loss is known as amnesia. Amnesia can result in extensive damage to:
(a) Medial temporal lobe regions include the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, amygdala, parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortices.
(b) The midline diencephalic region, specifically the dorsal nucleus of the thalamus and the mammalian bodies of the hypothalamus. factors influencing
Interference can hinder memory and retrieval. There are retroactive interventions when learning new information, making it harder to recall old information, and proactive interference, where prior learning leads to new information.
Effects of stress on memory
Stress significantly affects memory formation and learning; In response to stressful situations, the brain releases hormones and neurotransmitters (e.g., glucocorticoids and catecholamines), which affect memory encoding operations.
Behavioural research on animals shows that chronic pressure generates adrenal hormones, which affect the hippocampal structure in the brains of rats.
A UCLA research study issued in the June 2008 issue of the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry found that people can improve their daily lives through simple lifestyle changes such as memory exercise, healthy eating, physical fitness, and stress depletion for cognitive function and brain. Can improve efficiency.
This study examined 17 subjects (mean age 53) with average memory performance. Eight subjects were asked to follow a “brain-healthy” diet, relaxation, physical and mental exercise (brain teasers and verbal memory training techniques).
Memory refers to the processes used to receive, store, maintain, and later retrieve information. Human memory involves the ability to both stores and retrieves information that we have read or skilled.
Frequently asked questions
People usually ask many questions about memory. A few of them are discussed below:
1. What is memory interpretation?
Memory is the process of taking in facts from the world around us, processing it, storing it, and remembering that information later, sometimes many years later. Human memory is often balanced to a computer memory system or filing cabinet.
2. What is memory psychology?
Memory is the potential to take information, store it, and remember it later. In psychology, memory is divided into three phases: encoding, storage, and retrieval.
3. What are the three stages of memory?
There are three types of memory processes in the brain: sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
4. How is memory stored?
Memories are not cached in just one part of the brain. The different types are stored in separate, interconnected brain regions. Inherent memories, such as motor memories, depending on the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Short-term working memory depends most heavily on the prefrontal cortex.
5. Is every memory stored in your brain?
No one place within the brain holds all your memories; different brain areas create and store different types of memories, and different processes may go on for each.
Memory is a term defined as structures and processes involved in the storage and retrieval of information. Memory is essential in all our lives. Without memory, we cannot work now or think about the future.