What is kidney failure?

Your kidneys are a couple of organs situated toward your lower back. One kidney is on each side of your spine. They channel your blood and eliminate poisons from your body. Kidneys send poisons to your bladder, which your body later eliminates poisons during ■■■.

Kidney failure happens when your kidneys lose the capacity to adequately channel squander from your blood. Numerous components can meddle with your kidney wellbeing and capacity, for example,

  • Harmful exposure to natural contaminations or certain medicines

  • Certain intense and ceaseless maladies

  • Dehydration

  • Kidney injury

Your body gets over-burden with poisons if your kidneys can’t do their customary activity. This can prompt kidney failure, which can be dangerous whenever left untreated.

What are kidneys?

Kidney failure

Kidneys are bean-shaped organs in your body that are found on the back and on each side of the spine. They are found in retroperitoneal space. Their length is about 12 cm. Kidneys are part of the urinary system and endocrine system.

Nephrons are the most significant aspect of every kidney. They take in blood, use supplements, and help pass out waste items from sifted blood. Every kidney has around 1 million nephrons. Each has its own inner arrangement of structures.

Renal corpuscle

After blood enters a nephron, it goes into the renal corpuscle, likewise called a Malpighian ■■■y. The renal corpuscle contains two extra structures:

The glomerulus

This is a bunch of vessels that retain protein from blood going through the renal corpuscle.

The Bowman capsule

The staying liquid, called capsular ■■■, goes through the Bowman container into the renal tubules.

The renal tubules are a progression of cylinders that start after the Bowman capsule and end at collecting conduits.

Every tubule has a few sections:

Proximal convoluted tubule. This segment ingests water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood.

Loop of Henle. This segment further ingests potassium, chloride, and sodium into the blood.

Distal convoluted tubule. This segment ingests more sodium into the blood and takes in potassium and acid.

When liquid arrives at the finish of the tubule, it’s weakened and loaded up with urea. Urea is the end product of protein digestion that is delivered in ■■■.

Renal cortex

The renal cortex is the external aspect of the kidney. It contains the glomerulus and convoluted tubules.

The renal cortex is encircled on its external edges by the renal case, a layer of greasy tissue. Together, the renal cortex and capsule ensure the internal structures of the kidney.

Renal Medulla

It contains the renal pyramid as well as the loop of Henle. The renal medulla is smooth and internal tissue of the kidney.

Collecting duct

The collecting duct is present at the end of each nephron. Fluid enters into collecting duct after leaving the nephron. From the collecting duct, it goes into the renal pelvis.

Renal pelvis

It is a funnel-shaped space in the kidney. The renal pelvis comprises two parts Calyces and Hilum.

Calyces is the part in which fluid accumulates before going into the bladder. Here extra waste and fluid are converted to urine.

Hilum is a small opening and is bean-like in shape.


It is a muscular part of the urinary system that pushes the urine into a urine bladder from where the urine passes out of the body.

Functions of kidneys

  • Kidneys are very essential to homeostasis in the body. They maintain fluids, electrolytes, and the internal environment of the body.
  • Their main function is to remove waste products from the body. Two major waste products include urea and uric acid. Urea is formed as a result of the degradation of protein. While uric acid is formed as a result of nucleic acid breakdown.
  • Also, play role in the reabsorption of nutrients. Kidneys absorb nutrients from the blood and carry it to the desired place to maintain health. They also absorb
  1. Water
  2. Sodium
  3. Phosphate
  4. Amino acids
  5. Bicarbonate
  6. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Magnesium
  • Kidneys help to regulate the body optimum pH. The body’s optimum pH ranges from 7.38 to 7.42. Kidneys reabsorb bicarbonate ions from urine. In this way, they maintain regular pH.
  • Besides pH regulation, kidneys help in the regulation of osmolality. If osmolality increases in plasma then the hypothalamus which is present in the brain produces a hormone termed as ADH or Antidiuretic Hormone.
  • When ADH is released, kidneys increase water reabsorption and urine concentration.
  • Reopening of collecting ducts to push the water back into the body.
  • Kidneys also regulate blood pressure
  • Kidneys produce several important compounds including Erthropiotin, Renin, and Calcitriol.

Common Kidney Diseases

  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney infections
  • Renal failure
  • Kidney hydronephrosis
  • Duplicated ureter
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Kidney tumor
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure

It is termed as acute renal failure or acute kidney injury. Acute Kidney Failure occurs when kidneys fail to filter waste products from your body. Due to these waste products accumulate in the body and disturbs body homeostasis.

People who are already hospitalized or having some other chronic disease are susceptible to kidney injury. it is a chronic disease and requires intensive care.

Symptoms of acute kidney failure

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness
  • Fluid retention specifically in peripheral regions of the body
  • Chest pain
  • Decreased urination
  • Irregular heartbeat

Causes of kidney failure

Some common causes that contribute to kidney damage are

High Blood Pressure

In the United States hypertension is considered as the main cause of End-stage Kidney failure.

Several medications are available to treat hypertension. Hypertension can be controlled by lifestyle changes and by regular exercise.


As diabetes is associated with chronic heart disease, and stroke. It also damages kidneys.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors are very helpful to protect kidneys against damage.


It is also the main cause of chronic kidney disease. In this disease, glomeruli are damaged which is the main filtration unit of kidneys.

Diagnosis of acute kidney failure

When your signs and symptoms illustrate that you are suffering from acute kidney failure then your doctor may recommend the following tests.

  • Urine output measurement in 24 hours
  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • Imaging test
  • Kidney biopsy in some cases

Treatment of acute kidney failure

  • Balance the amount of fluid in your body
  • If acute kidney failure occurs due to lack of fluids in the body then intravenous fluid treatment is recommended. But if acute kidney failure occurs because of excess fluid in the body then doctors recommend diuretics to remove extra fluid from the body.
  • Medications to control body potassium and body calcium level
  • Excess potassium in the body may cause arrhythmias and muscle weakness. To prevent this doctors may prescribe sodium polystyrene sulfonate.



kidney failure

There are three different types of dialysis. Hemodialysis is a very common form of dialysis. Hemodialysis can be performed at home. An artificial kidney termed as hemodialyzer is used to remove extra waste and fluid from the body.

Peritoneal dialysis

kidney failure
In this type of dialysis peritoneum which is a soft catheter is placed in the abdomen. Filtration of blood and fluids is done through this peritoneum. After filtration fluids leave the peritoneum.

Kidney transplant

kidney failure

In a kidney transplant kidney of a diseased person is replaced by the kidney of a healthy person by surgical procedure. A kidney transplant is done in place of dialysis. Which lowers the risk of death and ensures a better quality of life.

Diet in chronic kidney disease

When you suffer from Kidney disease then dietary changes are very important things to consider.

  • Low protein diet if you are not on dialysis

  • A high protein diet in case of dialysis

  • Use monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats including olive oil and canola oil.

  • Low consumption of dairy products including milk and yogurt because they contain a high amount of phosphorus.

  • Use dairy products which are low in phosphorus including
    Butter, heavy cream, sherbet, and non-dairy whipped toppings.

  • Take calcium supplements

  • Limit fluid intake in case of dialysis

  • Avoid salty foods

  • Use iron which foods like kidney beans and iron-rich cereals.

  • Limit those fruits and vegetables which contain high potassium like banana, orange, cabbage, and carrots.

Frequently asked questions

What are the risk factors for acute kidney failure?

  • People who are already hospitalized or chronically ill
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Heart failure
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Liver disease. Cancer and other chronic diseases

Can you recover from acute kidney failure?

Acute kidney failure is a chronic disease and it can be fatal so it requires intensive treatment. However, if you’re in good health then you can recover it and can retain normal kidney function.

What foods help to repair Kidneys?

  • Onion
  • Apples
  • Blueberries
  • Cranberries
  • Garlic
  • Cabbage
  • Red bell pepper
  • Cauliflower

What happens when you have kidney failure?

Clean and filtered blood is very essential for the body to function properly. If the kidney damages, the accumulation of waste material in the body can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Unfortunately, if you have kidney failure then the only option left is a kidney transplant or dialysis.

Is lemon good for Kidneys?

lemon water contains citric acid and this citric acid protects kidneys against kidney stones.

How can I strengthen my Kidneys?

What is the average life expectancy after a kidney transplant?

Patients who are on dialysis have an average life span of 5 years while the patients having kidney transplants have a lifespan of 8 to 10 years.


Kidneys are bean shaped ■■■■■ in our body. Kidneys are very important to maintain homeostasis and regulation of body fluids. Kidneys failure occurs when kidneys are unable to perform their specific functions. Kidney failure is also because of several reasons. It may be due to diabetes, any metabolism syndrome, stress and steroid medicines. It can be treated by hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplant.

Read more

What is kidney failure?

Treatment of kidney failure

Related Topics

Acute kidney injury

What are the causes of hypertension?

How to lower blood pressure?

How to lose weight fast?

Kidneys are a pair of organs, which are located toward lower back. One kidney is on each side of spine. They filter blood and remove toxins from the body. Kidneys send toxins to the bladder, which body later removes toxins during urination.

Kidney failure occurs when kidneys of a person lose the ability to sufficiently filter waste from the blood. Many factors can interfere with the kidney health and function, such as:

  • toxic exposure to environmental pollutants or certain medications
  • certain acute and chronic diseases
  • severe dehydration
  • kidney trauma

Body becomes overloaded with toxins if kidneys can’t do their regular job. This can lead to kidney failure, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.


Acute Kidney Injury

Acute kidney injury(AKI) is also called acute renal failure(ARF). kidney injury failure happens due to decreased kidney blood flow. it is also called Kidney ischemia. It is caused by low blood pressure, dehydration, it can cause by improper urine output(less than 400mls of urine per day).
What is end-stage renal disease?

Kidney failure is also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. When kidneys fail, it means they have stopped working well enough for survival without dialysis or a kidney transplant.

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney failure?

Following are the signs of kidney failure:

1.Feeling of tiredness, have less energy or are having trouble concentrating
A severe decrease in kidney function can lead to a buildup of toxins and impurities in the blood. This can cause people to feel tired, weak and can make it hard to concentrate. Another complication of kidney disease is anemia, which can cause weakness and fatigue.
2. having trouble in sleeping When the kidneys are not filtering properly, toxins stay in the blood rather than leaving the body through the urine. This can make it difficult to sleep. There is also a link between obesity and chronic kidney disease, and sleep apnea is more common in those with chronic kidney disease, compared with the general population.
3. having dry and itchy skin
Healthy kidneys do many important jobs. They remove wastes and extra fluid from the body, help make red blood cells, help keep bones strong and work to maintain the right amount of minerals in the blood. Dry and itchy skin can be a sign of the mineral and bone disease that often accompanies advanced kidney disease, when the kidneys are no longer able to keep the right balance of minerals and nutrients in the blood.
4. feeling the need to urinate more often
If a person feel the need to urinate more often, especially at night, this can be a sign of kidney disease. When the kidneys filters are damaged, it can cause an increase in the urge to urinate. Sometimes this can also be a sign of a urinary infection or enlarged prostate in men.
5. noticing blood in the urine
Healthy kidneys typically keep the blood cells in the body when filtering wastes from the blood to create urine, but when the kidney’s filters have been damaged, these blood cells can start to “leak” out into the urine. In addition to signaling kidney disease, blood in the urine can be indicative of tumors, kidney stones or an infection.
6. having foamy urine
Excessive bubbles in the urine, especially those that require to flush several times before they go away, indicate protein in the urine. This foam may look like the foam you see when scrambling eggs, as the common protein found in urine, albumin, is the same protein that is found in eggs.
7. experiencing persistent puffiness around the eyes
Protein in the urine is an early sign that the kidneys’ filters have been damaged, allowing protein to leak into the urine. This puffiness around the eyes can be due to the fact that kidneys are leaking a large amount of protein in the urine, rather than keeping it in the body.
8. having swollen ankles and feet
Decreased kidney function can lead to sodium retention, causing swelling in feet and ankles. Swelling in the lower extremities can also be a sign of heart disease, liver disease and chronic leg vein problems.
9. having poor appetite
This is a very general symptom, but a buildup of toxins resulting from reduced kidney function can be one of the causes.
10. having muscles cramp
Electrolyte imbalances can result from impaired kidney function. For example, low calcium levels and poorly controlled phosphorus may contribute to muscle cramping.

Symptoms of early stage kidney disease may be difficult to pinpoint. They are often subtle and hard to identify. If a person experience early signs of kidney disease, they may include:
decreased urine output, fluid retention that leads to swelling in limbs shortness of breath.

sign and symptoms of kidney failure

Causes of kidney failure

Kidney failure can be the result of several conditions or causes. The cause typically also determines the type of kidney failure.

People who are most at risk usually have one or more of the following causes:

Loss of blood flow to the kidneys

A sudden loss of blood flow to the kidneys can prompt kidney failure. Some conditions that cause loss of blood flow to the kidneys include:

  • a heart attack
  • heart disease
  • scarring of the liver or liver failure
  • dehydration
  • a severe burn
  • an allergic reaction
  • a severe infection, such as sepsis

High blood pressure and anti-inflammatory medications can also limit blood flow.

Urine elimination problems

When the body can not eliminate urine, toxins build up and overload the kidneys. Some cancers can block the urine passageways, such as:

  • prostate (most common type in men)
  • colon
  • cervical
  • bladder

Other conditions can interfere with urination and possibly lead to kidney failure, including:

  • kidney stones
  • an enlarged prostate
  • blood clots within urinary tract
  • damage to nerves that control bladder

Other causes of kidney failure

Some other things that may lead to kidney failure include:

  • a blood clot in or around the kidneys
  • infection
  • an overload of toxins from heavy metals
  • drugs and alcohol
  • vasculitis, an inflammation of blood vessels
  • lupus, an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation of many body organs
  • glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys
  • hemolytic uremic syndrome, which involves the breakdown of red blood cells following a bacterial infection, usually of the intestines
  • multiple myeloma, a cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow
  • scleroderma, an autoimmune condition that affects skin
  • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a disorder that causes blood clots in small vessels
  • chemotherapy drugs that treat cancer and some autoimmune diseases
  • dyes used in some imaging tests
  • certain antibiotics
  • uncontrolled diabetes

In most cases, kidney failure is caused by other health problems that have done permanent damage to the kidneys little by little, over time. When kidneys are damaged, they may not work as well as they should. If the damage to kidneys continues to get worse and kidneys are less and less able to do their job, a person have chronic kidney disease. Kidney failure is the last (most severe) stage of chronic kidney disease. This is why kidney failure is also called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD for short.

causes of kidney failure

What are the types of kidney failure?

There are five different types of kidney failure which include:

1. Acute prerenal kidney failure

Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute prerenal kidney failure. The kidneys can not filter toxins from the blood without enough blood flow. This type of kidney failure can usually be cured once the doctor determines the cause of the decreased blood flow.

2. Acute intrinsic kidney failure

Acute intrinsic kidney failure can result from direct trauma to the kidneys, such as physical impact or an accident. Causes also include toxin overload and ischemia, which is a lack of oxygen to the kidneys.

The following may cause ischemia:

  • severe bleeding
  • shock
  • renal blood vessel obstruction
  • glomerulonephritis

3. Chronic prerenal kidney failure

When there is not enough blood flowing to the kidneys for an extended period of time, the kidneys begin to shrink and lose the ability to function.

4. Chronic intrinsic kidney failure

This happens when there’s long-term damage to the kidneys due to intrinsic kidney disease. Intrinsic kidney disease develops from a direct trauma to the kidneys, such as severe bleeding or a lack of oxygen.

5. Chronic post-renal kidney failure

A long-term blockage of the urinary tract prevents urination. This causes pressure and eventual kidney damage.

Acute kidney failure has an abrupt onset and is potentially reversible and Chronic kidney failure progresses slowly over at least three months and can lead to permanent kidney failure.

Stages of Kidney Failure

Kidney failure is classified into five stages. These range from very mild (stage 1) to complete kidney failure (stage 5). Symptoms and complications increase as the stages progress.

Stage 1

This stage is very mild. A person may experience no symptoms and have no visible complications. Some damage is present.

It is still possible to manage and slow progression by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. This includes eating a balanced diet, regularly exercising, and not using tobacco products. Maintaining a healthy weight is important, too.

If a person has diabetes, it is important to manage blood sugar.

Stage 2

Stage 2 kidney disease is still considered a mild form, but detectable issues like protein in urine or physical damage to the kidneys may be more obvious.

The same lifestyle approaches that helped in stage 1 are still used in stage 2. Also talk with the doctor about other risk factors that could make the disease progress more rapidly. These include heart disease, inflammation, and blood disorders.

Stage 3

At this stage kidney disease is considered moderate. In this stage kidneys are not working as well as they should.

Stage 3 kidney disease is sometimes divided into 3A and 3B. A blood test that measures the amount of waste products in the body differentiates between the two.

Symptoms may become more apparent at this stage. Swelling in hands and feet, back pain, and changes to urination frequently are likely.

Lifestyle approaches may help. Doctor may also consider medications to treat underlying conditions that could speed up failure.

Stage 4

Stage 4 kidney disease is considered moderate to severe. The kidneys are not working well, but you are not in complete kidney failure yet. Symptoms can include complications like anemia, high blood pressure, and bone disease.

A healthy lifestyle is still vital. Doctor will likely have on treatments designed to slow damage.

Stage 5

In stage 5, kidneys are nearing or are in complete failure. Symptoms of the loss of kidney function will be evident. These include vomiting and nausea, trouble breathing, itchy skin, and more.

At this stage you’ll need regular dialysis or a kidney transplant.

When someone is diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, the first step is to determine the stage of the disease. The National Kidney Foundation has classified five stages to help doctors better treat their patients based on how much kidney function the patient has left. Measuring a person’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR) indicates how much blood is being filtered through the kidneys and will guide the course of treatment.

stages of kidney

Kidney failure treatment

There are several treatments for kidney failure. The type of treatment a person need will depend on the reason for kidney failure.

  • Dialysis

Dialysis filters and purifies the blood using a machine. The machine performs the function of the kidneys. Depending on the type of dialysis, you may be connected to a large machine or a portable catheter bag.

People may need to follow a low-potassium, low-salt diet along with dialysis.

Dialysis does not cure kidney failure, but it can extend the life if go to regularly scheduled treatments.

What are the types of dialysis?

There are two types of dialysis, which are following:
1. Hemodialysis
2. peritoneal dialysis

How hemodialysis works?

During hemodialysis, blood passes from the patient’s body to the dialysis machine through sterile tubing and into a filter, called a dialysis membrane. For this procedure, the patient has a specialized vascular tube placed between an artery and a vein in the arm or leg. Sometimes, a direct connection is made between an artery and a vein in the arm. This procedure is called a Cimino fistula. Needles are then placed in the graft or fistula, and blood passes to the dialysis machine, through the filter, and back to the patient. If the patient requires dialysis before a graft or a fistula is placed, a large diameter catheter (hemodialysis catheter) is placed directly into a large vein in the neck or leg in order to perform dialysis. In the dialysis machine, a solution on the other side of the filter receives the waste products from the patient.

Hemodialysis uses an external machine and a special type of filter to remove excess waste products and water from the blood.


How peritoneal dialysis works?

Peritoneal dialysis uses a fluid that is placed into the patient’s abdominal cavity through a plastic tube (peritoneal dialysis catheter) to remove excess waste products and fluid from the body.

Peritoneal dialysis uses the patients own body tissues inside of the belly (abdominal cavity) to act as the filter. The abdominal cavity is lined with a special membrane called the peritoneal membrane. A plastic tube called a peritoneal dialysis catheter is placed through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity. A special fluid called dialysate is then flushed into the abdominal cavity and washes around the intestines. The peritoneal membrane acts as a filter between this fluid and the blood stream.

By using different types of solutions, waste products and excess water can be removed from the body through this peritoneal dialysis.

peritoneal dialysis

  • Kidney transplant

Another treatment option is a kidney transplant. A transplanted kidney can work normally, and dialysis is no longer needed.

There’s usually a long wait to receive a donor kidney that’s compatible with your body. If you have a living donor the process may go more quickly.

You must take immunosuppressive drugs after the surgery to prevent your body from rejecting the new kidney. These drugs have their own side effects, some of which are serious.

Talk with your doctor about whether you are a good candidate for a kidney transplant.

Transplant surgery might not be the right treatment option for everyone. It’s also possible for the surgery to be unsuccessful.

Types of Kidney Transplantation

  • Deceased Donor Kidney Transplant

Kidney transplant

A deceased-donor kidney transplant is when a kidney from someone who has recently died is removed with consent of the family or from a donor card and placed in a recipient whose kidneys have failed and no longer function properly and is in need of kidney transplantation.

The donated kidney is either stored on ice or connected to a machine that provides oxygen and nutrients until the kidney is transplanted into the recipient. The donor and recipient are often in the same geographic region as the transplant center to minimize the time the kidney is outside a human body.

Only one donated kidney is needed to sustain the body’s needs. For this reason, a living person can donate a kidney, and living-donor kidney transplant is an alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant.

  • Living-donor kidney transplant

Living-donor kidney transplant procedure

A living-donor kidney transplant is when a kidney from a living donor is removed and placed into a recipient whose kidneys no longer function properly.
About one-third of all kidney transplants performed in the U.S. are living-donor kidney transplants. The other two-thirds involve a kidney from a deceased donor.

Only one donated kidney is needed to replace two failed kidneys, which makes living-donor kidney transplant an alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant.

  • Preemptive kidney transplant

A preemptive kidney transplant is when a person receives a kidney transplant before kidney function deteriorates to the point of needing dialysis to replace the normal filtering function of the kidneys.

Currently, most kidney transplants are performed on people who are on dialysis because their kidneys are no longer able to adequately clean impurities from the blood.

People who get a preemptive or early transplant receive their kidney when their health is generally good, which allows you to stay healthier and live longer.

Risks for Kidney Transplantation

Kidney transplantation can treat advanced kidney disease and kidney failure, but it is not a cure. Some forms of kidney disease may return after transplant.

The health risks associated with kidney transplant include those associated directly with the surgery itself, rejection of the donor ■■■■■ and side effects of taking medications (anti-rejection or immunosuppressants) needed to prevent the body from rejecting the donated kidney.

Deciding whether kidney transplant is right is a personal decision that deserves careful thought and consideration of the serious risks and benefits. Talk through your decision with friends, family and other trusted advisors.

Complications of the procedure

Kidney transplant surgery carries a risk of significant complications, including:

  • Blood clots and bleeding
  • Leaking from or blockage of the tube (ureter) that links the kidney to the bladder
  • Infection
  • Failure or rejection of the donated kidney
  • An infection or cancer that can be transmitted with the donated kidney
  • Death, heart attack and stroke

Side Effects of Anti-rejection Medication

After a kidney transplant, you will take medications to help prevent your body from rejecting the donor kidney. These medications can cause a variety of side effects, including:

  • Bone thinning (osteoporosis) and bone damage (osteonecrosis)
  • Diabetes
  • Excessive hair growth or hair loss
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol

Other side effects may include:

  • Increased risk of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma
  • Infection
  • Puffiness (edema)
  • Weight gain
  • Acne

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What happens when you have kidney failure?

You will feel tired and weak because your body needs clean blood to function properly. Untreated uremia may lead to seizures or coma and will ultimately result in death. If your kidneys stop working completely, you will need to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant.

  • What are the main causes of kidney failure?

The two leading causes of kidney failure, also called end stage kidney disease or ESRD, are diabetes (also called Type 2, or adult onset diabetes) and high blood pressure. When these two diseases are controlled by treatment, the associated kidney disease can often be prevented or slowed down.

  • How long can you live with kidney failure?

In the case of acute renal failure the renal function declines rapidly within hours or days giving rise to serious metabolic disturbance. If that state continues to the point that the person is no longer producing urine, which is known as oliguria, it is unlikely that the person could survive longer than 2 to 3 weeks.


Healthy kidneys do many important jobs. They keep our whole body in balance. They remove waste products and extra water from our body, help make red blood cells, and help control blood pressure. When we have kidney failure, it means our kidneys are damaged. They cannot do these important jobs well enough.

Related Article

What is kidney?

Kidneys are the most important ■■■■■ of our body. Kidneys are located in our body below rib cage and kidneys are of bean-shaped. There are two kidneys in each body and each is of the size of a fist. The one is on the one side of spine and the other on another side. The size of kidney varies in children and in adults. The adult humans have kidney of almost 12 centimeters of size.
What is kidney failure? Kidney failure is the dysfunction of kidney in which kidneys stop filtering the waste products and there is problem in urination and urinary bladder is affected. Kidney failure is the condition in which kidney stops filtering blood.

Human Kidney

What are the functions of Kidney?

The major purpose of kidney is Filtration. Normal kidney filter about half cup of blood in every 60 sec and they also filter extra water to make urine. Kidneys are there to remove waste products and extra fluids from body to regulate to nutrients and these products are removed through urination.

There are several functions of kidneys but basic functions are;

Functions of Human Kidney

  • Hormones - Kidneys play vital role in production of hormones like erthryopoietin which helps in controlling the salts level in body, regulation of water in body and to control blood pressure. It also helps in the formation of red blood cells.

  • pH Regulation - Kidneys work to modulate ions and restricts blood plasma from becoming very acidic or basic in quantity.

  • Osmolarity - Kidney functions as to keep extracellular fluids from becoming much dilute or much concentrated and keeps the balanced in both with respect to body fluids.

  • Ion Concentration - Kidneys helps to maintains the balanced or constant concentration of ions like sodium, potassium, magnesium etc.

  • Excretion - Kidneys also helps in the excretion of water wastes products and other toxic fluids in urination from the body.

What is Kidney Failure?

Kidney failure means that disfunction of kidney and kidney stopped to work properly. In this case of failure serious disorders can occur.

kidney failure occurs when your kidney stops filtering your wastes from blood. Kidney looses its filtering ability and various wastes accumulate in your body which changes you blood level and disturbs the level of concentration of ions.

Causes of Failure of Kidney

What are causes of kidney failure?

Kidney failure can be due to many health issues. If you have other health diseases, then those can affect your kidney functions.

But proper causes which promotes kidney failure are;

  1. High BP - The main cause of kidney failure which leads to end stage failure is high blood pressure. High blood pressure of a person has serious effects on brain and other organs of body mainly on kidneys which leads to failure of kidney.

  2. Glomerulonephritis - This is a disease in which kidney’s filtering unit called glomeruli stops working and restricts filtration that damages kidney. In most cases, its cause is unknown and other diseases effects glomeruli.

  3. Diabetes - Person having diabetes have risks to kidney failure. High blood sugar level in diabetes patients can cause disfunction of kidney and leads to failure.

What is the treatment of kidney failure?

There are two treatments for kidney failure, These are;

  1. Hemodialysis - One treat for acute kidney failure is dialysis. In this treatment, patients blood is cleaned and passed through machines for filtration purpose. Dialysis can be done at home or at dialysis centers.

  2. Transplant - If the patient is suffering from chronic form of kidney failure then the only treatment is transplantation. Transplantation of a kidney is expensive and everyone can’t afford it but its the only solution if your kidneys are failed and you are on the verge of death.

What are the early signs of kidney failure?

There are many signs of kidney failure because they change our health and body fluid levels. Some of the sign of kidney failure are;

  • Low urine output or excretion

  • Waste fluid collects in body causes swelling in legs and foots

  • Fatigue

  • Shortness of breath

  • Disorder in concentration of body fluids

  • Nausea

  • Disturbing heartbeat

  • Weakness

Frequently Asked Questions

Kidney failure is the serious disorder. People who are suffering from this disease ask some questions which are;

What happens when you have kidney failure?

There will be tiredness and weakness because your body needs clean blood to function properly. Untreated uremia may cause seizures or coma and it can lead to an end in death. If your kidneys fails completely, then you are in need undergo dialysis or kidney transplant.

Can kidney failure cured?

If you are having start with kidney problem, then it can be cured with medicines and dialysis to reduce symptoms and to clear the kidney disease. But if you are having an last stage kidney damage, then their is not any cure for chronic stage of kidney failure. the only treatment is of transplant which is end level treatment.

How can I improve my kidney function?

There are several methods to help your kidney in functioning properly. These are;

  • Drink plenty of water and stay hydrated.

  • Keep your BP in control and check regularly

  • Eat healthy food

  • Maintain your body weight to reduce pressure on kidneys

  • Restrict smoking and alcohol.

How long does it take to die when kidneys fail?

If you are having early stage failure, then there are chances to get cured by treatment or by transplant. But if you are having a renal failure of chronic stage and treatment is not working then this is death frisk. In this case, affected person may survive longer than two to three weeks.


What is kidney failure? Kidney are the most important ■■■■■ of our body and they function major roles in our body. Our body fluids and wastes products are regulated by kidneys. Kidney failure of every type is risky and there is need to proper cue for the disease of kidney. If you having early stage, consult with medical specialist to restrict the problem from start.

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What is a Kidney?

The kidneys are a couple of bean-shaped organs on each side of your backbone, lower your ribs, and behindhand your belly. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, evenly the size of a large fist.
The kidneys’ job is to clean your blood. They take out wastelands, control the body’s liquid balance, and keep the right levels of electrolytes. All of the blood in your body passes from side to side them a number of times a day.

Blood comes into the kidney, excess gets indifferent, and salt, water, and minerals are in the swing of things if needed. The clean blood goes back into the body. Waste gets turned into the urine, which collects in the kidney’s pelvis – a funnel-shaped construction that heating system down a tube called ureter to the bladder.
Each kidney has everywhere a million tiny filters called nephrons. You could have only 10% of your kidneys functioning, and you may not notice any warning sign or problems.
If blood stops graceful into a kidney, part or all of it could die. That can lead to kidney failure.
Basic Functions:

The kidneys are necessary for homeostasis (maintaining a constant internal environment) of the body’s extracellular fluids. Their basic purposes include:

  1. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume:

The kidneys work to guarantee an acceptable quantity of plasma to keep blood flowing to animated organs.

  1. Regulation of osmolarity:

The kidneys help keep extracellular fluid from attractive too insipid or determined concerning the solutes approved in the fluid.

  1. Regulation of ion concentrations:

The kidneys are accountable for keep up relatively constant levels of key ions together with sodium, potassium, and calcium.

  1. Regulation of pH:

The kidneys prevent blood plasma from suitable too acidic or basic by adjustable ions.

  1. Excretion of wastes and toxins:

The kidneys clean out a multiplicity of water-soluble unused products and environmental toxins into the urine for flow.

  1. Production of Hormones:

The kidneys create erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell synthesis, and renin, which helps controller salt and water balance and blood burden. They are also involved in flexible plasma calcium and glucose ranks.


The two kidneys are traced to the rear of the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone. They generally estimate about 5 ounces each but pull together about 20% of the blood flow upcoming from the heart. The urine generated by each kidney heating system through a separate ureter into the urinary bladder, located in the pelvic region. The bladder is emptied in turn by a single urethra, which exits the body.


All kidney has about 1 million nephrons, the practical units of the kidney. Each nephron is collected of a tubule that begins in the outer layer of the kidney and eventually joins other tubules to empty into the ureter. The tubule has some functional sections:

  1. The tubule initiates with a hollow development called Bowman’s capsule, which is where water and solutes initially enter the tubule from the bloodstream. This process is known as Filtration. The structure encompassed of Bowman’s capsule and connected tubes are called the Renal Corpuscle.

  2. From Bowman’s capsule, the tube-shaped fluid movements towards the proximal tubule, which remainders in the outer layer (cortex) of the kidney. The proximal tubule is the major site of reabsorption of water and solutes in equal proportions from the filtered tubular fluid.

  3. Then the tubule depressions into the hairpin loop of Henle, which descends in the direction of the center of the kidney (medulla) and then rises back to the cortex. The loop of Henle is also a major site of reabsorption, but unlike the proximal tubule, proportionately more solute than water is reabsorbed, so the tubular fluid is dilute relative to plasma by the end of the segment.

  4. The next segment is the distal tubule, which like the proximal tubule leftovers in the cortex. Both reabsorption and discharge take place in this section, which is where sodium and potassium meditations ( and other electrolytes) and the pH of the tube-shaped fluid are used to to guarantee homeostasis.

  5. The final section of the nephron is the pull together duct, where multiple tubules join and run down toward the center of the kidney, where the ureter collects the remaining tube-shaped fluid as urine. The gathering duct is a major site of guideline of water balance, where supplementary water may be reabsorbed from the etubluer fluid dependent on the body’s hydration status.

Nearby each tubule is a complex system of blood containers that discussion water and solutes with the tubule. This system is special in that blood must pass over and done with two tube beds.

• An afferent arteriole takes blood to the renal corpuscle, where the blood passes over and done with the first capillary bed, a ball-shape tuft well-known as the glomerulus.

• An efferent arteriole takes blood not here from the glomerulus.

• From there the blood authorizations into a set of specific capillaries, which follow the remnants of the tubule and are the site of future conversation of water and solutes between plasma and tube-shaped unsolidified.

What is Kidney Failure?

Healthy kidneys do many important jobs. they keep your whole body in balance. They remove waste products and extra water from your body, help make red blood cells, and help control blood pressure. when you have kidney failure, it means your kidneys are spoiled. they cannot do these important jobs well enough. having kidney failure means that:

• 85-90% of your kidney function is gone
• your kidneys don’t work well enough to keep you alive

There is no treatment for kidney failure, but with treatment, it is thinkable to live a long life. Having kidney failure is not a death sentence. people with kidney disappointment live full of life lives and continue to do the things they love.

What causes Kidney Failure?

Kidneys can become impaired from a physical damage or a disease like diabetes, high blood pressure, or other disorders. High blood pressure and diabetes are the two highest common the full picture of kidney failure.

Kidney failure does not happen overnight. It is the result of a gradual loss of kidney function. Some people do not even know they have kidney diseas until their kidneys fail. Why not? Because people with initial kidney sickness may not have any symptoms. Symptoms frequently show up late in the development of the illness.

What happens when Kidneys fail?

Healthy kidneys do away with wastes and extra unsolidified from your blood. But when your kidneys fail, wastelands and extra fluid can build from your blood and make you feel sick.
you may have some of the following symptoms:

• nausea
• Trouble Sleeping
• Poor Appetite
• Weakness
• Tiredness
• Itching
• Weight loss
• Muscle Cramps (especially in the legs)
• Swelling of your feet or ankles
• Anemia (a low blood count)
• Trouble Sleeping

Once you begin treatment for kidney failure, your symptoms will improve, and will begin to feel much better.

What treatments are available for Kidney failure?

There are two treatments for kidney failure – dialysis and transplant. The dialysis managements or removed kidney will take over some of the work of your impaired kidneys and remove wastes and additional fluid from your body. This will make many of your symptoms better.

• Two different types of dialysis can be done – hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Together get rid of waste produces and extra fluid from your blood.
• A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body.


Kidney failure is a condition where kidneys stop doing their functions.

In this condition, blood is not filtered thus waste and harmful material in the blood accumulate inside the body, causes serious problems.

It may be acute or chronic. But don’t take it easy and visit a doctor for treatment. At the earlier stages, it is easy to cure as with time it becomes more complex and it’s difficult to cure.

We can’t live without kidneys as they perform very important functions. To live a healthy life, your one kidney should be working properly at least.


Kidneys are bean-shaped organs, located at the lower back, just below the ribcage, where the size of each is equal to a fist. Functions of kidneys are:

  • To remove waste materials from the blood by the filtering process.

  • Remove waste product and excess fluid in the form of urine.

  • Production of urine by complex processes and re-absorption.

  • Controls pH level of blood and other fluids.

  • It reduces many important hormones. For example, hormones to regulate blood pressure are produced by the kidney.

  • It also produces vitamin D, thus make the bones healthy and stronger.

  • It balances fluids inside the body.

  • It produces a hormone called erythropoietin to make red blood cells.

  • It regulates water level by excreting the hormone ADH.

Kidneys are an essential part of the body to maintain homeostasis of the body’s extracellular fluids, If they are not working properly, it leads to disturbance in the internal environment of the body.

The functional unit of the kidney is known as Nephron. There are billions of nephrons in each kidney.

Common problems related to kidneys are kidney stones and kidney failures. These both are curable but with more easiness at the beginning of the problem with the time, it’s getting difficult to treat them.


  • Your kidney stop working, excess fluid accumulates in your body. Blood is not filtered, thus the chemical composition of blood changes causing serious problems.

  • Retention of fluid inside the body causes many problems.

  • It can cause high blood pressure, leading to cardiovascular problems.

  • Damaged kidneys can cause storage of harmful fluids in the body, cause swelling, nausea weakness and sleeping sickness, and shortness of breath.

Causes itching and drying of the skin.

  • It can cause muscle paralysis.

  • When kidneys stop working, important body functions are stopped and can be life-threatening.

Symptoms of kidney failure:

  • Vomiting and nausea.

  • Fatigue and loss of energy.

  • Darkening of skin.

  • Abnormal level of urine production.

  • Difficulty in urinating.

  • Swelling and at the hands, face, and legs.

  • Shortness of breath.

  • Loss of concentration.

  • Sleeping sickness.

  • Having blood in urine

  • Bubbles in the urine.

  • Poor appetite and facing muscle cramps.

  • Abnormal heart rhythms.

  • General body weakness

  • Dizziness and memory problems.

  • Unbalancing of blood pressure.

  • It can affect the functioning of other organs. Like the heart, functioning is highly affected by the lower working of the kidney. It also affects the nervous system badly.

If you feel such symptoms go to the doctor for treatment. Because long-term kidney failure can lead to lung problems, change the chemical composition of blood, and harm to your body by retention of harmful fluids in the body for a long time.

Chronic kidney failure affects all your body parts almost.


  • Overdosing of painkillers.

  • Drinking an amount of water less than your body needs.

  • Taking sugary drinks, or foods having much sugar like sweets.

  • Taking the excess amount of Alchohol.

  • Not taking adequate sleep.

  • Taking too much meat.

  • Hypertension which is not controlled.

  • Muscle breakdown

  • Prolonged diabetes

  • Some infectious diseases also cause kidney failure.


1). Dialysis.

  • Dialysis is a common treatment of kidney failure.

  • In this process, we remove waste products, and extra fluid from the body artificially.

  • As your kidney is not able to do this, thus the artificial process is done to perform such necessary functions.

  • Blood is filtered by dialysis but urine production can’t be done by dialysis.

  • It is not a permanent cure but increases the survival time of the patient.

  • It is a painless process and patients have to do it regularly as an accumulation of extra and harmful products can disturb your blood composition and long-time stay of such substances may harm your body.

2). Kidney transplant.

  • Kidney transplant is another option to treat kidney failure. It is a permanent cure for kidney failure but a bit expensive.

  • It is a surgical process, in which a damaged or failed kidney is replaced by a healthy kidney.

  • You can take a kidney from a living or deceased donor. But kidney from a living donor is preferred because it works for a longer time.

  • Live Kidney donor should be in a good psychological condition and should be healthy.

  • For living or deceased kidney donor, blood type should always be compatible.

Acute Kidney failure can also lead to a permanent disability, depending on the seriousness of kidney disease. Hence, visit the doctor if you feel less functioning of your kidneys.


  • Don’t intake cold drinks as they have a high amount of sugar.

  • Take enough sleep.

  • Drink much amount of water to keep your kidneys fit.

  • Don’t intake drugs or painkillers.

  • Don’t smoke to keep your kidneys healthy.

  • Eat healthy foods like vegetables and fruits. Because eating much junk food can also affect your kidney functioning.

  • Take a nutritious diet.

  • Maintain your body weight.

  • Take care of your mental health by zero stress level.

Kidneys are necessary organs for us to perform essential functions of the body. If they are not working properly, the whole body is affected and other organs are also affected. So visit the doctor for treatment in earlier stages.

Take a nutritious diet and have a healthy lifestyle to prevent such problems but If you have kidney failure, transplant it for permanent relief or do dialysis regularly to increase survival time.


Kidneys are organs inside our body, perform important functions of our body like removal of harmful substances, maintaining blood pressure, secretion of hormones and production of urine, etc. If your kidney is not working well, recover it earlier as it may lead to kidney failure.