Acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury:
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. AKI can also affect other organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs.
Symptoms:

  • Too little urine leaving the body
  • Swelling in legs, ankles, and around the eyes
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
  • Chest pain or pressure
    Causes:
    When your kidneys stop working suddenly, over a very short period of time (usually two days or less), it is called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is sometimes called acute kidney failure or acute renal failure. It is very serious and requires immediate treatment.

Unlike kidney failure that results from kidney damage that gets worse slowly, AKI is often reversible if it is found and treated quickly. If you were healthy before your kidneys suddenly failed and you were treated for AKI right away, your kidneys may work normally or almost normally after your AKI is treated. Some people have lasting kidney damage after AKI. This is called chronic kidney disease.

The kidney is the most powerful chemical factories that perform the most important role in our body. The two organs in the abdomen of vertebrates that are shaped like beans, they are called kidneys. Kidneys help to make urine(the yellow wastewater) which comes out from the urethra.

Acute kidney injury:

Acute kidney injury(AKI) is also called acute renal failure(ARF). kidney injury failure happens due to decreased kidney blood flow. it is also called Kidney ischemia. It is caused by low blood pressure, dehydration, it can cause by improper urine output(less than 400mls of urine per day). Do you know Can You Sue a Doctor for the Wrong Diagnosis?

What Causes Sudden Kidney Injury:

ARF can be caused due to the following:

  • A traumatic injury with blood loss.

  • The sudden deduction of blood flow to the kidney.

  • Damage to the kidneys from shock during a serious disease called sepsis.

  • Obstruction of urine flow.

  • Damage from particular drugs or toxins.

  • Pregnancy difficulties, such as eclampsia and pre-eclampsia, or related help Syndrome.
    It is commonly classified as prerenal, intrinsic, and postrenal.

Frequent Asked Questions:

What are the first signs of kidney disease?

It is not found early or it gets worse despite treatment. Several symptoms can develop if kidney disease. Symptoms include:

  • Puffy ankles, feet, or hands, due to water retention(edema).

  • The brevity of breath.

  • Weight loss and poor appetite.

  • Drowsiness.

  • Blood comes in pee (urine).

  • An increased need to pee – particularly at night trouble in sleeping (insomnia).

  • Scratchy skin.

  • Cramps of muscle.

  • Feeling healthy.

  • Headaches.

  • Dysfunction of erectile in men.

What is the most common cause of acute kidney injury?

Causes of acute kidney injury:

Most cases of AKI are caused by reduced blood flow to the kidney, usually in somebody who’s already sick with another health condition. This reduced blood flow could be caused by low blood volume after bleeding, excessive vomiting, or diarrhea, or severe dehydration. do you wanna know How to get rid of a headache?

Is acute kidney injury serious?

AKI is occasionally called acute kidney blunder or acute renal blunder. It is very serious and requires rapid treatment. Unlike kidney failure that results from kidney damage that gets awful slowly, AKI is often reversible if it is found and treated quickly.

Can acute kidney injury be cured?

Acute kidney failure can be harmful and requires intensive treatment. However, acute kidney faults may be reversible. If you’re otherwise in good health, you may heal normal or almost normal kidney function. How to lose weight fast in 2 weeks?

What healthy foods for people with kidney disease?

These foods will prevent the survivor of kidney disease, they are:

  • Cabbage.

  • Red bell peppers.

  • Onions.

  • Garlic.

  • cauliflower.

  • Cranberries.

  • Apples.

  • Raspberries.

  • Blueberries.

  • Cherries.

  • Strawberries.

  • Red grapes.

  • Fish.

  • Egg whites.

  • Olive oil.

What is the first sign of kidney problems?

Possible indications include a decreased amount of urine. swelling of your legs, ankles, and feet from retention of fluids caused by the failure of the kidneys to abolish water waste. unexplained shortness of breath.

What are the three types of Aki?

AKI exists in three types, prerenal, intrinsic, and postrenal. they will cure differently.

what foods to avoid due to kidney disease?

The kidney is a serious injury case, the patient of kidney disease should avoid these foods:

  • Avocados.

  • Dark-colored soda.

  • Whole wheat bread.

  • Canned foods.

  • Bananas.

  • Brown rice.

  • Dairy.

  • Processed meat.

  • Oranges and orange juice.

  • Olives, relish, and pickles.

  • Potatoes and sweet potatoes.

  • Apricots.

  • Packaged, instant, and premade meals.

  • Swiss chard, beet greens, and spinach.

  • Tomatoes.

  • Raisins, prunes, and dates.

  • Pretzels, crackers, and chips.

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is what develops within days

and it’s characterized by severe decrease in renal

function. Increased levels of creatinine, urea and

nitrogen in the blood is the indicator of this disease

that’s knowns as AZOTEMIA.

CAUSES OF ACUTE RENAL INJURY :

• if your kidneys are experiancy less blood flow towards

them which is one of the consequces of cardiac failure.

•if the ureters are experiancy any sort of obstruction

downstream from the kidney.

• nephrotoxic drugs which are proved to be harmfull for

the kidneys

• direct toxic injury to the tubukes of kidney by

myoglobin,hemoglobin,monoclonal light chains,bile or

bilirubin.

•exogenous agents such as heavy metals or organic

solvents

• mismatched blood transfusions which lead to the

hemolysis and cause hemoglobinurea.

• skeletal muscle injuries causing myoglobinurea

SYMPTOMS :

• oligouria, its a condition in which kidneys produce

minimum ammount of urine that is excreted out of our

bodies.

• edema,it’s referred as a condition in which small

vessels leak fluid into the nearby tissues.

•nausea

• confusion

WHAT ARE THE DRUGS THAT CAUSE ACUTE RENAL INJURY?

•gentamicin
is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial

infections. This may include bone infections,

endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis,

pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among

others.

MORPHOLOGY OF ACUTE RENAL INJURY :

• nephrons have focular tubular epithelial necrosis.
•tubulorrhexis, it’s known as the rupture or loss of

basement membrane of nephrons.

CLINICAL COURSE:

it has three stages.
initiation phase : this phase lasts about 36 hours.

characterized by slight decline in urinary output

,elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), decreased glomerular

filtration rate.

maintenance phase : decrease in urinary outuput

between 40 and 400mL/day , salt and water

overload,metabolic acidosis,hyperkalemia,elevated blood

urea nitrogen (BUN). A patient can overcome this

oligourinc crisis.

Recovery phase : this phase is characterized by steady

increase in urinary volume that can reach upto 3L/day.
hypokalemia is a clinical probelm associated with this

phase and the patient is most likely to get a infection

in this phase.

TREATMENT :

•your doctor will try to maintain the important

electrolyte levels in your body such as potassium and

phosphorus so the category of drug used are to restore

these electrolytes.

•dialysis is performed inorder to clean the blood from

toxins which is going to decrease the load on kidneys.
** THINGS YOU SHOULD AVOID EATING :**
a pateint is suppose to follow a low potassium diet in

order to avoid comlications. The items mentioned below

are good to go with.
•strawberry
•apple
•cauliflower

while one is strictly not allowed to follow a diet that

contain high amounts of potassium i.e : banana , tomato

and oranges.

SUMMARY :
acute, severe decrease in renal function which develops

within days. The hallmark is azotemia which is

characterized by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and

creatinine.oligouria is an often association of this

disease.
The major causes are ischemic blood flow to kidneys or

either obstruction of the ureters.
treatment involves low potassium diet,dialysis and

medication which conserves blood potassium and phosphorus

levels.

What is acute Kidney Failure/ injury ?

Acute kidney failure is a condition happens when kidney loss its ability to filter wastes, salts and fluids from blood and these wastes accumulate in our body. Many factors lead towards kidney failure including diabetes and high blood pressure. It has mild to severe symptoms depending upon the stage of renal failure.

Causes of kidney failure:

  1. High Blood pressure
    High blood pressure is the leading cause of Kidney failure.High blood pressure is caused by hypertension, stress and Stomach problems. According to a survey in United States hypertension is major cause of high stage kidney failure.

  2. Diabetes
    Diabetes damage heart as well as kidney due to excessive blood glucose level.

  3. Glomerulonephritis
    In this condition glomeruli which filters the blood in kidney are damaged and cause chronic kidney failure

Symptoms of Kidney failure

  1. Sleep apnea when kidney is not working efficiently the waste particles are not extracted by kidney and these accumulate in blood and cause sleep apnea. People with acute kidney problems have high sleep weakness than normal people.
  2. Fatigue In kidney failure kidney is unable to filter the blood and remove the wastes in the form of urine. These toxic substances accumulate in the muscles causing fatigue and person feels tired
    3.Blood in urine it is the indication of acute kidney failure. Because when filtration unit of kidney is damaged it cannot keep the blood and blood is excreted out with the urine.

Types of kidney failure:

There are following types of kidney failure

  1. Pre-renal kidney failure
    It is a condition in which kidney contract and loss functioning ability due to less blood flow through kidney.
  2. Intrinsic kidney failure
    This happens when kidney is damaged for long periods of time due to reduce availability of oxygen and excessive blood loss
  3. Post-renal kidney failure.
    This happens when urine is stopped due to blockage in Ureter. It exist pressure on kidney and cause kidney failure

Stages of Kidney failure

There are five stages of kidney failure.
  1. Stage 1 This is a primary stage of kidney failure with no signs and complicationsThis can be cured by improving living conditions, eating balanced diet and by adopting the techniques of say no to smoking.
  2. Stage 2 In this condition the damage kidney shows mild symptoms like protein in urine. This also can be preventive by Balanced diet, and avoiding tobacco.
  3. Stage 3 Moderate form of kidney failure with clear symptoms like swelling in feet and hands, back pain and frequent urination. Doctors may prescribe medications to speedup cure.
  4. Stage 4 It is severe condition with symptoms like anaemia and high blood pressure. Better lifestyle helps in this condition. Doctor also describe the treatment that lead to slow kidney damage
  5. Stage 5 It is high kidney failure with clear signs of vomiting and nausea, breathing problems and itchy skin. The one and only treatment for this condition is dialysis and kidney transplant.

Preventive measure:

  1. Dialysis
    Filtration of blood to remove toxin in the machine is called dialysis. There are two types of dialysis Hemo dialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemo dialysis uses artificial kidney called hemodialyzer which filters the blood and remove wastes. Peritoneal dialysis uses peritoneal dialyses catheter that carry fluid to remove wastes from blood in the abdomen cavity of human.
  2. Kidney transplant
    In acute renal failure dialysis is no more beneficial, the only treatment in this case is kidney transplant.There are also two types of kidney transplant. Preemptive kidney transplant is when patient receive kidney just before to reach dialysis. Living-donor kidney transplant is when recipient receive kidney from living donor.
  3. Balance the amount of fluid
    When high level renal failure is due to lack of fluid in the body the doctor recommend Intravenous fluid cure. And when it is due to excessive fluid Doctors ask to remove excessive fluid from body bu diuretic method.

Conclusion:

Hence renal failure of kidney failure is the condition in which your kidney cannot perform its functions as it should. High blood pressure and diabetes are the reason for renal failure. It has five stages with different signs of identification. The working of kidney may increase by better living conditions and balanced diet.Its treatment includes dialysis and kidney transplant.