Acute kidney injury (AKI) is what develops within days
and it’s characterized by severe decrease in renal
function. Increased levels of creatinine, urea and
nitrogen in the blood is the indicator of this disease
that’s knowns as AZOTEMIA.
CAUSES OF ACUTE RENAL INJURY :
• if your kidneys are experiancy less blood flow towards
them which is one of the consequces of cardiac failure.
•if the ureters are experiancy any sort of obstruction
downstream from the kidney.
• nephrotoxic drugs which are proved to be harmfull for
• direct toxic injury to the tubukes of kidney by
myoglobin,hemoglobin,monoclonal light chains,bile or
•exogenous agents such as heavy metals or organic
• mismatched blood transfusions which lead to the
hemolysis and cause hemoglobinurea.
• skeletal muscle injuries causing myoglobinurea
• oligouria, its a condition in which kidneys produce
minimum ammount of urine that is excreted out of our
• edema,it’s referred as a condition in which small
vessels leak fluid into the nearby tissues.
WHAT ARE THE DRUGS THAT CAUSE ACUTE RENAL INJURY?
is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial
infections. This may include bone infections,
endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis,
pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among
MORPHOLOGY OF ACUTE RENAL INJURY :
• nephrons have focular tubular epithelial necrosis.
•tubulorrhexis, it’s known as the rupture or loss of
basement membrane of nephrons.
it has three stages.
•initiation phase : this phase lasts about 36 hours.
characterized by slight decline in urinary output
,elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), decreased glomerular
•maintenance phase : decrease in urinary outuput
between 40 and 400mL/day , salt and water
overload,metabolic acidosis,hyperkalemia,elevated blood
urea nitrogen (BUN). A patient can overcome this
Recovery phase : this phase is characterized by steady
increase in urinary volume that can reach upto 3L/day.
hypokalemia is a clinical probelm associated with this
phase and the patient is most likely to get a infection
in this phase.
•your doctor will try to maintain the important
electrolyte levels in your body such as potassium and
phosphorus so the category of drug used are to restore
•dialysis is performed inorder to clean the blood from
toxins which is going to decrease the load on kidneys.
** THINGS YOU SHOULD AVOID EATING :**
a pateint is suppose to follow a low potassium diet in
order to avoid comlications. The items mentioned below
are good to go with.
while one is strictly not allowed to follow a diet that
contain high amounts of potassium i.e : banana , tomato
acute, severe decrease in renal function which develops
within days. The hallmark is azotemia which is
characterized by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and
creatinine.oligouria is an often association of this
The major causes are ischemic blood flow to kidneys or
either obstruction of the ureters.
treatment involves low potassium diet,dialysis and
medication which conserves blood potassium and phosphorus