How to fly

How to Fly? For humans, this is not possible because of the gravitational force that pulls everything towards its center but for birds there are feathers on their wings which helps them to take a flight.

How to fly

:large_blue_diamond: Can you Flap and Fly?

The Earth pulls everything down towards its center; this pull is known as gravity. Humans do not inherit the capacity to fly. We are unable to create enough lift to overcome gravity’s pull or our own weight.

Birds can fly because they have more than just wings. Because of their light structure and hollow bones, they can resist gravity. Air sacs inside their bodies make birds lighter, allowing for easier flight through air.

Their body form aids in reducing air resistance when flying, and their muscles are exceptionally strong in comparison to their body.

Bird lungs are also constructed to absorb a lot of oxygen when birds breathe, which is required to keep the muscles functioning for lengthy periods of time.

Why do birds’ wings have feathers? When they flap, they catch the air and propel it downward. This generates lift and propels birds into the sky. Airfoils are man-made versions of bird wings.

The phrase “airfoil” refers to the cross-sectional form of an aircraft wing, helicopter blade, propeller, rotor, or turbine.

:small_orange_diamond: Why Can’t Humans Fly?

Despite the fact that humans have conquered the sky with aircraft, we have yet to equal our winged animal relatives that fly on their own.

And now scientists have decided that we will never be able to fly like birds: it is mathematically impossible for humans to fly like birds. A bird is able to fly because its wingspan and wing muscle strength are proportionate to its body size.

It has a light skeleton with hollow bones, which reduces the burden on its wings. A bird also has air sacs attached to its lungs, which makes it lighter and helps air to move easily through its lungs when flying.

Calculations of the ratio of human size to strength, on the other hand, show that our race would never be able to fly without assistance. As an organism expands, its weight rises quicker than its strength.

To fly, an average adult male person would need a wingspan of at least 6.7 meters. This calculation ignores the fact that the wings themselves would be too heavy to function.

There’s a reason why a 6-year-old girl can do more pull-ups than her 40-year-old father: she’s weaker, but her strength-to-size ratio is still higher.

To put it another way, we are not too big to fly, but our strength simply cannot maintain our weight in flight.


Aviation offers the sole quick global transportation network, making it critical for global commerce. It promotes economic development, job creation, and international commerce and tourism.

:large_blue_diamond: Can humans fly like Birds?

According to Mark Drela, Terry J. Kohler Professor of Fluid Dynamics at the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, we will never fly by swinging our arms with wings attached.

A human’s arms and chest do not have nearly enough muscular mass to deliver the required power. And, according to Drela, flying with flapping wings propelled by our legs is implausible.

In principle, human legs have enough power to achieve this, but only if the wings span a sufficient distance at least 80 feet and weigh substantially less than the person.

With present mechanical technology, this large-size/low-weight combination is incredibly difficult to produce, and no one has yet succeeded or even come close to attaining it, despite countless attempts.

But, according to Drela, we have accomplished one sort of human-powered flight: employing a fixed-wing aircraft with propellers propelled by leg pedaling. Because the wing is fixed, it may be made to be both long and light enough to fly.

Approximately 100 of these aircraft have flown to date. The Daedalus airplane is one noteworthy example of this design, the outcome of a multi-year MIT initiative including Drela as well as other MIT academics and students.

Daedalus, named after the famous Greek inventor, has a wing span of 112-feet and weighs just 52 pounds. The whole craft weighs in at just 68 pounds.

Daedalus took launched from the Greek island of Crete on April 23, 1988, piloted by 160-pound Olympic cyclist Kanellos Kanellopoulos.

Daedalus crashed down in the waves right off Santorini’s black sand beaches three hours, four minutes, and 59 seconds later, when high winds destroyed the craft’s tail blast.

Kanellopoulos swam ashore, and the Daedalus broke the world record for human-powered flight after flying 72.4 miles. While it will never fly again, this human-powered aircraft will live on at Terminal B at Dulles Airport.

:small_orange_diamond: Types of Feathers

1 Wing feathers
2 Tail feathers
3 Contour feathers
4 Semi plume
5 Down
6 filo plume
7 Bristle

:large_blue_diamond: Feather Structure

Although feathers vary in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, they are always constructed of the protein beta-keratin and have the same fundamental elements that are organized in a branching pattern.

The calamus expands into a central rachis, which branches into barbs, and subsequently into barbules with little hooks that connect with neighboring barbules in the most sophisticated feathers.

The development of tiny alterations in this fundamental branching structure to suit diverse roles results in feather diversity.

Downy feathers have a loosely structured plumulaceous microstructure with flexible barbs and relatively long barbules that trap air near to the warm body of the bird.

Pennaceous feathers are rigid and usually flat, owing to a slight structural difference: microscopic hooks on the barbules that interlock to produce a wind and waterproof barrier, allowing birds to fly and keep dry.

Many feathers feature fluffy plumulaceous portions as well as more rigid pennaceous parts.

:large_blue_diamond: Feather Types

Feathers are classified into seven basic types depending on their structure and placement on the bird’s body which are explained below:

1. Wing Feathers

The flying wing feathers are distinguished by homogeneous windproof surfaces, or vanes, generated by an interlocking microstructure on each side of the central shaft.

These asymmetric feathers, also known as remiges, have a shorter, less flexible leading edge that inhibits midair twisting.

2. Tail Feathers

Most tail feathers, or rectrices, have an interlocking microstructure similar to wing feathers. These feathers, arranged in a fan pattern, aid in accurate steering in flight.

Birds’ tails typically feature six pairs of feathers, with increasing asymmetry toward the outer pairs. Some birds’ tail feathers have developed into dazzling decorations that are useless in flying.

3. Contour Feathers

Contour feathers are the feathers that cover the bird’s body and streamline its form. The waterproof tips are exposed to the outside while the fluffy bases are nestled close to the body, arranged in an overlapping pattern like shingles.

Contour feathers, which may be brightly colored or consistently drab, can also assist the bird show off or remain hidden. Covert feathers form the wing into an effective airfoil by smoothing out the area where the flying feathers join to the bone.

4. Semi plume

Semi plumes, which are mostly present behind other feathers on the body, have a developed central rachis but no hooks on the barbules, resulting in a fluffy insulating structure.

5. Down

Down feathers are relatively short and positioned closest to the body where they retain body heat, similar to semi plumes with an even looser branching pattern but little or no central rachis.

6. Filo plume

Filo plumes are short simple feathers with a few barbs that operate like mammal whiskers to detect the location of the contour feathers.

7. Bristle

Bristles are the most basic feathers, having a stiff rachis and no barb branches. Bristles, which are most typically present on the head, may protect the bird’s eyes and face.

:large_blue_diamond: How do Birds Fly?

Birds’ hollow bones are both light and robust. Their feathers are light, and their wings are well shaped for capturing air.

Their lungs are very effective in absorbing oxygen, allowing them to fly for extended periods of time without tiring. They consume a lot of high-energy foods.

Kim Bostwick, a Cornell Lab of Ornithology scientist, explains:

“Have you ever tried moving your open hand through water fairly quickly?” Wide, flat things, such as your hand or a paddle, are difficult to maneuver quickly against water."

The water seems to be pushing back against you. Or have you ever placed your hand out the window of a vehicle while moving and felt the air surge against it? In the wind, you may see-saw your hand up and down.

In both circumstances, you can feel the water or air pushing against your flat palm. But if you move your hand sideways, you can simply slide it through the water or air, right?"

“When a bird is flying, its wings are flat, allowing air to flow readily around it in the direction the animal is traveling” like your hand cutting through the water or air.

However, something unusual and perplexing occurs here. Because the wing is somewhat bent on top, air flows quicker over the top than it does over the bottom. Because the air is traveling more slowly, there will be more air on the bottom side.

When there is more air on the bottom, it causes a push, and since the push occurs against that large flat section of the wing, it elevates the animal. So a bird wing slashes through the air ahead and is pushed up from below, resulting in a soaring bird!"


Flapping their wings, birds fly. Flight entails traveling upward, against gravity, and forward as well. The strong chest muscles pull the wings down, providing the necessary strength. These muscles are ten times larger than the muscles responsible for pulling the wings back up.

:large_blue_diamond: Dynamics of Flight

Let us imagine that our arms are wings. We can adjust the direction of the aircraft by putting one wing down and one wing up. By yawing to one side, we assist in turning the aircraft.

We can increase the pitch of the aircraft by lifting our nose in the same way that a pilot may raise the nose of the plane. All of these dimensions work together to govern the planes flying.

An aircraft’s pilot has particular controls that he or she may use to operate the plane. The pilot may modify the plane’s yaw, pitch, and roll by using levers and buttons.

The ailerons on one wing are lifted while the ailerons on the other are dropped to roll the aircraft to the right or left. The wing with the lower aileron rises, whilst the wing with the higher aileron falls.

Pitch controls whether an aircraft descends or ascends. To make an aircraft descend or rise, the pilot adjusts the elevators on the tail.

Lowering the elevators led the plane’s nose to drop, putting it into a downward spiral. The aircraft climbs when the elevators are raised.

A plane’s yaw is its turning. The aircraft travels left or right when the rudder is tilted to one side. The nose of the aircraft is pointing in the same direction as the rudder. The rudder and ailerons work together to produce a turn.

:small_orange_diamond: Medium of Air

Air is a physical substance with mass. It contains molecules that are continually moving. The molecules traveling around produce air pressure. Moving air provides enough energy to pull kites and balloons up and down.

Air is a gas combination of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. All flying objects need air. Air has the ability to push and pull on birds, balloons, kites, and aircraft.

Evagelista Torricelli discovered the weight of air in 1640. He realized that air placed pressure on mercury while experimenting with measuring it. In the late 1600s, Francesco Lana exploited this knowledge to start planning for an airship.

On paper, he designed an airship based on the premise that air had weight. The ship was a hollow spherical that would be devoid of air. The sphere would lose weight and be able to float up into the air after the air was gone.

Four spheres would be connected to a boat-like framework, and the whole contraption would float. The original design was never implemented.

Hot air expands and spreads, becoming lighter than cold air. When a balloon is filled with hot air, it rises as the hot air expands inside the balloon. When the hot air cools and is expelled from the balloon, the balloon deflates.

:small_orange_diamond: Aircraft Flight Control

The mechanisms by which a pilot controls the direction and attitude of an aircraft in flight are known as aircraft flight controls.

Flight control systems are classified as either main or secondary flight controls. Primary flight controls, which include ailerons, elevators or, in some installations, stabilators, and rudder, are essential to properly steer an aircraft during flight.

Secondary flight controls, which include high lift devices like as slats, as well as flight spoilers and trim systems, are designed to enhance the aircraft’s performance characteristics or to alleviate excessive control loading.

The rotation of the aircraft around the axis of rotation connected with the control surface is caused by movement of any of the basic flying controls.

The ailerons regulate movement along the longitudinal axis (roll), the elevator rotation along the lateral axis (pitch), and the rudder rotation along the vertical axis (yaw).

Mechanical flight control systems, which date back to the earliest aircraft types, are used in the majority of light, general aviation aircraft.

The movement of the flight deck controls is sent to the proper control surface by a set of mechanical components such as cables, pulleys, rods, and chains in this design.

Aerodynamic forces become too severe for the pilot to resist in bigger and faster aircraft, hence hydraulic systems are often used to move the flight control surface.

In certain contemporary aircraft types, the search for lower weight and corresponding fuel savings has prompted designers to replace most mechanical components with computers and fiber optics to generate Fly-By-Wire control systems.

:small_orange_diamond: Controlling a Plane

A pilot utilizes various instruments to fly an aircraft. The throttle is used by the pilot to manage the engine power. Pulling the throttle reduces power while pushing it increases it.

The ailerons are used to lift and lower the wings. The pilot controls the plane’s roll by using a control wheel to raise one aileron or the other.

Turning the control wheel clockwise increases the right aileron and lowers the left, causing the aircraft to roll to the right. The rudder acts to regulate the plane’s yaw. The pilot controls the rudder using the left and right pedals.

The rudder is moved to the right by pressing the right rudder pedal. This causes the airplane to yaw to the right. The rudder and ailerons work in tandem to steer the aircraft.

The elevators on the tail portion are used to adjust the plane’s pitch. A pilot raises and lowers the elevators by sliding the control wheel forward and backward.

Lowering the elevators causes the aircraft’s nose to drop, allowing the plane to descend. The pilot may cause the aircraft to rise by raising the elevators.

To use the brakes, the pilot of the aircraft presses the top of the rudder pedals. When the aircraft is on the ground, the brakes are utilized to slow it down and prepare it for landing.

The left brake is controlled by the top of the left rudder, while the right brake is controlled by the top of the right pedal.

When these movements are considered collectively, it is clear that each form of motion aids in controlling the plane’s direction and level of flight.

To be Precise

Airplane wings are designed to flow air quicker over the top of the wing. The pressure of the air lowers as it goes quicker. As a result, the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom. The pressure differential exerts a force on the wing, lifting it into the air.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Here are some questions about How to Fly:

1. What is the flying mechanism of birds?

Birds fly by flapping their wings and primarily guiding with their tails. In comparison to aircraft components, a bird’s wing serves as both a wing and a propeller. The basal region of the wing provides the majority of the supporting surface, while the wing tip provides the majority of the propelling power.

2. What are the four flight mechanics?

The same four factors assist an aircraft in flying. Lift, thrust, drag, and weight are the four forces. Lift keeps a Frisbee aloft as it travels through the air. You threw the Frisbee with your arm.

3. What is a flying example?

The act of flying or departing is characterized as flight. A bird in the sky is an illustration of flying. Traveling a plane from New York to California is an example of a flight. Running away from a burning building is an example of flight.

4. What is Bernoulli’s flying principle?

Bernoulli’s principle explains how an airplane achieves lift due to the form of its wings. They are designed so that air flows quicker over the top and slower below the wing. Slow flowing air means high air pressure, while fast moving air equals low air pressure.

5. What are the three flight axes?

Regardless of the kind of aircraft, it can travel along three axes: left and right, forward and backward, and up and down. Their technical names in aviation are the lateral axis, longitudinal axis, and vertical axis. The lateral axis connects the wing tips.

6. Simply explain how aircraft fly?

Airplanes fly because they can create a force known as lift, which typically propels the aircraft higher. The forward motion of the aircraft through the air generates lift. The engine’s thrust produces this motion.

7. What factors oppose flight?

Lift, the upward acting force; gravity, the downward acting force; push, the forward acting force; and drag, the backward acting force, all operate on an aircraft in flight also called wind resistance. Lift works against gravity, whereas thrust works against drag.

8. What exactly is a flight profile?

A graphical depiction of an aircraft’s flight route in the vertical plane, including altitude, speed, range, and maneuver as seen from the side.

9. What exactly is the terminal flying phase?

Gravity drags the warheads now known as reentry vehicles, or RVs, back into the atmosphere and down to the target region during the final phase of flight.

10. What is the flight equation?

According to the lift equation, lift L equals the lift coefficient Cl times the density r times half of the velocity V squared times the wing area A. To calculate the lift, we must first find a value for Cl given the air conditions, form, and tilt of the item.


To conclude the topic about How to fly, we can say that the humans are nor designed for the purpose for flying but there are other creatures like birds who are destined to fly in order to reach from one point to the other.

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