When was glass invented?
History of the glass
Before learning the uses and making of glass we learn the history of the glass. People use the obsidian “the volcano glass”. Obsidian is used for many purposes like making knives, jewelry, making money, and arrowheads, etc.
Different histories show the different evidence. The ancient roman Pliny says that the first glass was made in the region of Syria in 500BC. This first glass made the Phoenician merchant. But another history like archaeological evidence shows that the first man-made glass was found in the region of eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt. This makes around 3500BC.
For the next 300 years, the industry of glass increased rapidly. The history of glass shows that glass was produced in Mesopotamia in 700BC and Egypt in 500BC. With time, many countries and regions make the industries of making glass. Like, next 500 years Egypt, Syria, other countries, eastern areas are the centers of the making of glass. People like the use of glass. It makes them standardize. The looks are of the glass so beautiful and transparent. People accepted the glass with more interest and likes.
Important facts and dates of the glass
Shot glass and man-made glass have a long history. People inspire with glass. It has a vast and inspiring culture. Some important facts and dates are mentioned below. With these dates, we know all history of the glass.
Dates about BC
|31ooBC||First glass aircraft made in Egypt.|
|1500BC||Small and mold glass articles found in Egypt and Syria. The first glass was made probably in Egypt.|
|650BC||Manual of making glass written in the Assyrian Assurbanipal’s library.|
At the beginning of making glass, there is a very slow process of making the glass, small furnaces, low heat hardly melts the glass. After the invention of the blowing technique and blow, pipe made a great change in the development of the glass. With this discovery development and growth of the glass are easier, cheaper, and faster. With the invention of the blowpipe, the whole world accepted the glass. Because before the blowpipe glass making is the time, money consuming process. It is harder too. But the invention of the blowing process glass is also easy.
Dates about AD
|1AD||In Babylon, areas invented the technique of blowing glass|
|25-40AD||In this period the impotence of the glass increases rapidly. Mediterranean and roman era shows more development in the glass-like;|
- In the growth of glass
- Forming technology
- Melting of glass
|100AD|Decrease the rate of the glass. First time all citizens approach the glass.|
|600-699AD|In this time glass through the great influences on the history of Islam|
|1000AD|Murano island make the dominant and major center of production of making glass|
History of glass from 1200 to 2000
From 1200 to 2000 following inventions and development are happening in the industries of glass.
- The first broadsheet was produced in Sussex.
- French makers make crown glass in France.
- Angelo introduced the cristal, clear, colorless glass.
- Telescope and microscope lens made in the Netherland with the help of glass.
- Casper Lehman and Prague introduce the technique of cutting. They used glass for cutting the rocks and crystal.
- In the industry of glass french become a major power.
- Settlers make the first American glass in Jamestown.
- England introduces coal furnaces.
- London produced “blown plate”
- English glassmaker George make a formula of
- The ideal glass is used for cutting.
- The polished plate was also introduced in France.
- England passed the glass exercise act.
- Crystal glass began more development in the history of the glass
- The Glass pressing machine was invented by America.
- Introducing float glass, rolled plate, and improved cylinder sheet.
- The technical glass was developed in Germany.
- The technique of flat-drawn machines was introduced in Belgium.
- First fluoride glass was introduced by France.
Glass history periods
Glass-producing history has three periods. This glass history has the following steps from invention to manufacturing.
- Glass history
- Glass invention
The glass was invented in the ancient days no one knows about the true story or incident of the glass invention. There were present little efforts of the men where they were made beads and molds etc. Firstly, these objects of the glass are present in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The first glass is known as the stone age of the people. In the stone age of the people, they used glass for weapons and decoration only. In this age, glass is not commonly used in routine life. Some are known that the first man-made glass was found in 3500BC. The major and main centers of the glass are Egypt and Mesopotamia. Through the invention of the blowpipe, great changes happened in the history of glass.
Did you know how to make glass?
What are the ingredients of the glass?
How can we prepare the glass?
What is the process of the glass-forming?
In this article, you get all the answers to the above questions
Origin of the glass
There is little known about the first attempt at glass making. No one knows about the true origin of glass. Different people have different views about glass. But all of us agree that glass originates from Mesopotamia. But dates are different, some agree that glass originates 3000BC, some are 4000BC and others believe that glass discovered 5000BC.
An incident of glass origination
The different historians have different suggestions about an incident of origination and the discovery of glass. Here we describe the most famous roman historian Pliny who says that credit for glassmaking goes to the Phoenician sailors. The sailor landed on the beach of the Ptolemais. Where they ready the cooking pots over some rocks of the natron(naturally occurring alkali substance).
They fire the rocks but accidentally fire melted the sand of the sea which is the present bottom of the sea. This melted sand flows to the water and changes into glass after cool. After cooling there is the glass present. This is a wonderful thing of those days. Sailors were much surprised. This is a wonderful explanation.
But we never say that it is true or false. Because fire never reaches that level where the glass melted especially on a beach. But it is the famous story of the glass discovery. This story belongs to the beach of Ptolemais. One time we accepted this accident because this beach is more used for making glass. This is the major center of the glass.
Making glass in industries
After making glass accidentally, different scientists and sailors tried to make the glass. Phoenician sailors say that the glassmaking process is very long. Different substances are used in this process of glass as a raw material.
The raw material of the glass
- Ground quartz pebbles
- An alkali
High heat industries inspire the glass making industries and its process because there is also a need for high heat in the process of glassmaking. The industries of mettle making and ceramics are the high heat industries. Potters accepted the glass and developed it with the firing of their wastes and wares. No one knows about the first glass that, this first glass a shiny, clear, or colorful surface. Potters fused the glass with clay in the high heat furnaces.
Process of developing the glass
Here is the process of making glass. There are at least three workshops in the making of the glass.
1.in the first workshop the glassmakers melted the ingredients. After melting the materials cool them with the ingots.
After cooling the materials, we send the materials to the 2nd workshop. Where separate the materials in different parts. Sometimes the 2nd workshop is so far away. These separate parts are also remembered. But the 2nd furnaces have less heat or temperature than the 1st furnace. After the remelted glass is formed.
After forming the glass, the glassworker has restricted technology. The glassworker uses different structures for forming the pots of the glass. Now the glass has new looks like pots, molds, glass beads, etc.
We use different techniques for forming the different structures. We collect the small pieces of the molded glass and melt them together to form new shapes and styles. 1 century BC these techniques are used for making different things with glass.
Process of the coloring of developing glass
With the discovery of the glass. People accept the glass with great attention and inspiration. Some scientists and industrialists make glass a unique substance. Industrialists and workshops melt the raw material of the glass together and cool them with ingots. Cooling with ingots makes the glass in different colors. Scientists knew about the colors of the glass. Glass makers included the ingots with the metallic oxide into ingredients. These metallic oxides make the glass in different colors. The popular colors of the glass are;
- Royal blue with the addition of cobalt oxide
- Turquoise blue with the addition of the copper oxide
Glassmakers use semi-precious stones for preparing the glass. This semi-precious product makes the glass cheap. And a common man reaches the glass because when the glass has a high value then no one can reach the glass product. Glass is commonly used in our culture.
The cultural history of the glass
The first Russian glass was found in the form of beads. These beads were found in the Iran of Azerbaijan at the age of 1600BC. There were so many things of the glass were found in Iran some are;
- Glass beads
- Glass tubes
- Glass cups
These things were more resemblance to the culture of Mesopotamia. On those days vessels of the glass plain and having no color. In the Sasanian period glass vessel decoration started. These decorations were so simple.
Evidence of the glass was also found in India. Historians receive the brown beads necklace in Indus valley. This evidence was also found in Harappa. These are the earliest evidence of south Asia. Later, there was found so much evidence. Such as;
In Vinay Pitaka
Evidence of the glass was found in the Taxila in the form of jewelry, bangles, small vessels, and beads. Evidence shows that glasses are used in the Taxila as most of the form of jewelry. Because those days glass was so precious thing. The technique of forming glass spread all over the world and especially in western Asia through these cultures.
Glass plays an important and domestic role in china. This role was against metal and ceramics. In earlier days the objects of glass come from the warring states. Glass developed in China so later as compared to Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India. In china, glass was not commonly used. And the beads and colorful objects reach china so late. But china gains this, with great impetus.
The initial color glass was made in roman areas. Hellenistic techniques are mostly used in roman. Roman export many glass things all over the world. The exported things are vessels, industrials, entertaining, etc. In roman glasses were mostly used for forming the vessels but windows and tiles were also formed.
Islamic culture continued the pre-Islamic culture of the glass. Especially Sasanian and Paris culture developed by Islam. The famous Arab al-Bahturi says that glass hides the color of the vessel as that there is no object. The famous chemist Jabir bin Haiyan described the 112 procedure of the glass. In another book of Jabir bin Haiyan 46 more processes are described.