Russian language

Russian language is the official language of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is employed as a standard language in Ukraine.

Russian is an East Slavic language
137 million people in the Russian Federation speak Russian

Russian Language:

russian language

Russian is an East Slavic language that originated from Russians in Eastern Europe. It is part of the Indo-European language family, one of the four existing East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Baltic-Slavic branch. The official languages ​​of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan are widely used as common languages ​​in Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and some Baltic countries. It was the de facto language before the collapse of the Soviet Union. And used in an official capacity or public life in all post-Soviet countries. This language is one of the six official languages ​​of the United Nations. More than 258 million people worldwide speak Russian. It is the most widely spoken Slavic language, the most widely spoken mother tongue in Europe, and the most widely spoken language in Eurasia.

A large number of Russian-speaking residents from other countries such as Israel and Mongolia. In terms of the number of native speakers, it is the seventh most commonly used language in the world, and in terms of the total number of speakers, it is the eighth-most commonly used language in the world. Russian, the second most commonly used language on the Internet after English, is written in Cyrillic; it distinguishes between consonant phonemes with and without palatal secondary sounds, the so-called “soft” and “hard” sounds. Almost all consonants have hard or soft consonants. The difference is a distinctive feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Unpredictable pressure is usually not obvious, but not necessarily sharp. Accent can be used to indicate stress, for example, to distinguish homogenous words such as castle (zamók-‘castle’) and castle (zámok-castle), or to indicate the correct pronunciation of unusual words or names.

Classification:

Russian is Associate in Nursing East Balto-Slavonic of the broader Indo-European family, derived from the language of Kievan Rus, that was a versatile cluster of East Slavic tribes from the tip of the ninth century to the mid-13th century. In terms of spoken language, its shut relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Russian[34], the opposite 3 languages ​​of the East Slavic branch. In several places in jap and southern Ukraine, in addition to throughout Belarus, these languages ​​are used interchangeably, and because of some ancient bilingualism, language confusion occurs, adore Surzhik in eastern Ukraine and Trasjanka in Belarus. Associate in a Nursing ancient dialect of East Slav Novgorod, though it disappeared within the fifteenth or sixteenth century, it’s generally thought of to own contend a crucial role in the formation of recent Russian. because of the widespread influence of Old Bulgarian languages, Russian and Bulgarian even have vital vocabulary similarities. 2 languages, however additionally through later interactions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Bulgarian synchronic linguistics is incredibly completely different from Russian.

within the 19th century (in Russia till 1917), the language was usually referred to as “Big Russian” to differentiate it from Belarusian, then “Belarusian” and Ukrainian, and so “little Russian”. Vocabulary (especially abstract and literary vocabulary), word indication principles, and to a precise extent, the deformation and literary form of Russian are all influenced by Old Bulgarian. Church Slavic could be any development of recent Russian and vicinity of Russification. Catholic Church Church. The East Slavic form is typically used completely for varied dialects that are speedily declining. In some cases, jap Slavic and Church Slavic forms have completely different meanings. For more information, see Russian acoustics and History of Russian. The vocabulary and literary style of Russian have additionally been used for centuries. Inspired by Westerly and Middle European accents ​​so as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and English and to a lesser extent by Southern and jap European languages: the Ural, Turkish, Persian, Arabic. And Hebrew. in step with knowledge from the National Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is assessed as A level III language in terms of the educational toughies of native English speakers: it takes about 1,100 hours to achieve the intermediate level. it’s referred to as a “hard target language” by Yankee intelligence agencies, not solely as a result of it is difficult for English speakers to master, however additionally owing to its key role in world politics.

Standard Russian:

Structure disputes and conflicts, still as different obstacles to the exchange of products and ideas, reinforced the previous Russian land before Mongolian rule, particularly throughout Mongolian rule, inflated dialectical variations, and briefly prevented the emergence of a unified national language. The gradual emergence of centralized Russian states within the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and a typical political, economic, and cultural sphere necessitated a common standard language. The initial impetus for standardization came from the national bureaucracy, therefore the lack of reliable communication ways in administrative, legal, and judicial affairs has become a noticeable sensible problem.

The primary attempt to unify the Russian language occurred within the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. The century is predicated on the supposed official language of the national capital or the office. The trend of Russian language policy is to normalize, in an exceedingly slim sense, to interrupt the dialectical barriers between ethnic Russians, and in a broad sense, to expand the utilization of Russian in conjunction with different languages ​​or support the use of other languages. the present standard sort of Russian is usually thought of to be the language of recent Russian literature (modern Russian literary language is “modern Russian literary language”. It appeared in the early eighteenth century, in the middle of the modernization of the Russian state beneath the rule of Peter the Great. Developed from the dialectical basis of national capital (central or central Russia) under the influence of the century. The language of the Russian prime minister.

Mikhail Lomonosov wrote the primary book on grammatical standardization in 1755. Book; 1783-The first Russian interpretive lexicon referred to as the “Golden Era” of the Russian Academy, that stabilized and unified the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of Russian and have become the language of national literature. The world-famous Russian literature flourished. Until the twentieth century, the oral sort of the language drawn the aristocracy and therefore the urban population, as Russian farmers from the rural area continued to talk their idiom. Introduce the required education system established by the Soviet government. though normal Russian has been formalized, some non-standard dialect options (for example, fricatives in South Russian dialects) will still be determined in spoken language.

Geography:

The Russian-speaking population in the world in 2010 was 259.8 million: Russia-137.5 million, CIS and Baltic countries-93.7 million, Japan-Europe-12.9 million, Western Europe-Asia-73 million-2.7 million, geographic regions And North Africa: Geographical area is 100,000, Latin America is 1.3 million. 2 million, United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand: 4.1 million speakers. This makes Russian the seventh language in the world for the number of people who speak English, Chinese, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Portuguese.

Russian is identified as the six formal languages ​​of the United Nations.

In Russia and many former Soviet republics, second language (OS) and native speakers are still highly valued. For many children in the republics of the former Soviet Union, this is a very important language.

Europe:

8% opposed, 24.9% agreed, and the turnout rate was 71.1%. Starting in 2019, Russian courses in Latvian private universities and general courses in Latvian public middle schools will end. In Lithuania, Russian has no official or legal status, but it is used in certain regions. A large part of the population, especially the older generation, can use Russian as a foreign language. However, English has replaced Russian as the lingua franca of Lithuania, and about 80% of young people use English as their first foreign language. Compared with the other two Baltic countries, Lithuania has relatively few Russian-speaking minorities (5.0% in 2008). In Moldova, according to the laws of the Soviet era, Russian is considered the language of inter-ethnic communication. In 2006, 50% of the population was fluent in Russian, and 19% used Russian as their main language at home, friends, or work. According to the 2010 Russian census, 138 million people speak Russian (99.4%). Respondents and according to the 2002 Census-142.6 million people.

In Ukraine, according to the 1996 Ukrainian Constitution, Russian is considered the language of inter-ethnic communication and the language of ethnic minorities. ​​Demoskop Weekly estimates that in 2004 the country had 14.4 million Russian speakers and 29 million native speakers. In 2006, 65% of the population was fluent in Russian, and 38% used Russian as the main family language. On September 5, 2017, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed a new education law prohibiting all students from teaching elementary schools in any language other than Ukrainian. The law was criticized by Russian officials. In the 20th century, Russian was a compulsory language in schools in former Warsaw Pact member states and other satellite states of the former Soviet Union. According to a 2005 Eurobarometer survey, Russian proficiency in some countries is still very high (20-40%), especially in those countries that speak Slavic, so they have an advantage in learning Russian ( For example, B. Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria). They also exist in Western Europe. Since the early 1900s, Western Europe has been supported by various waves of immigration, and each wave of immigrants has its own language talent. The United Kingdom, Germany, Finland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Norway, and Austria have important Russian-speaking communities.

North America:

The language was first introduced to North America when Russian explorers traveled to Alaska and claimed that it belonged to Russia in the 18th century. Although most Russian settlers left after the United States purchased land in 1867, some remained and retained the Russian language. In this area to this day, although there are only a few elderly people who speak this unique dialect. Nikolaevsk in Alaska speaks more Russian than English. In North America, especially in major urban centers in the United States, there are also a large number of Russian-speaking communities. And Canada, such as New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Nashville, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, Toronto, Baltimore, Miami, Chicago, Denver, and Cleveland. They live in ethnic settlements (especially the immigrant generation who arrived in the early 1960s). However, only about 25% of them are ethnic Russians. The vast majority of Russian-speaking residents in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn, New York are Russian-speaking Jews. As a result, the influx of Russians and Ukrainians and other Russian and Central Asian Jews has changed the statistics. According to the 2007 U.S. Census, Russian was the main language spoken by more than 850,000 households in the United States; in the second half of the 20th century, Russian was the most popular foreign language in Cuba.

Universities and schools also have radio and television education programs, but since January 2019, Cuban TV has opened an education program specifically for Russian. The program has the right to name it in advance because the Russian-Cuba cooperation is a strategic positioning education navigator. The more young people are interested in Russian, this is actively developing. Havana State University has begun training in Russian and a second foreign language. There is also Russian. A language section where students can view e-books without an internet connection. Of the two schools in the Cuban capital, about 200,000 people speak Russian in Cuba, of which more than 23,000 Cubans graduated from the former Soviet Union and Russia, and another group attended engineering schools in the military and almost 2,000 live in Cuba. Russians and their descendants.

Asia:

In Turkmenistan, Russian missed its clear situation as simple literature in 1996. According to the updated estimates of the “World Fact Sheet”, 12% of the population speaks Russian. However, Turkmenistan’s official media and websites often publish materials in Russian, such as Russian newspapers Neutral Turkmenistan and TV4. An ordinary Turkmen-Russian secondary school. In Uzbekistan, Russian is the literature of inter-ethnic interaction. He has some official roles allowed in official documents. It is the national language and the language of the elite.

According to the updated World Factbook, it is used by 14.2% of the population. In 2005, Russian was the various publicly prepared international literature in Mongolia. Russian became a compulsory course of a second foreign language from the seventh grade. Israel uses Russian. Israeli media and websites regularly publish materials in Russian. The country has Russian newspapers, TV channels, schools, and social networks. There is an Israeli television broadcasting company that broadcasts mainly in Russian and cooperates with Israel Plus. See also Israeli Russian. Some people in Afghanistan also use Russian as a second language. In Vietnam, in addition to Chinese, Japanese, and foreign languages, the primary school curriculum also includes Russian, "this enables Vietnamese students to learn English in the same way.

How to learn and remember Russian words quickly:

russian language
Here are some techniques I used to process Russian words to make them easy to learn and remember.

  • Look for good audio:
    I recommend writing Russian movies with English subtitles on YouTube and looking for good movies there. The most important thing is to find a movie with good sound and English subtitles. You can also use some Russian Pod 101 video tutorials or listen to new Russian words in an app called Drops.

  • Write new words and phrases while listening:
    I suggest you pause the video or audio lesson you are listening to and write new phrases or words exactly the way you hear them. For example, I can watch a Russian movie. When I watched the subtitles, I saw that the protagonist of the story just asked: "Where is the toilet? At this point, I will listen carefully to what you say. What sounds like “Guide-deeyay toilet” in Russian? I will write this sentence together with the English translation.

  • Record how you read your notes:
    After I write down the new words or phrases I heard in a movie or audio class, I will record my reading. I usually record myself on my mobile phone or laptop.

  • Hearing my own new words
    Hearing my own new words is probably the most important part of my memory skills. I suggest creating a library of recorded content, and then you can listen to it for half an hour every day.

  • Reloading process:
    I spend about half an hour a day listening to audio or watching videos while writing and building a library of recorded content. Then I spent another 30 minutes in the afternoon listening to myself read all these new Russian expressions.

How long do you study in Russian Language?

How long do you study in Russian Language

When learning a new language (including Russian), people always start with the million-dollar question: How long does it take to learn this new language? If you search for "How long does it take to learn Russian? Therefore, their grades range from 6 months to 10 years. Most people want to learn Russian as soon as possible, and often look for quick methods and secrets.

Several factors affect the time to learn Russian, and these factors affect my approach:

Your teaching method:
We live in an era where learning new languages ​​surpass classroom learning. Although learning in the classroom was very valuable 10 years ago, learning new Russian phrases on websites such as LingQ, or learning Russian vocabulary in apps such as Drops or Russian radio is far from the most effective way. It can speed up your learning process. Watching Russian TV shows on YouTube is also a good idea.

Study time:
Of course, if you want to master Russian, you have to spend a lot of time learning Russian, but memory is very interesting. It takes half an hour to one hour every day. More than a week is much more effective than an intensive weekend course packed with 5 to 6 hours. Repeating words and sentences regularly every day, even for a short time, is much more effective than trying to win tons. Based on my own experience, I have found that two 45-minute Russian blocks per day work best. There is only a long time each week.

Your attitude and motivation:
I know that sometimes it is difficult to stay focused and motivated when starting a new project. I have interesting learning materials in my hands that can keep me calm and entertained while learning languages. It is not fun to use, and you will quickly lose motivation and concentration. I usually download short video tutorials from YouTube or buy language courses from Pimsleur and upload these audio/video tutorials to my phone. The first thing in the morning is to learn to stay motivated. As with learning new habits, it is important to make learning a new language as simple and straightforward as possible. Keep some Russian tutorials at home, where you will spend most of your time, so you can watch them often. They serve as visual cues and remind you of your goals. Another good way to attract my attention is to watch Russian movies from time to time and find that my understanding of Russian is getting better and better.

A brief history of Russian:

"Where are you from? In the past two years in Russia, I have heard this question many times. “I’m from the United States,” he always answers, but such an answer rarely satisfies the innate “Russian curiosity” of researchers. I would say: "Where are your roots? Then I explained that my ancestors came from different Nordic countries. This is enough for most Russians: “So you are Scandinavians,” they said deliberately, "Now we can talk. Besides, many Russians think that they will not understand me until they know where I come from. This person. I want to study the roots of Russian in order to better understand this beautiful and complicated communication system. When we learn more about the changing process of the historical development of Russian, many modern Russians seem confusing, arbitrary, or strange. Things will become clearer. In this article, I will briefly review the origins of Russian and summarize some of the major changes in the history of the language. I will focus on writing systems, phonetics and phonetic systems, and historical reflections on modern vocabulary. Although I can briefly describe some of the most important changes, I hope this article provides a solid foundation on which interested readers can learn Russian in more depth.

Brief description of the origin:

Most of our understanding of the origin of Russian comes from historians and linguists trying to explore the mysteries of the past. From about 3500 BC to 2500 AD, people who spoke a language called Indo-European gradually began to form dialect communities and separated from each other. As the Indo-European tribes moved “westward and eastward”, the Slavic tribes separated from most other tribes and developed their own languages. These tribes settled in the center of modern Eastern Europe and continue to speak dialects. A form of mutual understanding for centuries. Nineteen years old about 500 BC. Yes, because, as Kiparsky reminds us, “our first reliable historical information about Eastern Slavs comes from the 9th century” because there is no written evidence.

The eastern tribes of the Slavs are called ancestors. The origin of the terms “Slavic” and “Slavic” is unclear (Kiparsky 13). Somewhere between the split of the three branches of Slavs and today, East Slavic or Old Russian has split into three additional main dialect groups, which are today called Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Russian. Kiparsky believes that although there are several different hypotheses based on the chronological order of these changes, for example, he believes that evidence-based on written data indicates that Ukrainians appeared sometime after 950 AD. (17) However, due to various political complexities, Ukrainian was not officially recognized as an independent language until 1906. (18) The point in time when Belarusian was regarded as an independent language was relatively easy. As Kiparsky said, “It was only used as a separate language after the Russian Revolution in 1917” when the Belarusian people consciously declared themselves “independent” and created a literary language for themselves based on the dialect of southwestern Russia. Minsk region "(18-19). Although these two dialects of Old Russian are now considered to be different languages, there are still hundreds of other dialects that are considered part of the vast geographic area where Russian is spoken.

This region" is now From Kaliningrad to Diomedes in the Bering Strait, from the North Pole (observation station) to the Persian border" (Kiparsky 20). This great linguistic tradition spanning most parts of the world represents centuries of language change. Discussing some of these changes in more detail, I hope to provide some insight into the complexity and rich history of Russian.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q1: What language is spoken in Russia?

A: There are currently more than 100 minority languages ​​in Russia, the most popular of which is Tatar, which is spoken by more than 3% of the country’s population. Other minority languages ​​are Ukrainian, Chuvash, Bashir, Mordovian, Circassian, and Chechen.

Q2: Is it easy to learn Russian language?

A: Russian language is considered one of the most difficult languages ​​to learn. Many people want to learn languages. You will be surprised to find that it only takes about 10 hours to learn the Russian alphabet.

Q3: Is it easy to learn Russian language?

A: The need to learn the Russian language alphabet is another obstacle for many people who want to learn the language. You will be surprised to find that the Russian alphabet can actually be learned in 10 hours.

Q4: Is German or Russian language more difficult?

A: Original answer: Which is more difficult, German or Russian? depending on. If your native language is English, German will be much easier. If your native language is Slavic (such as Polish, Croatian, Slovenian, etc.), Russian will become easier.

Q5: Can you speak English in Russian?

A: According to a 2014 survey conducted by the Levada Center, only 11% of Russians speak English. Even with such a small number, it is still the most popular foreign language in the country; many Russians learn it in schools and universities; however, not many people use it regularly.

Q6: Is Russian language harder than Arabic?

A: The fifth category: 88 weeks (2200 hours), including languages ​​that are extremely difficult for native English speakers. The same level.

Q7: Can I learn Russian within one year?

A: The American Foreign Service University has determined that it takes approximately 1,100 hours of class to speak Russian fluently. If you are ready to practice 3 hours a day, it may take you a year to reach this level.

Q8: How many days does it take to learn Russian?

A: According to FSI, Russian belongs to language group IV and it takes about 1100 hours to learn. Russian may be one of the most difficult English to learn, but it makes it more valuable.

Q9: What does paka mean in Russian?

A: ByePaka, Russian translation, means goodbye. Goodbye, can only be used with relatives or children.

Q10: Can I study Russian by myself?

A: In some regions, it is sometimes difficult to find official Russian courses. This means that for some people if they want to learn Russian, studying alone is the only real way out. Even if you plan to take a formal course in the future, self-paced basic Russian can help you prepare for success in the formal course.

Conclusion:

Russian (Russian) belongs to the East Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family; it is the largest Slavic language; his close relatives are Belarusians and Ukrainians; Russian is mainly used by the elderly in the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. According to the 2010 census, 137 million people in the Russian Federation speak Russian, and there are 166 million people (national languages) in the world. , Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, and the United States use Russian. It is one of the ten most widely spoken languages ​​in the world.

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