Peptic ulcer is becoming almost a household word, lots of persons in our communities are complaining of peptic ulcer, I can’t stay without food for up to 11am in morning because I’ve got peptic ulcer and the friend he’s talking to replied yeah me too… with this alarming increase in the numbers of persons having peptic ulcer, it becomes very Paramount to know what causes it , what can lead to it ( risk factors) and most importantly how we can avoid or prevent it ( prophylaxis).
What is peptic ulcer
Peptic ulcer is a break in the superficial epithelium of the stomach or duodenum penetrating into the musculature of the stomach and duodenum resulting in an open sore in linings of the stomach and duodenum…in the layman terms peptic ulcer is a sore in the walls of the stomach or duodenum resulting from a break, abrasion or inflammation of the walls of the stomach or duodenum.
Summary : Peptic ulcer occurs when there is a break in the superficial epithelium of the stomach or duodenal walls resulting in an open sore (How To Get Rid of A Sore Throat) in the stomach or duodenum… this sore is most times enhanced by the gastric acid ( HCl) in the stomach.*
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What are the symptoms of peptic ulcer
The most common symptom of peptic ulcer disease is burning pain. This pain is caused by the sore in the stomach walls and is aggravated by stomach acid coming in contact with the ulcerated area. The pain typically maybe;
be felt anywhere from the navel (umblicus) up to the xiphoid process of the sternum (breastbone)
Be worse when the stomach in empty.
Flare at night.
Often be temporarily relieved by eating certain foods that buffers stomach acid or by taking medications that reduce the production of stomach acid.
Disappear and then return for a few days or weeks.
The major Symptom of peptic ulcer disease is burning pain that is usually felt between the upper and middle abdomen, the pain be triggered when certain foods such as spicy foods and certain medications such as NSAIDs (e.g Ibuprofen) are taken.
The pain maybe lessen when certain drugs such as buffers (e.g antacids) are taken.
Symptoms resulting from complications of peptic ulcer
dark blood in stools or stools that are black
nausea or vomiting.
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vomiting of blood which may appear red.
Summary: For promt symptomatic relief of acute ulcer, antacid are given to neutralize stomach acid.
Also foods that buffers stomach acid such as milk can be given for promt symptomatic relief*
What causes peptic ulcer disease ( pathophysiology)
Peptic ulcer occurs when there is a break in the superficial epithelium lining the stomach and upper part of the duodenum. This may be as a result of trauma in the stomach lining, inflammation in the stomach lining or Waring off of the mucous layer that lines the stomach.
The common causes of peptic ulcer disease are;
Helicobacter pylori ( H.pylori) : H. pylori is a bacteria (Bacteria) that commonly live in the mucous layer that covers and protects the epithelial tissue that lines the stomach and small intestine. Often, H. pylori causes no problem, but under certain condition it can cause inflammation of the stomach inner layer, producing an ulcer.
regular use of non steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); Regular use of NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen, Ibex, stabumor etc can cause inflammation in the lining of the stomach and small intestine and this can result peptic ulcer.
drinking alcohol : alcohol (Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)) can irritate and erode the mucous lining of the stomach and it can also increase the amount of stomach acid that’s produced.
smoking : smoking can also increase the risk of peptic ulcer in people who are infected with H. pylori.
NB : HCl is produced in the stomach naturally to aid the digestion process in the stomach and not to cause ulcer. But when the above mentioned causes of ulcer paves the for an ulcer, the gastric acid (HCl) being corrosive in nature can starts eating away the mucous layer lining the stomach and starts increasing and worsening the ulcer…this is why it is not advisable and sometimes very detrimental for ulcer patients to starve (How to lose weight fast without exercise) for a long time.
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Treatment for peptic ulcer
Treatment for peptic ulcer includes;
antimicrobial agents to kill H. pylori.
medications that blocks acid production and promote healing ( proton pump inhibitors).
antacids which neutralize stomach acids.
anti-histamine and medication to reduce acid production
medication that protects the linings of the stomach
Where is your stomach located?.
Summary: Anti-ulcer drugs are usually given in combine regimen, a typical anti-ulcer regimen consist of
- antimicrobial agent
2 anti-histamine and proton pump inhibitors and
- postagladins… )this is just an example not a standard)… the regimen is usually dependant on the severity… antacids are given for promt symptomatic
https ://howtodiscuss.com/t/symptom/12173. relief.*
Refractory ulcers ( ulcers that fails to heal)
Some ulcers may fail to heal with treatment, these are refered to as refractory ulcers. Refractory ulcers may be as a result of;
- continous use of NSAIDs which increases the risk for peptic ulcer.
- Infections with species of H.pylori that resist antibiotics
- not taking medications according to pescription (Pharmaceuticals) or breaking the therapy.
- Regular use of tobacco.
NB: treating refractory ulcers involves elimination of the factors leading to it. And also the use of more effective antibiotics (Antibiotic) be
careful with prolong use of NSAIDs.
Frequently asked questions
Frequently asked questions about Symptoms, Pathophysiology and Risk Factors of Peptic Ulcer
Is acid in the stomach bad?
Gastric acid is not bad, and normally gastric acid does not cause ulcer, it’s only worsen an already existing ulcer due to it’s corrosive nature…in other words something else have to cause the ulcer… when something else causes the ulcer then the gastric acid due to it’s corrosive nature can worsen it.
Why is there acid in our stomach
There is acid in the stomach because the digestive enzymes in the stomach needs to the gastric acid to acivates them and to provide an acidic environment for them which is needed for their action.
Peptic ulcer is an open sore in linings of the stomach and duodenum resulting from a break in the superficial epithelium of stomach mucosal.
The major causes and risk factors of peptic ulcer disease are; the enteric microorganism H.pylori, continuous usage of NSAIDs, severe trauma or injury to the stomach walls, alcohol and smoking. Peptic ulcer disease is usually aggravated by the normal digestive acid (HCl) present in the stomach, hence effective treatment for peptic ulcer disease aims at reducing the secretion of gastric acid, eradicating the organism H.pylori and stimulating angiogenesis which speeds up the healing of the ulcerated area.
The best way to prevent refractory ulcer (ulcers that refuse to heal) is to avoid the risk factors such as avoiding long term use of non steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking.