Grierson-Gopalan syndrome

Grierson-Gopalan syndrome It is a type of syndrome typically known as burning feet syndrome in which a person feels an uncomfortable and painful burning sensation especially in the soul of feet. The symptoms are uncomfortable and painful and can also spread on top of the feet and lower legs.

What is Grierson-Gopalan syndrome

Grierson-Gopalan(burning feet) syndrome usually happens severely at night and might show some relief in the daytime. It can be mild to severe depending on the condition. The heat and painful sensation coming out from the feet can affect a person’s life as it can get severe and might need medical attention to stop the symptoms.

Causes of Grierson gopalan syndrome

Burning feet symptoms can occur due to different reasons including some diseases or health conditions. Here are some of the causes of burning feet syndrome Grierson Gopalan.

1.Nerve damage

Entrapment or nerve damage can be the cause of burning feet. There can be a lot of possible reasons for nerve-damaging and spine problems. Back injuries and severe illness can be the reason for any kind of nerve damage which becomes a reason for burning feet syndrome. Degenerative changes in the body due to surgical processes in chemotherapy Can also cause nerve damage along with an overdose of certain drugs and consumption of toxins.

  • Peripheral Neuropathy is one of the most common causes of burning feet syndrome. When the peripheral sensory nerves that connect to the extremities of the spinal cord are damaged, it causes peripheral neuropathy. People with a history of diabetic medical records and those who have blood sugar problems can easily develop peripheral neuropathy and are more likely to have burning feet syndrome. A patient with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, their condition can worsen over time. Some other conditions that can cause peripheral neuropathy are autoimmune disease, hereditary disorders and chemotherapy agents. Other infections, deficiency in vitamin B, Kidney failure and alcoholism can also be the reason for the development of peripheral neuropathy.

  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by the small space between your ankle and the ankle bone and due to compression or disturbance in the nerve region of that area, a burning sensation and pain can occur in the parts of the feet. If the condition is severe then the calves can also be affected by the pain and tingling sensation. This condition can trigger the burning feet syndrome.

  • Morton’s neuroma is a condition caused by the thickness of nerve tissue between the base bone of the toe which causes pain. This condition is caused by wearing tight shoes and can also be the injury caused during sports. Morton’s neuroma can also be caused by severe stress or an abnormal movement of the foot.

  • Complex regional pain syndrome is a condition caused after a surgery or an injury. It is a rare syndrome and causes extreme pain due to a nerve disorder and disturbance after a traumatic injury. Charcot Marie tooth disorder Is an inherited syndrome, a neurological disorder that causes damage to the peripheral nerves in the legs and feet of a person. Charcot Marie tooth disorder might worsen over time and causes extreme pain on the arch of the foot. The disorder affects the muscles and nerves of the body causing pain and abnormality. A person with this disorder might need bracing to give support and to function properly.


  • peripheral neuropathy
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
  • Morton’s neuroma
  • Complex regional pain syndrome
    are main reasons for nerve damage

2.Metabolic or endocrine disorders.

  • Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions caused by endocrine disorders or metabolic disorders. Peripheral nerves might be affected by type 2 and type 1 diabetes which can cause disturbance in the sensory nerves of the feet and legs. Over the long term, high glucose or poorly controlled diabetes can cause Betty Ferrell sensory nerve damage. Blood vessels can get damaged due to high blood glucose which stops or weakens the signal from these nerves.

  • Hyperthyroidism causes the symptoms of weight gain and weakness. The underactive thyroid gland causes fatigue and dry skin due to the abnormalities of the hormone secreted by the gland. Burning feet sensation is also one of the symptoms shown in hyperthyroidism.

3.Infections and fungal growth.

  • Athlete’s foot is one of the fungal skin conditions that are also called dermatophytes. Their growth is stimulated by moisture and the warmth of the skin. To avoid an infection like athlete’s foot you should avoid wearing wet socks or shoes that allow the fungal growth on your skin. A humid environment increases the growth of ■■■■■■ and the symptoms of fungal infections are burning, stinging and itching sensation between the fingers and soles of the foot. Keep your feet clean and dry to avoid getting infections and fungal growths.

4. Other causes that trigger burning feet syndrome

  • Erythermalgia Is a rare condition that causes Intense burning and redness on the skin between the toes and sole of the feet. This type of condition targets both hands and feet, you might feel the burning and increase in temperature on your feet and hands continuously or repeatedly while its cause is unknown. The person might also experience swelling and tenderness on the affected areas of the skin.

  • Tight footwear or stockings that do not fit the feet properly can also cause burning feet syndrome. Avoid wearing overly fit shoes or stockings if you have sensitive feet or else it will trigger the burning sensation in your feet.

  • Disturbance in the nervous system due to extreme stress or an injury can also cause a burning sensation in the feet.

  • Allergies may occur if you are allergic to a certain material used in the shoe you are wearing or socks. Wearing footwear of a certain material can trigger allergies.

  • Contact dermatitis is a condition caused by the dyes that are used to tan or colour the leather of the footwear.

  • Some other causes that trigger burning feet can be Gitelman syndrome, Leishmaniasis, psychological disorders, multiple sclerosis and hereditary disorders. There are also some unknown reasons for triggering burning feet syndrome.

Grierson-Gopalan syndrome

What are the obvious symptoms of Grierson Gopalan syndrome?

Most obvious symptoms and signs of Grierson Gopalan syndrome are

  • Burning sensation and increased temperature in feet which get more intense at night. The sensation of heat is felt on the soles of feet.

  • Legs and feet often feel numb.

  • Repeatedly feeling waves of sharp and stabbing pain in feet.

  • The feet feel heavy and numb.

  • The skin on the feet turns red and feeling of extreme warmth.

  • A person might get the feeling of pins and needles being stabbed on their feet especially on the sole.

Diagnosing the burning feet syndrome

When it comes to diagnosing such a condition, there is no objective way to measure the pain that burning feet are causing a person. The doctors usually determine the intensity of the condition by the following methods. Which include physical symptoms, medical history and blood tests.

  • The doctor will examine you physically and might ask about the medical history that you have and if you are taking any medications because of some symptoms can be the side effects or allergic reactions from the medicines that you are taking. The doctor will also check your reflexes and will take a look at the condition of your skin if by any chance you have caught an infection or have any physical symptoms that might be the reason for the burning feet syndrome.

  • The doctor will suggest for you to go for blood tests. A total blood count test will be taken to see what deficiency you have in your blood. Some tests might be taken to check your blood glucose level and nutritional deficiencies. Blood tests for endocrine disorders might also be taken along with some urine Electrolytes and serums for checking magnesium, vitamin D, potassium, chloride and vitamin B levels.

  • If the doctor suspects some neurological disorder or nerve damage then an Electrodiagnostic test might be taken. Electromyography is the type of test taken to check the measure of muscle electrical activity. It checks the response of the electrical activity of the muscle due to nerve stimulation. A process is performed to determine the burning and tingling sensation in the skin by inserting a very thin needle inside the skin to check how the muscle response is by relaxing and contracting when the needle is inserted. This process determines the tingling and burning sensation in the feet.

  • A test is taken for the nerve conduction velocity which shows the speed of electrical impulse moving along a nerve. The reason behind performing this test is to differentiate if the condition is due to a nerve disorder or is it because of the injury on a nerve. A low-intensity current is applied along the nerve pathway by placing flat electrodes on the skin.

Burning feet caused by vitamin B deficiency

One of the reasons why you can get the burning feet syndrome also known as Grierson Gopalan syndrome is being deficient in vitamin B. The treatment that is suggested for the burning feet syndrome by injecting process of vitamins is explained in the chart below:

Vitamin Dosage and duration
1. Riboflavin 6-10 mg should be given intramuscularly for 3 weeks.
2. Thiamine 5-10 mg should be given intramuscularly for 2-3 weeks.
3. Pantothenate 20-40 mg should be given intramuscularly for 3 weeks.
4. Nicotinic acid 100 mg should be given intramuscularly for 3 weeks.
5. Cyanocobalamin 1000 ug Should be given three to four times twice a day for one week and then reduce to twice a day For another week.

Grierson-Gopalan syndrome

Treatment for burning feet syndrome

The treatment for the syndrome depends on the conditions that a person has and the severity of the symptoms. The treatments prescribed will depend on the cause of a disorder or hygienic problems.

Self-care and over the counter treatments

These treatments are not permanent solutions for the syndrome but they can provide immediate relief for the burning sensation and extreme pain.

  • Soaking your feet in cool water can immediately decrease the temperature and heat. Very cold water is not recommended as it can numb the feet.

  • Avoid sitting in a hot temperature or humid area as it can make the condition worse.

  • For immediate pain relief put your legs and feet upside to stop the blood flow in your legs and feet.

  • You can also take over the counter medicines, painkillers like ibuprofen and anti-inflammatory. Ketoprofen and naproxen can temporarily relieve the pain.

  • Applying topical creams and ointments can relieve the pain if it’s due to fungal growths or athlete’s foot. Ointments and creams that have capsaicin can help relieve the pain along with antifungal sprays, lotions and powder applications can also ease the pain.

Prescriptions and medications

The doctor will suggest medications and vitamins depending on the cause of burning feet syndrome. These medications should only be taken if the doctor suggests after your medical checkup.

  • People with diabetes take insulin or ■■■■ hypoglycemic drugs to control blood glucose levels and because this can be the reason for the symptoms of burning feet syndrome.

  • Those who have vitamin deficiencies will be prescribed to take the vitamins that are needed for their body to prevent pain and burning sensation in the feet.

  • Analgesics are the type of drugs used ■■■■■■ or topically that contain ■■■■■■■■ and non-■■■■■■■■ chemicals used to relieve pain. Topical treatments, creams, sprays and lotions that contain lidocaine are prescribed to reduce the discomfort in the feet.

  • If the symptoms are associated with neuropathy then antidepressants are suggested by the doctors. Tricyclic antidepressants help in chronic pain due to neurological disorders.

  • Anti seizer and anti conversant drugs might be given to reduce symptoms of burning feet.

  • If the symptoms are the cause of fungal infections then antifungal drugs are prescribed ■■■■■■ or topically to reduce the pain and burning.

  • Physical therapy is suggested by the therapist if the conditions are due to physical problems in your body.

  • Your dietitian might suggest to you some dietary changes which are triggering the symptoms of burning feet syndrome. It can be in the shape of taking supplements or reducing a certain food item in your diet.

  • Orthotic devices like footpads and Shoe inserts might be suggested to reduce the discomfort of your feet.

  • The last option is surgery if none of the medications and ointments is working to get rid of burning feet syndrome. Not to forget that surgical treatments are rarely necessary for the condition.

How to prevent burning feet syndrome

Preventing a syndrome or having a hundred per cent guarantee that it cannot affect you if you have certain health problems is not possible but you can have some preventive measures to reduce the risk of getting severe symptoms of burning feet syndrome.

Here are some preventions and guidelines that will help you tackle the problems related to it.

  • If a person is diabetic or has nerve issues then regular checkups with a podiatrist or foot care specialist are necessary to stay healthy and avoid such drastic conditions of burning feet syndrome. Patients with diabetes and a history of neurological conditions should have regular checkups and should wear shoes that are not too fit and have some space for ventilation.

  • To avoid burning feet syndrome one should always wear shoes that are perfectly fit and provide good ventilation with support on the arch of the foot. Your footwear should have low heels and wide toe space.

  • Wearing clean and dry socks is very important. Do not forget to change your socks if you are a participant in sports or any physical activity that cause sweating in the foot. As wet socks and dirty footwear can be the reason for fungal infections.

  • Regularly examine your feet to spot any kind of infection on your cuts, blisters or any other injury. Proper treatment of any injury should be provided immediately as open cuts and wounds are easily infected and can cause fungal infections also.

  • People with diabetes can only prevent or reduce the risk of burning feet syndrome by controlling their sugar levels.

Grierson-Gopalan syndrome

When to see a doctor

if the burning sensation and pain do not go away after some days with home remedies and over the counter medications then you should visit your doctor or podiatrist because of the conditions of burning feet can worsen with extreme pain and heat sensation.

Burning feet syndrome can also be a sign of more serious conditions like diabetes mellitus, neurological disorders, malnutrition and peripheral nerve damage. So it is always important to get your daily checkup and one should never ignore any type of symptoms if they persist for more than two to three days.

Avoid trying to treat infections of diseases that by yourself if the condition worsens because it can cause serious health issues which can be fatal in some cases. Especially diabetic people should try to avoid getting injuries as it is very hard for the wounds to heal and are vulnerable to germs and infections.

Home remedies for burning feet syndrome (Grierson Gopalan syndrome)

Everyone is different and different types of methods and treatments work for everyone so you can try the following home remedies for burning feet syndrome.

1. Use of Epsom salt

Many people use Epsom salt to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling while Epsom salt has the qualities to treat athlete’s foot. Magnesium sulfate is present in Epsom salt that helps in reducing the symptoms of burning feet syndrome. The process requires you to soak your feet in a mixture of water and Epsom salt for 20 to 30 minutes and you will feel immediate relief from pain and inflammation. However, people with diabetes should ask their doctor before taking an Epsom salt bath as it can worsen the condition of a diabetic person’s foot.

2. Use of apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar has the property to fight bacteria, fungi and other microbes that are harmful to us. Soaking your feet in warm water mixed with apple cider vinegar will reduce the symptoms of burning feet syndrome but there is no scientific proof of it being legit and authentic. But the thing about home remedies is that they are not harmful in any way and have no side effects.

3. Use of turmeric

Turmeric is proven you have antibacterial, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties which are proven to help treat symptoms of burning feet syndrome. Curcumin present in turmeric is effective in skin conditions and has proven to be helpful in chronic neurological disorders and it has proven good results against neuropathy.

4. Use of fish oil

Fish oil contains properties like anti-inflammatory and it helps in reducing pain and inflammation caused by burning feet syndrome. Fish oil can be taken by diabetic people as well because it helps in reversing neuropathic diabetes. Fish oil is available as an over the counter medicine and a person can take 24,000 to 3000 mg of fish oil every day.

5. Use of ginger

Ginger also has anti-inflammatory properties and it is proven that people who got foot massage with ginger oil have shown effective results in burning feet syndrome symptoms. Therefore the consumption of ginger and use of ginger oil can help prevent symptoms of burning feet syndrome and is also good for the people who have diabetes and are experiencing burning feet syndrome.

Frequently Asked Questions

Some of the related questions are answered below:

1. What causes burning feet in bed at night?

A skin infection or fatigue can be the cause of feet burning at night, but it most commonly happens because of nerve damage, Never damage can be because of, use of alcohol, diabetes, certain toxin exposure etc.

2. Is Grierson Gopalan syndrome serious?

Grierson Gopalan syndrome is also known as burning feet syndrome can be because of several issues. it can be a serious problem because its symptoms vary from mild to severe.

3. What not to eat if you have neuropathy?

List of 8 foods that should not be taken if you have neuropathy:

  1. Added sugar
  2. Gluten
  3. Alchohol
  4. Saturated and trans fats
  5. Grains(refined)
  6. Heavy meals
  7. Food produced with pesticides
  8. Salty snacks

4. How do I stop my feet from burning and hurting?

Burning feet can be treated in several ways:

  1. For temporary relief you can soak your feet in cold water for at least 15 minutes.

  2. Protect your feet to direct sun exposure or heat.

  3. Raise your legs it will regulate your blood flow.

  4. You can also take counter pain medicines.

  5. Topical ointments and creams are recommended to apply.

5. Can high blood pressure cause burning feet?

High blood pressure and diabetes can be the major cause of this syndrome because your kidneys do not work properly and waste fluids build up in your body and which causes nerve damage and end up with feet burning.

6. How can I cool my feet down at night?

Ways to relax feet at night:

  1. Place an ice bottle near your feet while you sleep.

  2. Pull your cover-up from your feet when you sleep.

  3. Place a fan near your feet.

  4. Put a pair of socks in the freezer and wear them at night.

7. Does high uric acid cause a burning sensation?

If you are suffering from gout which is a type of arthritis you can experience burning feet because gout develops a high amount of uric acid which creates muscle inflammation and stiffness that results in burning feet.

8. Is apple cider vinegar good for nerve pain?

Apple cider vinegar can be good for nerve pain because it contains phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium in it all of which are essential in soothing nerves.

9. What cream is good for nerve pain?

Anaesthetic cream like EMLA is commonly prescribed for nerve pain it numbs your skin within an hour, lidocaine patch can also work for nerve pain.

10. What exercise is good for nerve pain?

Aerobic, stretching, and balancing are three major exercises that are good if you are suffering from peripheral neuropathy you need to warm up your muscles before you start the exercise.


Grierson Gopalan syndrome which is commonly known as burning feet syndrome is a feeling of tingling and burning sensation in feet. The condition can be caused by a variety of reasons like athlete’s foot, diabetes mellitus, Fungal infections, heavy alcohol use and unhygienic routine. This article has covered all the aspects of the syndrome and how to prevent and diagnose a person with Grierson Gopalan syndrome. Over the counter medicines and remedies are available for the treatment whereas serious conditions should be treated by a professional. To avoid the extreme condition of burning feet syndrome, you should regularly visit your podiatrist to keep your foot health in check. This habit can save you from a lot of pain and inconvenience.

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Grierson gopalan syndrome


Grierson gopalan syndrome, also known as Grierson-Gopalan syndrome, involves acute burning and aching of the feet, as well as foot alterations that result in profuse sweating. This medical problem might also have an impact on the eyes. The issue is more common in women and is usually a problem between the ages of 20 and 40.

This can be caused by either hereditary or mechanical reasons, such as mechanical compression of the peripheral nerves (as seen in tarsal tunnel syndrome) or disorders such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis.

This disease has also been linked in studies to

  • Psychosomatic origins
  • a lack of vitamin B
  • Failure of the kidneys (dialysis patients)
  • Hypothyroidism

Nerve entrapment can occur near the medial malleolus at the level of the tarsal tunnel. grierson gopalan syndrome can also be caused by nerve entrapment caused by sciatic mononeuropathy and spinal arteriovenous malformation. The soles of the feet are frequently burned, but it might progress to the tops of the ankles or lower legs. Arms and palms of hands are unharmed. A few patients report pins and needles or tingling in their lower extremities on occasion. Symptoms intensify at night and improve during the day. Patients with underlying psychiatric problems may exhibit a wide range of psychosomatic symptoms.

Symptoms and warning indications of grierson gopalan syndrome On inspection, there are few objective signs. Most patients’ overlying skin and blood vessels are normal, although some may have erythema of the foot with warm overlying skin There is no tenderness in the affected areas. If the condition is caused by a disease, such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, or psychosomatic illness, disease-specific measures must be implemented.

Grierson gopalan syndrome Syndrome Causes

While weariness or a skin infection might cause brief burning or inflamed feet, grierson gopalan syndrome are usually an indication of nerve injury (peripheral neuropathy). Diabetes, prolonged alcohol use, exposure to specific chemicals, B vitamin deficiencies, and ■■■ infection are all potential causes of nerve injury.

Grierson gopalan syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • An alcoholism disorder
  • Athlete’s foot
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (a group of hereditary disorders that affects the nerves in your arms and legs)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Kidney illness that is chronic
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (chronic pain due to a dysfunctional nervous system)
  • Diabetes-related neuropathy (nerve damage caused by diabetes)
  • ■■■/AIDS
  • Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
  • Anaemia caused by vitamin deficiency
  • Grierson gopalan syndrome Syndrome Symptoms

The following are the most prevalent symptoms of burning foot syndrome:

  • Heat or burning sensations, which often exacerbate at night
  • Numbness in the legs or feet
  • Pain that is sharp or stabbing
  • a sense of heaviness in the feet
  • Foot discomfort that is dull
  • Excessive skin warmth or redness
  • Prickling, tingling, or a sense of “pins and needles”


Because grierson gopalan syndrome can be caused by serious conditions, delaying treatment can lead to major consequences and permanent harm.It is vital that you follow the treatment plan once the underlying cause has been discovered that you and your health care provider have devised just for you of potential complications including:

  • Injury to the brain (if the sensation of feet burning is due to stroke)
  • Limb amputation
  • Nerve injury that is permanent

Diagnosis and examination

The majority of persons who have grierson gopalan syndrome have a known reason (such as diabetes). For these persons, the diagnosis of neuropathy-related grierson gopalan syndrome feet is clear, and no extra testing is required. Further testing may be required to provide an accurate diagnosis in a few persons whose burning sensation is sudden, rapidly worsening, or has no explainable cause. These tests may involve the following:

Electromyography (EMG): A test of muscle function that uses recordings of electrical activity within the muscles to assess muscle function. For an EMG test, a probe is placed on the skin or a needle is introduced into the muscle.

A nerve conduction investigation: determines the ability of nerves to send impulses. A nerve is stimulated, and the muscle regulated by that nerve’s reaction is measured.

Laboratory investigations: Blood, urine, or spinal fluid tests may be recommended to assist diagnose the source of grierson gopalan syndrome. A simple blood test can be used to determine vitamin levels.

Nerve biopsy: In rare cases, a doctor may recommend removing a portion of nerve tissue and studying it under a microscope.

Medication and treatment

The primary goal of treatment is to prevent future nerve injury. In general, treatment can be divided into two categories: pharmacological and nonpharmacological. The treatment method is determined by the aetiology of the problem as well as any comorbidities of the patient.

Treating the underlying cause of the burning at the bottom of the fgrierson gopalan syndrome, such as in the case of peripheral neuropathy caused by:

Diabetes mellitus - Appropriate dietary changes combined with ■■■■ hypoglycemic medications or insulin injections to keep blood glucose levels within the target range.

Alcoholism - Taking appropriate measures to prevent further alcohol consumption as well as medications to treat the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in order to prevent further nerve damage.

Vitamin and other nutritional deficits - Appropriate dietary supplements administered ■■■■■■ or intramuscularly to maintain required levels.Chronic renal disease requires hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to eliminate toxins.

Hypothyroidism - Appropriate ■■■■ drugs to restore thyroid hormone levels to normal.

■■■/AIDS - Appropriate treatment based on the patient’s condition

Plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin therapy for Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

If the symptoms are caused by peripheral artery disease, treatment should include lifestyle changes such as exercise, stopping smoking, and eating a balanced diet, as well as lipid-lowering medications to maintain correct lipid levels. Occasionally, surgery will be required.