Extrusion Process

The extrusion process is used to make objects of a fixed cross-sectional form. It can be done with the hot or cold material and pushed with the desired cross-section. It includes mostly, ceramics, clay metals, and polymers.

The mechanical manufacturing process is getting advanced with customers’ growing personalization demands. For catering to complex designs and manufacturing, extrusion is among the most popular methods. Extrusion is a progressive metal and plastic forming method that is ideal for both small-batch and mass manufacturing. Industries utilize this method to produce cylindrical-shaped objects, including rods and pipes.

This modern method has made the manufacturing process more accessible, accurate, and more cost-efficient. Several companies offer extrusion services in Australia, New Zealand and worldwide to improve the overall production quality. Extrusion provides higher flexibility in manufacturing that is hard to achieve with other traditional methods. Be it hot, cold, or micro extrusion — every process is robust and delivers the best results.

What is Extrusion?

Extrusion is a modern manufacturing method that companies use to form high-strength objects of fixed cross-sectional dimensions. In this process, the machine forces a metal or plastic workpiece towards a closed cavity with a mechanical or hydraulic press. The workpiece flows through a die, and it reduces the cross-section and converts the block into any personalized shape.

The extrusion process takes advantage of compressive force to form objects. This method’s functioning is similar to the drawing process except that it utilizes tensile stress to process the workpiece. Extrusion is a suitable method for materials like aluminum and plastic. Extrusion is the right to process brittle materials without reducing the strength of the workpiece.

How does Extrusion work?

The extrusion process is relatively straightforward, and it requires minor post-processing of objects. In this process, A piston or a plunger gives the required force to produce high compressive strength inside the machine. Below is the brief working mechanism of this manufacturing process.

First, the manufacturer develops billets or ingot of standard size. These billets are then placed in the hopper that sits on the top of the barrel.

Once the billets are inside the hopper, they are heated at a high temperature while performing the hot extrusion process. After the heating process, engineers keep the billets at room temperature for a long time to push them into the press.

After this, the billets are pushed inside the enclosed cavity through a mounted plunger in the press. The plunger generates compressive force to shape the material into the desired shape.

With high compressive force, the material is passed through the cross-section die and to achieve the desired shape.

Once the material block is out from the high-compression press, it goes for the post-finishing process to improve the mechanical properties. Polishing, chrome plating, painting & sanding are standard post-processing finishes available for extrusion services.

Types of Extrusion

There are popular four types of this process that cover several operations of metal extrusion and plastic extrusion. Below are the popular types of extrusion that deliver high-quality objects with intricate details.

1. Hot Extrusion

It is among the most used processes for producing objects with a fixed cross-sectional area. Hot extrusion is done at a higher temperature as it maintains the material block from the process hardening. Many hot extrusion activities are done through a hydraulic press which is around 250-12K tons. In this process, the pressure ranges from 30 to 700 MPa, and this method requires lubricants.

For lubricants in the hot extrusion process, engineers use glass powder when the temperature is greater. On the other side, when the temperature is lower, oil or graphite are ideal for this job. Aluminum extrusion is the most performed process under this category. The hot extrusion process has two subcategories that are — forward extrusion and backward extrusion.

2. Cold Extrusion

The cold extrusion process is carried out at a moderately high or at room temperature. In this method, the material shaping is done by striking the slug. The machine punches the material into the closed cavity that pushes the material in the upward direction around the punch.

The material is poured into the cast’s feeder, and high temperature combines smaller parts to form the final object. Cost extrusion is of mainly four types that include hooker, hydrostatic, impact, and cond extrusion forging. The pressure in this process is higher than the hot extrusion, and it is around 3000 MPa.

3. Friction extrusion

Friction extrusion is a cost-effective method in which the machine produces higher friction when the material slug and die rotate at a higher speed to create friction. The produced heat helps the material to pass through the die quickly and get the custom-design shape. Friction extrusion is ideal for making low-cost precursors, metal wires, and many other custom parts.

4. Micro Extrusion

It is the newest advancement that produces micron-sized objects with complex designs. In this process, the cross-section area is around only 1mm, and this method manufactures small things at a faster turn-around time. The micro extrusion process is suitable for producing small mechanical parts. The micro extrusion process is also ideal for procuring small-batch parts with intricate details with higher design replication.

Applications of the extrusion process

Extrusion is among the most employed manufacturing methods that companies use across multiple industries. It is a faster, accurate, and more cost-effective method to manufacture metal and plastic parts. Some of the critical extrusion applications are:

● Manufacturing industries use this method to produce tubes and hollow pipes.
● Extrusion is ideal for manufacturing metal or plastic frames, windows, doors, and other parts.
● For performing a complex structural task, the extrusion process offers better accuracy and stability.
● The extrusion process is also ideal for producing a custom electrical system.
● It is a perfect process to create superior-quality machine guarding structures.

Summary

The extrusion process, the method used to manufacture the object. Companies use to make high-strength objects.

Advantages of extrusion method

The extrusion process brings several benefits to manufacturers that speed up the entire process in a cost-effective manner. Here are some key benefits of this method:

● This process supports higher design complexity, and the part size is also significant compared to other methods.
● Dies of this manufacturing method are faster to manufacture, and the process gets complete in one pass only.
● It’s easier to automate the extrusion process, ensuring higher accuracy and product quality.
● Thin-wall tubes, hollow products, greater-dimension objects are easier to produce using extrusion.
● The extrusion process supports a wide range of post-processing surface finishing options to achieve desired aesthetics.

Disadvantages of the extrusion process

While the extrusion process has several advantages on other hand it has some disadvantages too that are mentioned below:

  • Low cost per part

  • Flexibility of operation

  • In hot extrusion, post-run changes are easy because the product is always in the heated state
    Continuous operation

  • High production volumes

  • Many kinds of raw materials can be used
    Good mix (mix)

  • The surface finish obtained is good
    Good mechanical properties obtained in cold extrusion.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some frequently asked questions asked by people about the extrusion process.

1.What is extrusion and its types?

It is a manufacturing process that includes forcing the base to create objects.
It has different kinds which are

  • Cold
  • Hot
  • Friction
  • Micro

2.What is an example of extrusion?

Every day you see extrusion examples in daily li like toothpaste is squeezed. Playdo shapes are created. It is the molding of plastic used to create long shape constant cross-sections.

3.What are the advantages of the extrusion process?

Here are the advantages of the extrusion process

  • Low cost
  • Flexible
  • Alteration
  • Continuous operation
  • High production
  • Good Mixing
  • Surface finishing

4. Where is extrusion used?

It is used in creating tubes and hollow pipes. Aluminum extrusion is consumed in many industries. It is used to make frames, doors, and windows.

5. What is the direct extrusion process?

It is the common extrusion process, also called forward extrusion. It works when the billet is placed in a heavy container.

6. What are the main extrusion defects?

The common deficiencies in the extrusion process are:

  • Improper System Engineering
  • Improper Operation
  • Resin Defects
  • Improper Material
  • Surging
  • Poor mixing
  • Melt Toughness
  • Moisture release

7.Is extrusion a forging process?

Extrusion and forging have different intentions
Forging is used to create the final shape of the product and extrusion is used to make the semi-product.

8.What is the metal extrusion process?

Metal extrusion is the process in which metal is forced either hot or cold, through a die. This helps to die shape in extruded metals.

9.What materials are used in extrusion?

Plastic material, concrete, and aluminum are used in extrusion. It is not limited to polyethylene, polypropylene, acetal, and nylon.

Conclusion

The extrusion process, the process used to manufacture the object. Companies use to make high-strength objects.