Coronavirus (COVID-19)

SARS-CoV-2 relates to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronavirus, a simple type of virus that affects mammals, birds, and reptiles.

In humans, it usually generates mild infections, comparable to the usual cold, and estimates for 10–30% of upper respiratory tract germs in adults. More serious infections are uncommon, although coronaviruses can cause enteric and neurological diseases. The incubation phase of coronavirus changes but is usually up to two weeks.

How infectious is COVID-19?

Growing digits of confirmed diagnoses, including in healthcare specialists, have symbolized that the person-to-person extent of SARS-CoV-2 is transpiring. The preceding reproduction number(the approximate number of cases a particular day produces over the course of its irresistible period) is currently expected to be between 1.4 and 2.5, meaning that each infected physique could infect between 1.4 and 2.5 people.

Similar to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets generated by an infected person when they sneeze or cough. Standards to guard against infection work under the current assumption that SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the same way.

How is COVID-19 diagnosed?

As this coronavirus attacks the respiratory tract, usually presenting signs include fever and dry cough, with many patients presenting with respiratory symptoms (like sore throat, nasal obstruction, malaise, headache, and myalgia) or even struggling for breathing.

In critical cases, the coronavirus can cause pneumonitis, severe serious respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and death.

The crisis definition for COVID-19 is based on symptoms regardless of travel records or meeting with confirmed cases. Diagnosis is suspected in patients with a new, constant cough, fever, or a loss or changed sense of usual smell or taste (anosmia). The asymptomatic test has been introducing, and countries are quarantining suspected cases.


  • New constant cough AND/OR
  • Temperature ≥37.8°C AND/OR
  • Anosmia (a loss or changed sense of usual smell or taste)

A person with any of the above signs but who is well enough to remain in the community should stay at home for 10 days from the onset of symptoms and get tested. Families should all self-isolate for 14 days if a member shows symptoms.

Source: Department of Health and Social Care

What is proceeding with testing for COVID-19?

As of 1 November 2020, 34,400,076 antigens or antibody inspections for COVID-19 had been processed in the UK.

Tests can now be obtained by anyone with symptoms via

NHS test and trace services started across England on 28 May 2020, with comparable services starting in Scotland and Wales throughout the same time. Anyone who tests positive for the infection is communicated with to share information about their recent intercommunications. People recognized as being in close contact with someone who tests positive will have to self-isolate for 14 days, despite whether they have symptoms.

Testing is also now open to care home staff and citizens in England, and NHS workers where there is a clinical need, whether or not they have signed.

Pharmacy teams in England and Scotland should book tests online via and they will be conducted at drive-through testing sites across the country, as well as via home testing tools.

Pharmacy workers in Wales, with indications of COVID-19, can access testing through their Regional Health Board.

The government has also declared the start of a new national antibody testing schedule, with plans to provide antibody tests to NHS and care organizations in England from the end of May 2020. Clinicians will also be able to ask for tests for patients in both clinics and social care perspectives if they think it is suitable.

What social distancing steps are being taken?

Social distancing is the training of purposefully decreasing close contact between people. According to the CDC, social distancing involves:

  1. Avoid mass meetings.
  2. Keep a distance of about 6 feet from others when practicable.

Social distancing is important for stopping the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 (coronavirus). COVID-19 can flow through coughing, sneezing, and intimate contact. By reducing the amount of close contact we have with others, we diminish our chances of reaching the virus and expanding it to our loved ones and within our society.


1: Keep at least a 1-meter gap between yourself and others to decrease your risk of disease when they cough, sneeze or talk. Keep an even greater range within yourself and others when indoors. The further away, the better.

2: Make using a mask a regular part of being throughout other people.


Here are some basics of how to use a mask:

  1. Clean your hands before you set your surgical mask on, as well as before and after you take it off.
  2. You have to make sure it covers both your nostrils, mouth, and chin.

Here are some specifics on what type of mask to wear and when, depending on how much virus is circulating where you live, where you go, and who you are.

  1. Wear a fabric mask unless you’re in a special risk group. This is especially important when you can’t stay physically distanced, expressly in crowded and poorly vented indoor settings.
  2. Use a medical/surgical mask if you:
  • Are over 60,
  • Have underlying medical conditions,
  • Are you feeling unwell and/or
  • Are looking after an ill family member.

3.For health workers, medical masks are necessary personal protective things when engaging with patients with suspected, seeming, or confirmed COVID-19.

SUMMARY: Respirator masks likeFFP2, FFP3, N95, N99 should be used in situations where systems generating aerosols are produced and must be ■■■■■■ to ensure the correct size is used.

Don’t forget the basics of good hygienics:

  1. Regularly and completely clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wipe them with soap and water. This reduces germs, including infections that may be on your hands.
  2. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up infections. Once polluted, hands can convey the virus to your eyes, nostrils, or mouth. From there, the virus can access your body and affect you.
  3. Cover your mouth and nose with your crooked elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue quickly into a closed bin and wash your hands. By happening good ‘respiratory hygiene’ you shield the people near you from viruses, which cause colds, flu, and COVID-19.
  4. Cleaned and sterilized surfaces regularly, especially those which are regularly touched, such as door handles, faucets, and phone screens.


Question1: What are the total cases of the coronavirus worldwide?

Answer: There are 47.4Million cases of coronavirus worldwide.

Question2: Is there an authorized treatment for coronavirus?

Answer: There is currently no approved medication to preserve COVID-19. If you have signs, call your health care provider or COVID-19 hotline for support.

Question3 : What is the major way that indicative people spread COVID19?

Answer: COVID-19 is transmitted from indicative people to others who are in close connection through respiratory droplets, by close contact with infected bodies, or by contact with contaminated things and surfaces.

Question4: What food should avoid during COVID-19?

Answer: You have to avoid the following food during corona:
• When cooking and making food, restrict the amount of salt and high-sodium condiments (like soy seasoning and fish flavoring).

• Bound your daily salt consumption to less than 5 gr (around 1 teaspoon) and use iodized salt.

• Avoid foods (like snacks) that are huge in salt and sugar.

• Restrict your consumption of soft drinks, sodas, and other beverages that are high in sugar (like fruit extracts, fruit syrup concentrates and syrups, flavored kinds of milk, and yogurt bottles).

• Choose fresh fruits rather than sweet meals such as wafers, cakes, and chocolate.

Question5: How critical is COVID-19?

Answer: Although, for most maximum people COVID-19 reasons only mild sickness, it can make some people seriously ill. More unusually, the disease can be deadly. Older people and those with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart difficulties, or diabetes) seem to be more unsafe.

Question6: Does drinking too much water help clean out COVID-19?

Answer: No evidence drinking lots of water flushes out the new coronavirus or the Stomach acid kills the virus. However, for great health in common, it is suggested that people should have sufficient water every day for good fitness and to stop dehydration.


Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA infections that cause infections in mammals and birds. In people and birds, they cause respiratory stretch infections that can vary from mild to harmful. Mild attacks in humans involve some cases of the usual cold (which is also produced by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more harmful types can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In calves and hogs, they produce diarrhea, while in mice they cause hepatitis disease. There are still no vaccines or antiviral medications to stop or treat human coronavirus diseases.

Coronavirus (COVID-19)

(COVID-19) Coronavirus is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which is a respiratory pathogen. First case reported in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China on 31 December 2019.

Classification of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Coronaviridae is a family of Coronavirus, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria, are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. 26 to 32 kilobases is the genome size of Coronavirus, one of the largest among RNA viruses. Club-shaped spikes that project from their surface, which in electron micrographs create an image reminiscent of the solar Corona, from which their name derives.

The life cycle of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Disease begins when the viral spike protein attaches to its complementary host cell receptor, a protease of the host cell cleaves and activates the receptor-attached spike protein after attachment. Cleavage and activation allows the virus to enter the host cell by endocytosis or direct fusion of the viral envelop with the host membrane it depends on the protease bavailability of host cell.

Symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are:

  1. Fever
  2. Fatigue
  3. Dry cough
  4. Lost of taste
  5. Sore throat
  6. Diarrhea
  7. Muscles or ■■■■■ pain

COVID‐19 disease symptoms which are severe:

  1. Loss of appetite
  2. Shortness of breath
  3. Pain or pressure in the chest
  4. High temperature

Prevention and Treatment


  1. Use soap and water for cleaning hands.
  2. Safe distance maintain from anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  3. Always should wear a mask when physical distancing is not possible.
  4. Avoid to touch eyes, nose or mouth.
  5. Nose and mouth cover with bent elbow when cough or sneeze.
  6. In the case of fever, cough and difficulty in breathing, seek medical attention.
  7. Staying in home is safe.


Specific vaccines or medicines for COVID-19 are not available now. It is under investigation, and will be tested through clinical trials.

Self care

Only treatment is self care. In the case of feeling sick you should rest, drink plenty of fluid, and eat nutritious food. Separate your room from other family members, and use a dedicated bathroom if possible.
Keep a healthy lifestyle at home, a healthy diet, sleep, stay active. Extra love and attention is needed for children from adults during difficult times.
Feeling sad is normal, stressed, or confused during this crisis. When feel overwhelmed talk to a health worker or counsellor. Disinfect and clean regularly touched surfaces.

Medical treatment

Self isolate yourself when you have mild symptoms and are otherwise healthy and contact your medical provider or a COVID-19 information line for advice. Provide medical care if anyone have a fever, a cough, and difficulty breathing.

How dangerous (COVID-19) are:

These three parameters are used to understand in order to assess the magnitude of the risk posed by this disease Coronavirus:

  1. Transmission rate
  2. Case fatality rate
  3. Asymptomatic transmission

Age and conditions of Coronavirus

  1. All ages of people can be infected by the novel coronavirus COVID-19.
  2. People with pre-existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease) and people with older ages appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus.

COVID-19 is an infectious disease that is caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. This new disease was formally Referred to as ‘2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-n CoV.’ This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak that began in Wuhan a province of China in December 2019.

This coronavirus is a new virus that is linked to the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of common cold. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. On 30 January, the WHO declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).


Epidemiology Is basically the study of the determinants, dynamics or distribution of diseases in a population. Viral epidemiology is that branch of medical sciences that concerns with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans.


Transmission of viruses can be vertical or horizontal, vertical means transmission from mother to child, or horizontal means transmission from person to person. Examples of vertical transmission are hepatitis B virus and ■■■ and when the baby is born, he or she has already been infected with the virus.

Epidemiology is also used to break the chain of any infection in any population during the period of outbreaks of viral diseases and when the virus has been identified, their transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines.

In case when vaccines are not available then sanitation and disinfection can be used. Also, sometimes infected people are isolated from their community and placed in quarantine. Most viral diseases of humans and other animals have incubation periods which last from a few days to weeks.


Viruses can be classified based on type of host, there different types, including

1. Animal viruses

These viruses infect by living with the cells of animals or humans and their genetic material is DNA or RNA. Some examples of animal viruses include influenza virus, mumps virus, rabies Virus, poliovirus, ■■■■■■ virus, etc.

2. Plant viruses

These viruses infect plants cell by invading there and genetic material is RNA. Several examples of plant virus include potato virus, tobacco mosaic virus, beet yellow virus, and Turnip yellow virus, cauliflower mosaic virus, etc.

3. Bacteriophage

Bacteriophages are those that infects bacterial cells and contain DNA. There are many types of bacteriophages like DNA virus, MV-11, RNA virus, λ phage, etc.

4. Insect virus

As the name implies these viruses infect insects and they are also called as the viral pathogen of insects. These viruses are regarded as the most powerful biocontrol agent in the landscape of modern agriculture. For example: Ascovirus virions and Entomopox virus.


Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that may cause illness in both animals and Humans. The name “coronavirus” is derived from Latin word “ corona” which means “crown” Or “wreath”. Coronavirus has crown like spikes on its surface, that’s why it is called as Coronavirus.

This name was discover by June Almeida and David Tyrrell who first observed and studied the human coronaviruses and this word was first used in print in 1968 by an informal group of virologists in the journal name “ Nature” to designate the new family of Viruses. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections that range from The common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) And Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)4.

The new corona virus that cause COVID-19 has been called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) by the World Health Organisation.


Coronavirus disease was first discovered in 1931 and in 1965, the first coronavirus (HCoV-229E) was isolated from humans. Until late 2002 when there was an outbreak of severe acute Respiratory syndrome, only two human coronaviruses (HCoV) were known.

First is HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43. Once the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) had been identified, two other Human coronaviruses were also identified. So, three groups of coronaviruses exist:

Group 1 (HCoV-229E or HCoV-NL63), group 2 (HCoV-OC43 or HCoV-HKU1), group 3 (no Human CoVs yet).


Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2,6 particles are spherical and have proteins known as Spikes projecting from their surface. These spikes bind onto human cells, after that they undergo a structural change that allows the viral membrane to fuse with the cell membrane.

Then viral genes may enter the host cell to be copied thus producing more viruses. Recent Studies show that, SARS-CoV-2 spikes attach to receptors on the human cell surface called Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

They are enveloped7 with a single-stranded RNA genome and the genome size ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilo bases which is one of the largest among RNA viruses.The average diameter of the coronavirus particles is around 125 nm. While the diameter of the envelope is 85 nm and the spikes are 20 nm long.


COVID-19 symptoms may range from mild to severe. It takes 2-14 days after exposure for Symptoms to develop in humans. Most common symptoms of COVID-198 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness while other Symptoms that are less common include aches and pains, headache, sore throat, diarrhoea, loss of taste or smell or a rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes etc.

According to the study of nearly 56,0009 Laboratory confirmed cases cited in the WHO report. The most common symptom that are experienced by 88% of confirmed patients is a fever . While other most common symptoms according to that study are follows.

i. Dry cough (68%)

ii. Fatigue (38%)

iii. Coughing up /mucus production (33%)

iv. Shortness of breath (19%)

v. Joint or muscle pain (15%)

vi. Sore throat (14%)

vii. Headache (14%)

viii. Chills (11%)

ix. Nausea or vomiting (5%)

x. Nasal congestion (5%)

xi. Diarrhoea (3%)

xii. Coughing up blood (1%)


It seems that the people of all ages are susceptible to this virus10 but those who are at most

Risk of this are, the elder people and those with health issues (like high blood pressure, heart disease, lung Disease, cancer and diabetes) according to the World Health Organization (WHO).The U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) further clarifies by stating this:

i. Adults 65 and above or people with serious lung or heart disease.

ii. Those who are immunocompromised (especially those with ■■■)

iii. People with Obesity and liver disease.

iv. People with chronic kidney disease and undergoing dialysis.

According to most recent global numbers11 (27 March 2020) about 14.8% of people over 80 years old are infected with this and died from it as compared to 0.4% in none in children under 9 years and this situation across countries is rapidly changing and will continue to change as this disease shifts.


It can directly from person to person or indirectly through surfaces and sneezing, coughing.

How Does Covid-19 Spread?

Coronaviruses are zoonotic12 which means that they first develop in animals than humans and pass from animals to humans when a person come into close contact with an animal that carries the virus and in human, COVID-1913 mainly spread from others who have this virus.

The disease transmits primarily from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth or expelled when a person with this virus coughs, sneezes, or speaks. These droplets are relatively heavy so do not travel far and rapidly sink to the ground. So, people can catch this when they breathe in these infected droplets.

So, it is important to stay at least 1 meter away from others. These droplets are also present on objects and surfaces around the infected person such as tables, doorknobs and handrails. People can also infect when they touch these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth.


On 31 December 2019 14 the health authorities in China reported to the World Health Organisation (WHO) many viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in its city Wuhan. So, an investigation was launched in early January 2020.

Health officials are still tracing the exact origin of this new coronavirus but early hypotheses thought that it may be linked to a seafood market in Wuhan, China. Some people who went to the market developed viral illness caused by this new coronavirus.

A study that came out on 25 January 2020 noted that the individual with the first reported case who had no link with seafood market became ill on 1 December 2019. Further Investigations are ongoing as to show how this virus originated and spread.

In January 31, 2020, 16there were 11,374 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 252 deaths and 98.7% of confirmed cases were in mainland China. In April 22, 2020 there were 2,603,147 confirmed global cases of COVID-19. And United States continues to have the highest number of confirmed cases with 834,858.

While the total confirmed deaths from COVID-19 worldwide is 45,894. In February 5, 2020 there were 27,669 confirmed cases of this outbreak with 563 deaths. In March 6, 2020, there were 100,685 confirmed cases and 3,411 Deaths. 55,753 cases were recovered.

Outside china, there were 96 countries and special Administrative regions that have at least one confirmed case of COVID-19.
In April 22, 2020, there were 2,603,147 global cases of COVID-19 and United States continues to have the highest cases.

Total deaths from this worldwide was 45,894 and total of 185 countries’ or regions were now reporting at least one confirmed case of COVID-19. On May 9, 2020, 17 this virus has infected more than 3,947,799 people and 275,130 deaths From this virus. There is no vaccine available yet for COVID-19 so the only effective way to protect yourself as:

i. Clean your hands properly for 2 minutes.

ii. Try to avoid touching your eyes, mouth and nose.

iii. Make sure that you cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue.

iv. Try to maintain a distance of at least 1 metre from others.


The coronavirus disease is a pandemic and spread all over the world and people of all ages may susceptible to this. The only way to stop the spread of COVID-19 is to take precautionary measures like wash your hands, use sanitizer, maintain social distance etc. And if anyone have symptoms of COVID-19 he or she may have to consult the doctor and isolate himself to protect their love ones from this contagious disease.

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Troublesome conditions of Coronavirus with leadership debate during COVID -19

Awareness is at the peak, now most o individuals know somewhat about coronavirus. So it is not necessary to discuss in detail. And the mind is conscious that the virus strikes the respiratory system and it is a fast-growing ailment.” Stay at home” is the popular slogan known to all. Furthermore, this is not only hazardous to life but also disturbed the economic condition all around the world. If a state is locked down for a day huge loss transpires to the country due to no trade, no stock exchange, and no business. Imagine the lockdown all over the world, these hard days are all around the globe economically. This is a loss to humans economically and lives are disturbed due to hunger, high rate of inflation, and health disease as well. This devastating ailment is a matter of contention.

On one side disease is putting trouble on lives and economic conditions as well. A debate upturns nowadays of leadership, but keeping the leadership aside it is the time to be united. It is a hard time, however, for the world. Either China or the United States will become the leader that is the debate. Moreover, in the United States, the superpower is hopeless in front of this computation. European Union also looking for a quick fix. Covid-19 is not less than a war. During times of war, this much quantity of people died. This period has proven itself not less than a war.

Coming towards economic conditions. The powerful economy of the US declined by up to 2% to 3% for a couple of years. The world economy has fallen not less than 50%. In 2014 Ebola virus occurred in western Africa and the US helped Africa as a global leader. Not only this in 2003, but George Bush also established a program that provided $90 billion and stands for Africa. This act saved thousands of lives. Covid-19 shows that leadership of the US is however declining and Trump’s leadership discards the role of previous leaders in the global crisis. According to the Federal Open Market Committee, inflation will rise to 2.0 percent. This is just the rate of inflation in the US while developed countries’ conditions had moved several years back. On the other hand, Trump childishly states as “Chinese disease” but corona sticks to the US from Europe, not China, and due to tourism. Whereas, China is availing benefit and proving itself as a world leader in this hard time. Providing aid to the US, European Union, Asia, and 54 countries of Africa and this is a positive step. This positive support includes ventilators, masks, and testing kits. While leadership not only encompasses aid, this shows that the economic condition of China is powerful. China is economically powerful but in sense of the military People’s Republic of China is not that strong. US economy is the largest economy since 1871. In 2018 the United States economy was 20.49 trillion and the military is although strong. Leadership includes strong military, economy, and sovereignty with the foreign policy according to the national interest. No doubt, China is the world’s largest trader and its 9% of GDP is spent on infrastructure development. The people’s Republic of China is building is a strong relationship with the world.

To conclude, this time is not for the debate of leadership and the worsening condition is the period to unite and fight against the hazardous situation. Suffering states get aid either from the United States or China is not that important now. In a single line, be unite and help each other. No doubt, after night a bright day occurs. Therefore, the world will switch from unipolarity to multipolarity but it is not the time to discuss. This is a time fight against corona and be strong and help the suffering states. Each developed, developing and underdeveloped nations are facing troublesome situations. Stay active for the upcoming condition awaiting on the way.


Coronavirus is one of the causes of respiratory tract infections. This disease is contagious and currently is an ongoing pandemic.

Common symptoms of the disease include cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, and loss of smell and taste. The symptoms of a virus appear after fifteen days of exposure. The symptoms of Coronavirus (COVID-19) can be mild to moderate, but in some cases, this disease causes severe damage to the lung and heart. If the symptoms continue, it can lead to death.

The COVID-19 spreads through droplets or aerosol of the infected person. When an infected person breathes in the air or sneezes, coughs, and speaks an infection spreads via air.

The standard method to diagnose this disease is the rRT-PCR test from a nasopharyngeal swab.

This COVID-19 can be controlled through preventive measures as no proven vaccine and treatment are available yet. The symptomatic relief, supportive care, and isolation is the only treatment available. The preventive measures include quarantining, social distancing, wearing masks, and regular hand washing.

The second wave of COVID-19

Why the world is facing a second wave?

The new surges in the coronavirus cases are due to the fact that as the number of cases reduced after the first wave of coronavirus many countries lifted the lockdown. The people started socializing again, and no one took the safety precautions. All over the world, nations are facing the consequences of this negligence.

The strict policies of lockdown and other measures were lifted only because of the economic pressure on the countries. There was a severe impact of lockdown on businesses, retails, restaurants, and all other professionals. The countries had to pay huge costs against this. Their economy suffered worst. Because of this reason, governments are interested in smart lockdowns and want to ease the strictness to boosts the economy.

This new wave of coronavirus is emerging because the people did not take the disease seriously and did not follow the social distancing.

Will the second wave is more serious?

The upcoming winter season is also supporting this infection. The other infections that the winter season will bring can cause more complications.

Current Situation of COVID-19

The updated worldometer showed that till November 4th, 2020 47,853,633 cases were reported and deaths were 1,220,534 so far.

Most affected countries

The coronavirus COVID-19 is affecting 126 countries around the globe. This situation is getting worse day by day. The USA, Russia, India, Brazil, Spain, France, and the UK are the worst affected countries around the world.

The USA is number one as coronavirus cases are concerned. There are up to 9,692,528 cases are reported, and 238,641 total deaths are reported so far.

Is there any solution to COVID-19?

We still don’t have any effective therapy or treatment available for this disease. Only symptomatic treatment can be provided.

What Is Herd Immunity?

Usually, there is a concept that when a large amount of the population gets infected with an infection they acquire herd immunity, but according to WHO herd immunity is protecting the population through vaccination. It is also called population immunity. Herd immunity should be achieved by protecting people through vaccines, not by exposing them to the virus. The vast majority of people should get the vaccine to acquire herd immunity. There is less information available about it, and it is unethical to expose the population to the virus to achieve herd immunity.

Are people getting reinfection with COVID-19?

Reinfection is people get infected, become sick, recovered, and after sometime infected again. There are rare cases of reinfection reported with COVID-19.

How to deal with the second wave?

To combat this disease, defeat it and return to normal life again is a dream. The only solution to this problem is

1 To follow the precautions guidelines provided by the health professionals.
2. The smart lockdown could be the solution.
3. Avoid public gatherings and maintain physical distancing.
4. Covering face with a mask.
5. Frequent hand washing.
6. Keep in touch with the latest health guidelines.


As the world continues to grabble with the covid-19 pandemic, the most important message remain relevant: preparation is key. For more than a decade, the royal government of Cambodia, particularly the ministry of health( MOH), the world health organization and partner has been working to strengthen the healthy security system in the contest of the overall health system. As we learn more every day about COVID-19 and how to tackle the virus, the country continues to improve its preparation.

“A long as the virus is circulating everywhere in any village, province or country_every one is at risk,” said Dr Ailan, WHO representative to combative. “Preparation always pays off. If we strengthen the health system, it will benefit us now and into the future

Collective action is crucial

In Cambodia and around the world, COVID-19 preparedness requires all of society to work together to isolate, test and care for people with COVID-19, AS well as trace and quarantine their contract. Information sharing between provinces, national authorities and international bodies is crucial. Local preparedness and ensuring continuity is an essential health service.

MOH and WHO officials visited health care’s facilities, including provincial hospitals and other operation health districts, aa well as border crossing, quarantine centres and villages. They met with provisional governors, provisional COVID-19 committees, public health directors.

Health workers said about what different preparation has been made

at first, we felt nervous because the disease is deadly and contagious,” said Sok Vandy chief of amper health centre.

Throughout Cambodia, health care authorities, with the support from WHO, have focused on several common priority areas, including multisource surveillance; early COVID-19 detection and contact tracing; health care preparedness; risk communication and community engagement at local and international level.

A local solution to local challenges

Each province has faced its own set of challenges. In March and April, more than 100000 Cambodian workers crossed from Thailand into Cambodia. With this influx of people, provisional authorities expand their quarantine management and testing service.

Across the country, WHO helped to train almost 3000 members of the rapid responses team( RRTs) who are public health staff, on the COVID-19 definition.

We can all play a part

As provincial health department and operational districts take a greater role in offering health service to Cambodians, multispectral coordination and partnership at national and international levels become even more important. Yet the COVID-19 does not only demand a whole of government approach- but it also demands a whole society approach, where the public take responsibility to prevent transmission.

Resultantly we can prevent COVID-19 spread by taking individual responsibility and measurements. We all know that the government can do their best job to control the public but in some cases, it may not be possible for the government to do that, so here we need to take the responsibility. The first thing is that the government made rules and regulations or SOPs should be followed strictly to safe yourself and your families. We need to understand and inform other people who are not educated or don’t know much about COVID-19. These are the basic thing we can do and these are not that much difficult for us to follow. Thanks