# How Old is the Earth

Earth is almost 4.543 billion years of age. There is no confirm age certificate about the age of the earth, this means that scientists spend a lot of time and hundreds of years to find out about the age of the earth. This has been estimated by finding out about the age of rocks. This has been done according to the age of the moon and meteorites. The age is estimated as 4.54 billion years ago and there is an error of 50 million years. Researchers have been doing their research for the past 400 years. The prediction has been done from the changing sea levels, or what time it takes for the sun and earth to be cool in the present temperatures.

## How big is the earth

Earth is the third planet of the sun and it is the fifth-biggest planet in the solar system. There are only 5 biggest planets i.e. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. In the terrestrial planets of the inside solar system, Earth is the largest than Mercury, Venus, and Mars. 3963 miles is the radius of Earth at the equator. This estimation has been given by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. As Earth is not a sphere but the rotation of planets causes the bump at the equator. The polar radius of the earth is 3950 miles and 6356 km. There is a difference of 22 km and 13 miles. The equatorial circumference of the earth is almost 24,901 miles and 40,075 km; this estimation is done by using the previous measurements. Earth is 24,860 miles as meridional circumference. By poles flattening, this shape of the earth is caused and called an oblate spheroid.

## Volume mass and density of the earth

According to NASA, the density of the earth is 5.513 grams per cubic centimeter. Earth has a metallic core and rocky mantle and because of these characteristics, the earth is the densest planet of the solar system. As Jupiter is 318 times more gigantic than the earth, but it has less density as compared to earth. This is because Jupiter is made up of gases such as Hydrogen. The mass of Earth is 6.6 sextillion tons i.e. 5.9722. 10^24. The volume of earth is 260 billion cubic miles i.e. one trillion cubic kilometers. Almost 197 million square miles is the total surface area of the earth. In all this surface area, 29 percent of the earth is covered by land and 71 percent of the earth is covered by water.

## Highest and lowest points of the earth

On Earth, Mount Everest is the highest place. It is 29,028 feet and 8848 meters but this place is not the highest point of earth. This means that this place is the most distant place from the center of the earth. In the Andes Mountain in Ecuador, this distinction belongs to Mount Chimborazo. This estimation is given by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration i.e. NOAA. Though, Chimborazo is 10,000 feet smaller than Everest. Because of the equatorial bump, this mountain is almost 6800 feet and 2073 m distant from space. Challenger Deep in Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the lowest point of earth. The lowest point belongs to western countries. This estimation is given by NOAA. This lowest point is 36,200 feet i.e. 11,034 Meters deep from sea level.

## Speed of earth around the sun

Many Astronomers of the past times believe that all people live in the geocentric universe. This means that the earth is present at the center of everything. They also said that the sun revolves around us and this movement causes the sunrise and sunsets. This theory was also the same for the movements of planets and the moon. This theory did not work as some things were not according to this theory. There were times when the planet did not complete its circle but back to its previous position without backup. When the earth is combining with another planet in its orbits, there is a motion that is called retrograde motion. For Example, Mars is distant from the sun than Earth so, it orbits farther than the sun. There is one point at which both of the Earth and Mars will combine to Red Planet and then pass it. When we pass by Mars, the planet moves back into the sky. When we have passed, then the planet moves forward again.

## Evidence from sun

Looking at the parallax or change in the position of stars, there is another evidence for the solar systems that they are sun-centered. For a simple example of parallax, at arm’s length hold your index finger. Close your right eye and see it with your left eye. Then close the left eye and see it with the right eye. The position of your finger will be slightly changed. This is because of the difference in angles in the left and right eye. When we see a star, this same thing happens on Earth. To orbit around the Sun, Earth takes 365 days. There are changes in the position of stars when we see them in winters and summers separately. This is because we are at a different point in different seasons. With the help of simple calculations, we can calculate the distance to stars on parallax.

## Summary

Earth is almost 4.543 billion years of age. There is no confirm age certificate about the age of the earth, this means that scientists spend a lot of time and hundreds of years to find out about the age of the earth. Earth is the third planet of the sun and it is the fifth-biggest planet in the solar system. According to NASA, the density of the earth is 5.513 grams per cubic centimeter. The mass of Earth is 6.6 sextillion tons i.e. 5.9722. 10^24. The volume of earth is 260 billion cubic miles i.e. one trillion cubic kilometers. On Earth, Mount Everest is the highest place. It is 29,028 feet and 8848 meters but this place is not the highest point of earth. . Challenger Deep in Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the lowest point of earth. Many Astronomers of the past times believe that all people live in the geocentric universe.

## We are spinning

Earth is spinning constantly, but the speed of spinning is only dependent on the latitude at which we are located. According to NASA, the distance from the largest part of Earth is 24,898 miles i.e. 40,070 kilometers. All this area that is calculated is called the equator. If you assume that a day is 24 hours long, then divide the circumference by the length of day. All this procedure will produce a speed of almost 1037 mph at the equator. At other latitudes, you cannot move fast as this. You can calculate the speed by using a calculator if you are moving to the globe at 45 degrees in latitude. There should a good calculator with an available cosine function. If you don’t know how to calculate this, then you should know that the value of cosine 45 is 0.707.

So the spin speed at 45 degrees is 733 mph which is 1180 km/h. When you go further north and South, this speed decreases. When you reached the north and south place, the spin will definitely slow down and it takes a whole one day for the spin. The advantage of Earth’s spin is taken by Space agencies. If a human is sent in space, and if the location that is preferred is near to the equator. That’s why cargo missions are sent to space stations i.e. launch from Florida. By sending and launching a rocket in the same direction as Earth’s spin, will boost the speed of the rocket and help them to fly in space.

## Earth orbit around the sun

In space, there are also many movements with the spin of Earth. The speed of Earth around the sun is almost 67000 mph i.e. 107,000 km/h according to Cornell. With the help of basic Geometry, we can calculate this. Firstly, we have to find out that what distance Earth travels. What time it takes its whole spin and assumes that it is a circle. As we know that Earth takes 365 days in its whole spin. The circumference of a circle is an Earth’s orbit. The whole distance that is from the Earth to Sun is called an astronomical unit. It is 92,955,807 miles and 149,597,870 kilometers from the sun. This distance is estimated by International Astronomers Union. This is called a radius. The boundary of a circle is equal to 2.pi.r. So in a year, Earth travels about 584 million miles and 940 million km.

As we know that speed is equal to the distance, so the speed of Earth is calculated by dividing 584 million miles by 365 days. Then divide the whole result to 24 hours to get miles per hour and km per hour. So as a result of all calculations, Earth travels almost 1.6 million miles i.e. 2.6 million km in a day. This distance may be 66,627 mph and 107,226 km/h.

## Movement of Sun and Galaxy

In a milky way, the sun has its own orbit. From the center of the galaxy, the sun is almost 25,000 light-years. The Milky Way is 100,000 light-years. According to Stanford University, we are thinking to be about half away out from the center. The sun and solar systems are said to be moving at 200 km per second. These may also move at the medium speed of 448,000 mph i.e. 720,000 km/h. The solar system would take almost 230 million years to travel all the way of the Milky Way at this rapid speed. The Milky Way also moves around in space with other galaxies. Andromeda Galaxy will collide with the nearest member Milky Way in 4 billion years. Both of these are moving towards each other at a speed of 70 miles per second i.e. 112 km per second. All things in the universe are in motion.

## If Earth stopped spinning

There is no way that you will be sent in space in present conditions, this is because the gravity of Earth is so strong as compared to the spinning motion. The spinning motion is also called centripetal acceleration. At the equator, which is the strongest point, the spinning motion will prevent Earth’s gravity by almost 0.3 percent. The change will not be noticeable, but your weight at the equator will be less as compared to the poles. According to NASA, there is no chance that the spinning of the earth will be stopped in the next few billion years. And if Earth stops moving at a sudden point, then the effects will be disgusting. The atmosphere on the earth will continue rotating at the real speed of Earth’s spin. This actually means that everything will be finished including humans, buildings, trees, topsoil, and rocks. NASA said that this scenario is more like billions of years. This is because the sun and moon are pulling on Earth’s spin. This change will give sufficient time to humans to get used to this.

According to the law of Physics, if the Earth spins at the slowest speed, then it will take 365 days to complete its 1 rotation. This condition is called ‘sun synchronous’. This will force one side of the planet to always face the sun. The other side will be always away from the sun. When we do a comparison, the moon of Earth is always in Earth synchronous rotation. This is where one side of the moon faces humans and the other side is opposite to us. In past, when there was a no-spin scenario, there would have been the same effects if Earth stopped spinning. This whole thing has been said by NASA. The magnetic field would have been finished. This is because; it has been generated by a spin. We will lose our radiation belts that surround the earth. Then Earth will be present in front of the sun, there will be no protection rays surrounding the earth. According to NASA, the charged particles will be ejected towards the earth and it will hit the surface of the earth and everything will be finished.

## Age of rocks

The age of the earth has been estimated by finding the age of rocks. The age was estimated by the dating method. As there was a success in dating technology, all these methods proved that these are not reliable. For example, according to this process, the increase and decrease of the ocean were shown as a changing process, not as a declining one. The other efforts that scientists were doing to calculate the age of earth include the rocks that cover the whole planet. Although rock’s plate tectonics were constantly changing, and the crust was remade, the first rock has been recycled, melted down, and then reformed.

Scientists must search about an issue called Great Unconformity. This issue will tell that from where the sedimentary rocks are missing. At the Grand Canyon, there are 1.2 billion years of rock that cannot be found. There were various explanations about this issue. In 2019, one of the studies tells that because of the global ice age, glaciers are converted into rock.

## Summary

Earth is spinning constantly, but the speed of spinning is only dependent on the latitude at which we are located. According to NASA, the distance from the largest part of Earth is 24,898 miles i.e. 40,070 kilometers. The circumference of a circle is an Earth’s orbit. The whole distance that is from the Earth to Sun is called an astronomical unit. At the equator, which is the strongest point, the spinning motion will prevent Earth’s gravity by almost 0.3 percent. The change will not be noticeable, but your weight at the equator will be less as compared to the poles. The age was estimated by the dating method. As there was a success in dating technology, all these methods proved that these are not reliable.

## How scientists find out the age of rock

Scientists use the radiometric method in the early 20th century. At a predictable rate, some of the radioactive elements will decay into other elements. Researchers can find out the starting quantity of radioactive elements by seeing the existing elements. They also observe that what time does a rock takes to decay. This research helps them to identify the age of rock. The oldest rock is found in Acasta Gneiss in northwestern Canada which is near Great Slave Lake. This lake is 4.03 billion years old. All the rocks that are 3.5 billion years are found in all islands. 3.4 to 3.5 billion years old rocks are present in Swaziland. In Western Australia 3.4 billion to 3.6 billion years old samples are present.
https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2016/03/09/15/28/rocks-1246668__340.jpg

In Australia, researchers find out the oldest mineral grains on Earth. All these tiny crystals are above 4.3 billion years old that made them the oldest mineral on the Earth. The source of these is not found to date. The planet must have to be older than having anything in itself, so rocks and Zircons set the limit age of the earth at 4.3 billion years old. When life came into being, this topic is still debatable because the oldest fossils can appear as rock forms naturally. In 2018, a study has revealed that there were pieces of evidence of the oldest form of life present in Australia. The people also find out the 3.4 billion old rocks that may be fossils. Some of the studies suggested that life came into being even earlier than this. Researchers also saw cone-like structures when they were looking at the rocks in southwestern Greenland. These structures were 3.7 billion years old.

### 1.What is the speed of the earth around the sun?

Many Astronomers of the past times believe that all people live in the geocentric universe. This means that the earth is present at the center of everything. They also said that the sun revolves around us and this movement causes the sunrise and sunsets. This theory was also the same for the movements of planets and the moon. This theory did not work as some things were not according to this theory. There were times when the planet did not complete its circle but back to its previous position without backup. When the earth is combining with another planet in its orbits, there is a motion that is called retrograde motion. For Example, Mars is distant from the sun than Earth so, it orbits farther than the sun. There is one point at which both of the Earth and Mars will combine to Red Planet and then pass it. When we pass by Mars, the planet moves back into the sky. When we have passed, then the planet moves forward again.

### 2. What is the age of Earth?

Earth is almost 4.543 billion years of age. There is no confirm age certificate about the age of the earth, this means that scientists spend a lot of time and hundreds of years to find out about the age of the earth. This has been estimated by finding out about the age of rocks. This has been done according to the age of the moon and meteorites. The age is estimated as 4.54 billion years ago and there is an error of 50 million years. Researchers have been doing their research for the past 400 years. The prediction has been done from the changing sea levels, or what time it takes for the sun and earth to be cool in the present temperatures.

### 3. When Earth will stop spinning, what will happen?

There is no way that you will be sent in space in present conditions, this is because the gravity of Earth is so strong as compared to the spinning motion. The spinning motion is also called centripetal acceleration. At the equator, which is the strongest point, the spinning motion will prevent Earth’s gravity by almost 0.3 percent. The change will not be noticeable, but your weight at the equator will be less as compared to the poles. According to NASA, there is no chance that the spinning of the earth will be stopped in the next few billion years. And if Earth stops moving at a sudden point, then the effects will be disgusting. The atmosphere on the earth will continue rotating at the real speed of Earth’s spin. This actually means that everything will be finished including humans, buildings, trees, topsoil, and rocks. NASA said that this scenario is more like billions of years. This is because the sun and moon are pulling on Earth’s spin. This change will give sufficient time to humans to get used to this.

### 4. How Earth orbit around the sun?

In space, there are also many movements with the spin of Earth. The speed of Earth around the sun is almost 67000 mph i.e. 107,000 km/h according to Cornell. With the help of basic Geometry, we can calculate this. Firstly, we have to find out that what distance Earth travels. What time it takes its whole spin and assumes that it is a circle. As we know that Earth takes 365 days in its whole spin. The circumference of a circle is an Earth’s orbit. The whole distance that is from the Earth to Sun is called an astronomical unit. It is 92,955,807 miles and 149,597,870 kilometers from the sun. This distance is estimated by International Astronomers Union. This is called a radius. The boundary of a circle is equal to 2.pi.r. So in a year, Earth travels about 584 million miles and 940 million km.

### 5. What are the highest and lowest points on Earth?

On Earth, Mount Everest is the highest place. It is 29,028 feet and 8848 meters but this place is not the highest point of earth. This means that this place is the most distant place from the center of the earth. In the Andes Mountain in Ecuador, this distinction belongs to Mount Chimborazo. This estimation is given by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration i.e. NOAA. Though, Chimborazo is 10,000 feet smaller than Everest. Because of the equatorial bump, this mountain is almost 6800 feet and 2073 m distant from space. Challenger Deep in Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the lowest point of earth. The lowest point belongs to western countries. This estimation is given by NOAA. This lowest point is 36,200 feet i.e. 11,034 Meters deep from sea level.

### 6. What is the volume, mass, and density of the earth?

According to NASA, the density of the earth is 5.513 grams per cubic centimeter. Earth has a metallic core and rocky mantle and because of these characteristics, the earth is the densest planet of the solar system. As Jupiter is 318 times more gigantic than the earth, but it has less density as compared to earth. This is because Jupiter is made up of gases such as Hydrogen. The mass of Earth is 6.6 sextillion tons i.e. 5.9722. 10^24. The volume of earth is 260 billion cubic miles i.e. one trillion cubic kilometers. Almost 197 million square miles is the total surface area of the earth. In all this surface area, 29 percent of the earth is covered by land and 71 percent of the earth is covered by water.

### 7. Will the Earth last forever?

According to the law of Physics, if the Earth spins at the slowest speed, then it will take 365 days to complete its 1 rotation. This condition is called ‘sun synchronous’. This will force one side of the planet to always face the sun. The other side will be always away from the sun. When we do a comparison, the moon of Earth is always in Earth synchronous rotation. This is where one side of the moon faces humans and the other side is opposite to us. In past, when there was a no-spin scenario, there would have been the same effects if Earth stopped spinning. This whole thing has been said by NASA. The magnetic field would have been finished. This is because; it has been generated by a spin. We will lose our radiation belts that surround the earth. Then Earth will be present in front of the sun, there will be no protection rays surrounding the earth. According to NASA, the charged particles will be ejected towards the earth and it will hit the surface of the earth and everything will be finished.

## 8. Is there any movement of Stars and Galaxy?

In a milky way, the sun has its own orbit. From the center of the galaxy, the sun is almost 25,000 light-years. The Milky Way is 100,000 light-years. According to Stanford University, we are thinking to be about half away out from the center. The sun and solar systems are said to be moving at 200 km per second. These may also move at the medium speed of 448,000 mph i.e. 720,000 km/h. The solar system would take almost 230 million years to travel all the way of the Milky Way at this rapid speed. The Milky Way also moves around in space with other galaxies. Andromeda Galaxy will collide with the nearest member Milky Way in 4 billion years. Both of these are moving towards each other at a speed of 70 miles per second i.e. 112 km per second. All things in the universe are in motion.

### 9. How the speed/spinning of Earth is calculated?

You can calculate the speed by using a calculator if you are moving to the globe at 45 degrees in latitude. There should a good calculator with an available cosine function. If you don’t know how to calculate this, then you should know that the value of cosine 45 is 0.707. So the spin speed at 45 degrees is 733 mph which is 1180 km/h. When you go further north and South, this speed decreases. When you reached the north and south place, the spin will definitely slow down and it takes a whole one day for the spin. The advantage of Earth’s spin is taken by Space agencies. If a human is sent in space, and if the location that is preferred is near to the equator. That’s why cargo missions are sent to space stations i.e. launch from Florida. By sending and launching a rocket in the same direction as Earth’s spin, will boost the speed of the rocket and help them to fly in space.

### 10. How the age of the rock is calculated?

The age of the earth has been estimated by finding the age of rocks. The age was estimated by the dating method. As there was a success in dating technology, all these methods proved that these are not reliable. For example, according to this process, the increase and decrease of the ocean were shown as a changing process, not as a declining one. The other efforts that scientists were doing to calculate the age of earth include the rocks that cover the whole planet. Although rock’s plate tectonics were constantly changing, and the crust was remade, the first rock has been recycled, melted down, and then reformed.

## Conclusion

The age of Earth is estimated as 4.54 billion years ago. There is an error of 50 million years. Earth is the largest than Mercury, Venus, and Mars. 3963 miles is the radius of Earth at the equator. Earth is covered by land of less than 30 percent and 71 percent of the earth is covered by water. The prediction has been done from the changing sea levels, or what time it takes for the sun and earth to be cool in the present temperatures. From the definition of the law of Physics, if the Earth spins at the very slow speed, then it will take 365 days to complete its 1 rotation. From the center of the galaxy, the sun is almost 25,000 light-years. The Milky Way is 100,000 light-years. The speed of Earth around the sun is about 67000 mph i.e. 107,000 km/h according to Cornell.

## Related Articles

Multiple independent measurements have taken to find out the answer of How Old is the Earth? After years of research, it is estimated that Earth is 4.54 billion years old, and scientists do radiometrically dating of rocks to find out their ages. From the radiometric dates of rocks, they estimate the age of Earth.

Studies have shown that the Earth and the universe are billions of years old. Through research on annual layers in ice, geologists can easily count multiple tens of thousands of years. By using radiometric dating of rocks, some Earth rocks were billions of years old, but the oldest known rocks of the solar system are dated 4.5 billion years. Scientists use the distance and the speed of light to calculate the light has travel billions of years. That’s why the age of the universe is given by the expansion of the universe which is 13.8 billion years old as a whole.

# Earth’s age through seasonal rings and layers

Trees form a new growth ring each year, and if you cut a tree trunk horizontally, you can see that. The size of these rings depends on the growth of the tree, if there are drought conditions and the tree’s growth is effected and rings will be narrower, and in good condition, seasonal rings can be thicker and wider. Scientists compare the pattern of the thickness of the ring and thin rings to weather records to verify the accuracy of the method. This method is also used on ■■■■ trees which are on the forest floor.

## Super old rocks

How old is the Earth, how can we know with any degree of confidence? For this, we must find the oldest rock or piece of the earth if we can find it, then have to figure out how old is that piece. Finding super old rocks is a tough job and practically harsh, because of plate tectonics of the Earth, in which Earth recycle rocks and break and pour them down into magma just before pumping rocks back up to the surface. “Tiny piece of zircon which is in Western Australia is considered as the oldest rock”.

SUMMARY
Finding Earth’s age is a really big task for scientists but it is a very interesting and tantalizing question for everyone that How old is the Earth? For finding the answer to this question many techniques or methods are being used by scientists and geologists, radiometrically dating of rocks to analyzing annual rings and layers of trees. By using all these methods we found Tiny Zircon in Western Australia which is 4.4 billion years old.

### When did the Earth start?

The current layout of our solar system was settled about 4.5 billion years ago. The Earth is formed by the pull of solar dust and gas and making it the third planet from the Sun.

### What is beneath the Earth?

The mantle is beneath the Earth, it is made up of three different sub-layers; which are the upper mantle, the transition zone, and the lower mantle. Talking about the thickness of these three sub-layers is 2,900 kilometers, and 84 percent of Earth’s volume is due to these.

### Where does the Earth’s atmosphere end?

The enormous exosphere is the final layer of the atmosphere, which is above 10,000 km above the Earth’s surface. But the moon of our Earth is still far away like hundreds of thousands of kilometers away.

### Which is the oldest mountain range on the Earth?

Barberton Greenstone Belt is considered the oldest mountain range in the world, which is found in South Africa. Its age is almost 3.2 billion years.

### Which is the deepest point on Earth?

Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic trench on Earth; it is present in the western Pacific Ocean.