CH2F2 Polar or Non Polar

CH2F2 is polar or non-polar? A common question can be easily answered as CH2F2 is a polar molecule because the structure of this molecule contains partial positive and negative charge depending upon the pull of electrons.

CH2F2:

It is a polar organic compound belonging to halogen-alkane class, chemically known as Difluoromethane, also called as R-32 or HFC-32. Difluoromethane is a colorless and also odorless gas present in the atmosphere. Also this gas is non-toxic and non-flammable.

Structure:

Structurally this molecule is an advanced form of Methane, except that the two hydrogens of methane (CH4) are replaced with two fluorine atoms generating the chemical formula as CH2F2 i.e. hydrocarbon containing halogen atom with it. The molecular formula is 52.023g/mol.

Physical And Chemical Properties:

Melting Point: -52°C

Boiling Point: -136°C

Density: At 25°C; 0.961 and at 0°C (in liquid state); 1.502

Solubility: Insoluble in water whereas soluble in ethanol

Vapor Pressure: 1.26 e 4 mm of Hg at 25°C

Uses:

  • One of the major use of Difluoromethane is as ‘Refrigerant’ as it has an excellent heat transfer performance during vaporization and condensation.
  • It is used in air conditioners as well, in few countries.

POLARITY OF CH2F2:

The term Polarity can be briefly explained as the separation of electric charges in a molecule producing the dipole moment in it with two oppositely charged ions i.e. positive and negative. This is done by pulling of electron by the atoms.

Not all of them perform such activity, only the atoms with high electronegativity tends to attract the bonding electron pair towards themselves. This action causes the uneven distribution of electrons between the bonded atoms and leads to the formation of partial negative and positive charge on the molecule making it polar in nature.

The polarity of a molecule can be easily distinguished according to the Pauling Scale:

Non-polar molecule, when the difference between the electronegativity is less than 0.4.

Polar molecule, when the difference between the electronegativity is between 0.4 and 2.0.

Ionic molecule, when the difference between the electronegativity is greater than 2.0.

The question whether the CH2F2 is polar or non-polar, can be quite confusing. To clear your mind, the concept leading to the answer of the question is described below:

Polar Molecule:

  • Atoms containing polar bonds between them form a polar molecule. This type of bond is formed when the difference between the electronegativity of participating atoms is greater than 0.4 and less than or equal to 2.0, which leads to the formation of partial positive and partial negative charge on the molecule.

  • Not only this, the polar molecule can also be formed when the chemical bonds are arranged in such a way that the arrangement leads to more positive charge on one side than the other.

  • These molecules are asymmetric in shape due to the presence of either electronegativity difference between atoms or presence of lone pair of electrons on central atom.

Following are some of the examples of polar molecule containing polar bond because of greater electronegativity difference:

S.No. Name of Molecules Molecular Formula Electronegativity Difference
1 Carbon Monoxide CO 0.89
2 Hydrogen Fluoride HF 1.69
3 Ethanol C2H6O 0.89
4 Hydrochloric Acid HCl 0.96
5 Chloromethane CH3Cl 0.66
6 Potassium Bromide KBr 2.14
7 Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 1.24
8 Hydrogen iodide HI 0.46
9 Methanol CH3OH 0.89
10 Hydrogen Bromide HBr 0.76

Non-Polar Molecule:

  • Similarly the atoms containing non-polar bonds between them form a non-polar molecule. This type of molecule contains no separate electrical charges which means that there are no positive or negative charge like polar molecules. The charges are evenly distributed all over the molecule.

  • The non-polar bond is formed when the difference between the electronegativity of participating atoms is less than 0.4.

  • These molecules are symmetric in shape due to no unshared pair of electrons.

Following are some of the examples of non-polar molecules having lesser or no electronegativity difference:

S.No. Name of Molecules Molecular Formula Electronegativity Difference
1 Oxygen gas O2 0.0
2 Benzene C6H6 0.35
3 Propane C3H6 0.35
4 Hydrogen gas H2 0.0
5 Ethylene C2H4 0.35
6 Nitrogen gas N2 0.0
7 Methane CH4 0.35
8 Bromine gas Br2 0.0
9 Hexane C6H14 0.35
10 Paraffin Wax C30H62 0.35

Electronegativity:

It is one of the major atomic property depending upon the share of electrons. Electronegativity can be defined as;

“Tendency of an atom to attract the bonding pair of electrons towards itself.”

Electronegativity can be measured by a system called Pauling Scale. This value is never constant, it varies depending upon the ability to attract the electrons. Fluorine is considered as the most electronegative element whereas Caesium and Francium are the least electronegative element according to the scale.

Following are the electronegativity of some commonly used elements:

S.No. Name of Elements Symbol Electronegativity
1 Oxygen O 3.44
2 Nitrogen N 3.04
3 Sulphur S 2.58
4 Fluorine F 3.98
5 Hydrogen H 2.20
6 Chlorine Cl 3.16
7 Carbon C 2.55
8 Sodium Na 0.93
9 Calcium Ca 1.00
10 Bromine Br 2.96

Periodic table with few elements

Partial Charges:

When charges are measured in the elementary charge units the non-integer charge is called as Partial Charge.

This type of charge appears due to unsymmetrical distribution of electron in a bond. It can also be called as ‘Net Atomic Charge’. Partial charge is represented by a Greek letter 𝛿. The positivity and negativity of charges depends upon the force of attraction of the two bonding atom.
The higher the electronegativity higher will be the force of attraction and partial negative will be the charge. Whereas lower negativity, lower will be the force of attraction and partial positive will be the charge.

Example: The HCl molecule contains Hydrogen and Chlorine atom with electronegativity values:
H = 2.20
Cl =
Due to higher value of electronegativity the Chlorine atom strongly pulls the electron towards itself gaining partial negative charge and giving partial positive to the hydrogen.

                           `𝛿+ H ---- Cl 𝛿-`

CH2F2 Polar Or Non-Polar:

To determine whether CH2F2 is polar or non-polar, first you have to know about the structure of the molecule.

It has a tetrahedral structure containing Carbon atom in the middle of the structure surrounding with the four other atoms, two of which are hydrogen and the other two are fluorine atoms. There is no lone pair of electron on the molecule. Whereas the electronegativity of the atoms are:

C = 2.55

F = 3.98

H = 2.20

The difference between the electronegativity of Carbon (central atom) and Fluorine is found to be:

                             `3.98 – 2.55 = 1.43`

The answer is greater than 0.4 which suggests that the molecule is definitely polar. This difference also indicates that the pull of electrons is more towards fluorine as compared to the carbon which results in formation of partial positive and negative charges. Also the presence of two fluorine atoms shows that the molecule has slightly stronger dipole moment.

Summary:
Hence it is quite clear that CH2F2 molecule is a polar molecule containing polar bond with electronegativity difference of 1.43, giving partial positive charge to Carbon atom and partial negative charge to Fluorine atom.

Polarity Of Other Molecules:

Other than CH2F2 being a polar molecule, there are some other molecules which are illustrated below:

CO2 Polar Or Non-Polar:

Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas present in the atmosphere in trace amounts. Structurally it is a linear molecule and is composed of a single Carbon atom and two Oxygen atoms. The bonding between both of the atom is covalent bonding which means that either the molecule is having polar bond or non-polar bond.

The electronegativity of the bonded atoms are:

C = 2.55

O = 3.44

The difference between them is found to be:

                             `3.44 – 2.55 = 0.89`

It suggests that the molecule should contain positive and negative charges and dipole moment. But in this molecule this is not the case, as the molecule is linearly arranged the structure can be shown as:

                               O === C === O`

The effect of partial negative charges from both side of the Carbon cancel each other out giving the zero dipole moment. Hence, making the molecule Non- polar despite the electronegativity difference.

NH3 Polar or Non-Polar:

NH3 is commonly known as Ammonia gas. It is a colorless gas with strong pungent smell.
Most of the ammonia produced is used in agriculture and as refrigerant gas. From it’s formula it is quite clear that a single central Nitrogen atom is surrounded by three Hydrogen atoms.

Considering the first factor i.e. the structure of molecule, the odd number of bonding atom indicates that the structure is trigonal not linear proving the polar nature of molecule.
As far as other factor is concerned, the electronegativity of the atoms participating is:

N = 3.04

H = 2.20

And the difference between these values are:

                            `3.04 – 2.20 = 0.84`

The value is above or greater than 0.4 which also proves that the NH3 molecule is polar molecule.

H2O Polar or Non-Polar:

The world revolves around water, it is a basic necessity of life. Water molecule bears two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom.

According to the number of atoms it seems like that the case would be identical to Carbon dioxide but the difference arises in the arrangement of atom. The structure of water is non-linearly arranged. In the Carbon dioxide molecule the structure is linear due to which the two opposite end atoms cancel each other’s effect.

Looking forward to the other factor that is of electronegativity difference, the value of E.N of bonding atoms are:

H = 2.20

O = 3.44

And the difference would be;

                            `3.44 – 2.20 = 1.24`

Hence, also proving the polar nature of molecule.

Summary:
The CH2F2 is polar because of electronegativity difference on the other hand the CO2 is non-polar because of its structure although it does have electronegativity difference. This suggests that polarity of the molecule not only depends upon the electronegativity but also upon the arrangement of the atoms.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION:

Is ch2f2 tetrahedral?

Yes, the structure of CH2F2 i.e. difluoromethane is tetrahedral which helps or supports the dipole effect of molecule. The two fluorine and the two hydrogen atoms are tetrahedrally arranged around the central carbon atom.

Does ch2f2 dissolve in water?

CH2F2 is highly insoluble in water. Although it is said that polar molecules are more soluble in polar solvents. CH2F2 is a polar molecule which could be soluble in H2O, a polar solvent. But, the difluoromethane lacks hydrogen bonding which leads to insolubility in water.

Is CCl4 polar or nonpolar?

CCl4 is chemically known as carbon tetrachloride. Although the molecule contains four chlorine atoms which are high electronegative in nature, the molecule is still non-polar. This is due to the orientation of atoms the four chlorine are arranged tetrahedrally around the central Carbon atom. This arrangement cause the cancelation of electronegative effect and the dipole moment, hence making the molecule non-polar.

Is O2 polar or nonpolar?

The diatomic molecules are always and always non-polar. This is due to the fact that they are linearly arranged and cancels each other’s electronegative effect (having the same E.N value). The O2 (Oxygen gas) is also an example of diatomic molecule.

Is ethanol polar or nonpolar?

Ethanol is a hydrocarbon with a chemical formula C2H5OH. The hydrocarbons are mostly non-polar due to the presence of carbon and hydrogen atom and their low electronegativity difference. But in this case the presence of Oxygen atom which is an electronegative element, the molecule converts into polar because of greater difference of E.N.

CONCLUSION

The question whether a molecule is polar or non-polar such as CH2F2 polar or non-polar? can be easily understood. CH2F2, possessing tetrahedral structure and a difference of 1.43 in the electronegativity, is a polar molecule.

This suggests that polarity can be judged on the basis of following factors:

1. Difference between the electronegativity values

2. Structure of molecule or Orientation of atoms

These two factors can identify the type of bond and molecule too.

Ch2f2

CH2F2 or difluoromethane or difluoromethylene is an organic compound from the haloalkane family. Haloalkanes or alkyl halides are organic compounds, which contain at least one halogen atom bonded to the carbon atom.

It is a colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure. It has high thermal stability and low water solubility due to its polar nature. It is used in the process of refrigeration, air conditioning and fire extinguishing due to its common use in endothermic processes.

The molar mass of difluoromethane is 52.024 g / mol. Its melting point and boiling point are -136 ° C and -52 ° C, respectively. The low melting and boiling points of difluoromethane cause frostbite.

CH2F2 contains fluorine, an electronegative element, but again, it does not show a hydrogen bond due to the absence of an H-F bond.

The main characteristics of the chemical bond in difluoromethane are shown in the following table for quick learning.

Compound CH2F2
Molecular Geometry Tetrahedral
Hybridization sp3
Polarity Polar

What is the electronegativity of ch4?

CH4 2,5−2,1=0,4

Since, we know in CH4 the electronegativity of carbon C is more than that of hydrogen so the bonding moment will be oriented towards carbon. Thus, the electronegativity will be more important and the dipole moment less.

CO2 polar non polar

Carbon dioxide, which has the chemical formula CO2, is nonpolar. It contains two polar links arranged symmetrically. Carbon forms a double bond with every oxygen atom. Since carbon and oxygen have different electronegativities, electrons are not shared equally between the two atoms.

Is ch2f2 polar?

Yes, difluoromethane (CH2F2) is polar despite its symmetrical shape, i.e. its tetrahedral geometry. The polarity results from the large difference in electronegativity of the C-F bond. The C-F bond is polar in nature and therefore results in the formation of the strong dipole. Therefore, the molecule will have a net dipole moment with a negative pole on the fluorine atom. It leads to the polar nature of the CH2F2 molecule.

Is methane polar or nonpolar?

Methane is non polar

Potassium bromide polar or nonpolar

Potassium bromide is polar in nature.

Ch2f2 lewis structure

Chemical bond is a force of attraction between two atoms and atoms form a chemical bond to achieve stability because most of the elements are unstable in their atomic form.

Kossel and Lewis were the first to explain the formation of chemical bonds in terms of electrons, especially valence electrons.

According to Lewis, every atom tends to grow to a stable octet when it forms chemical bonds, with the exception of hydrogen and helium. Only valence electrons, present in the outermost layer of an atom, participate in bond formation.

In CH2F2, carbon, hydrogen and fluorine belong to groups 14, 1 and 17 respectively. Therefore, the number of valence electrons in carbon, hydrogen and fluorine is 4, 1 and 7, respectively.

The group valency of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine is 4, 1, and 1, respectively. The valence of the group indicates the number of chemical bonds that an atom can form with other atoms.

Therefore, carbon can form four chemical bonds while hydrogen and fluorine can only form one chemical bond. Therefore, carbon will be the central atom of difluoromethane.

The total number of valence electrons in difluoromethane is 4 + 1 (2) + 7 (2) = 20 electrons.

In the Lewis structure of the molecule, valence electrons are represented by dots.

Important conditions for Lewis structures are that each combined atom must contribute at least one electron for sharing with other atoms and that a chemical bond is formed due to the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

The combined atom will reach the nearest noble gas configuration by sharing electrons.

Now we need to organize 20 valence electrons in the Lewis structure of CH2F2 with carbon as the central atom.

The valence electron in carbon is four and hence it will share its two valence electrons with two hydrogen atoms and the remaining two electrons with two fluorine atoms which will result in the formation of a byte around him.

Therefore, the Lewis structure of CH2F2 can be represented as:

CH2F2 lewis structure

In the Lewis structure of CH2F2, the hydrogen and fluorine atoms share only one electron with the carbon atom.

Therefore, there is a formation of the single bond between carbon and hydrogen as well as carbon and fluorine.

In short, a carbon atom, a central atom, will form four single bonds without any isolated pairs.

But we cannot limit ourselves to the Lewis structure alone to understand the chemical reactions of CH2F2, which involves breaking and forming bonds.

Therefore, it is necessary to understand the molecular geometry of CH2F2.

Is methane a polar molecule?

Methane, which does not contain polar bonds, is clearly nonpolar. It contains four carbon-fluorine polar bonds but they oppose each other, so the molecule itself is nonpolar.

Is O2 polar?

The oxygen (O2) molecule is diatomic and is non-polar because the two atoms have equal electronegativity. As a result, the two atoms share the same charge and no atom has a partial charge. Therefore, we know that O2 is a non-polar molecule with a zero dipole moment.

Is no polar or non polar?

Nitrogen is to the right of oxygen in the periodic table. Nitrogen has a lower electronegativity than oxygen. All N-O bonds are polar bonds with high electron density on the oxygen atom.

Ch2f2 molecular geometry

The molecular structure of CH2F2 can be predicted by the theory given by Sidgwick and Powell, VSEPR. This theory is based on the repulsion between valence electrons of an atom.

These valence electron shell electrons may be bonded (bonded electron pair) or unbonded (lone pair of electrons). These electron pairs occupy a position around the central atom to minimize repulsion and maximize molecular stability.

For example, if there are two chemical bonds around the central atom, these bonds are arranged at a bond angle of 180 °, thus forming a linear shape.

In difluoromethane, the carbon atom is the central atom with her four bonding pairs of electrons. These four chemical bonds are arranged in a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 ° to minimize repulsion between any two bond pairs.

The shape of difluoromethane can also be predicted in the following table based on VSEPR theory.

General formula Number of bond pairs Molecular shape/geometry
AX 1 Linear
AX2 2 Linear
AX3 3 Trigonal planar
AX4 4 Tetrahedral
AX5 5 Trigonal bipyramidal
AX6 6 Octahedral

However, in CH2F2, the F-C-F bond angle is slightly less than 109.5 ° and the H-C-H bond angle is slightly larger than 109.5 °.

In addition, the C-H bond length of CH2F2 is shorter than the C-H bond length of methane (CH4). These two anomalies can be explained by the hybrid Bent’s rule.

If we know the hybrid of carbon atoms in difluoromethane, we can understand the Bent’s rule of hybrid.

Carbon dioxide polar or nonpolar

Carbon dioxide with the chemical formula CO2 is non-polar. It contains two symmetrically arranged polar bonds. Carbon forms a double bond with each oxygen atom. Due to the different electronegativity of carbon and oxygen, the electrons are not evenly shared between the two atoms.

Why is methane non polar?

All outer atoms are the same-the same dipole and the dipole moments point in the same direction-the entire molecule becomes non-polar towards the carbon atom. Therefore, methane has non-polar bonds and is non-polar as a whole.

Is ammonia polar or non polar?

The answer is that ammonia is a polar molecule whose polarity is influenced by its asymmetric shape and the presence of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms contained therein.

Ch2f2 dipole moment

The dipole moment depends on the difference in electronegativity. This must be greater than 0.4 for the chemical bond to be polar. The electronegativity of carbon, hydrogen and fluorine atoms are respectively 2.55, 2.20 and 3.98. This large difference in electronegativity produces dipoles.

Boiling point of ch2f2

The boiling point of ch2f2 is -51.7 °C.

Is sugar polar or non polar?

Sugar (sucrose) is a polar non-electrolyte. Sucrose is very soluble because its molecule has an OH group accessible to water that can form strong hydrogen bonds with water. Therefore, sugar is no exception to the rule of thumb that it “dissolves in the same way.”

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)

Q: Why is cf2h2 polar?

CH2F2 is a polar molecule because the electrons are pulled towards the fluorine dipole (that is, partially negatively charged), resulting in a partially positive charge at the hydrogen end of the tetrahedron.

Q: Is CH2Cl2 Polar or Non-Polar?

CH2Cl2 Polar Molecule This molecule is tetrahedral because of the four electron repulsions around the central C atom. C-Cl bonds are polar due to the difference in electronegativity between C and Cl, and C-H bonds are almost non-polar or different in polarity from C-Cl.

Q: Is CH2F2 a dipole moment?

The shape of CH2F2 is tetrahedral and symmetric, so the distribution of atoms around carbon atoms is symmetric. The dipole moment depends on the difference in electronegativity. This must be greater than 0.4 for the chemical bond to be polar. Therefore, difluoromethane is a polar molecule.

Q: Is CCl4 Polar or Non-Polar?

Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, is non-polar because all four bonds are symmetrical and extend in all directions.

Q: Is Acetone Polar or Non-Polar?

Acetone is a polar molecule because it has a polar bond, and the dipole is not canceled due to its molecular structure.

Q: Is Bromomethane Polar or Non-Polar?

Ch3Br (Bromomethane) is a polar compound with a tetrahedral molecular shape, with bromine (2.96) having a higher electronegativity than carbon (2.55) and causing a higher electron density towards the bromine atom. As a result, the dipole moment is generated towards bromine, producing CH3Br polar molecules.

Q: What are polar and non-polar?

Polar molecules occur when there is a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. Non-polar molecules occur when electrons are equally shared between the atoms of a diatomic molecule, or when the polar bonds of a larger molecule cancel each other out.

:point_right: Conclusion

Difluoromethane is an alkyl halide and exists in the form of a gas at standard temperatures and pressures.

It has a tetrahedral shape due to sp3 hybridization of carbon atoms predicted from the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory and the valence bond theory, respectively.

Since difluoromethane is a polar molecule, it exhibits the dipole-dipole force that holds the molecule together.