What is the formula for sodium sulfate?

What Is The Formula For Sodium Sulfate? The Formula For Sodium Sulfate Is Na2SO4. Sodium Sulfate is the sodium salt of sulfuric acid. It may be found in nature as a mineral or as a byproduct of certain industrial processes. It is classified as a non-toxic chemical.

What Is The Formula For Sodium Sulfate

What Is Sodium Sulfate?

Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) is a chemical compound that may be found in nature as a mineral or as a byproduct of certain industrial operations. It has a wide range of commercial uses and is categorized as a non-toxic chemical when handled properly.

Soaps and detergents, especially powdered soaps, are typically made using Sodium Sulfate. Textiles, paper and paper pulp manufacture, glass production, and a range of other uses are all made using it. Sodium Sulfate is also utilized as a cathodic protection backfill material.

Chemical Formula For Sodium Sulfate

The chemical formula for Sodium Sulfate is referred to as Na2SO4.
The anhydrous Sulfate, also known as mineral thenardite, is a white crystalline solid, while the decahydrate Na2SO4.10H2O is referred to as mirabilis or Glauber’s salt.

1. Formula: Na2SO4
2. Molar mass: 142.04 g/mol
3. Melting point: 884 °C
4. Boiling point: 1,429 °C
5. Soluble in: Water
6. Appearance: White crystalline solid; hygroscopic
7. Density: 2.664 g/cm3 (anhydrous); 1.464 g/cm3 (decahydrate)

When Na2SO4.7H2O is cooled, mirabilite, the natural mineral form of decahydrate, forms. Two-thirds of the world’s output is mirabilite, a natural mineral form. It is also created as a by-product of chemical operations such as the manufacturing of hydrochloric acid.

Sodium Sulfate In Different Forms

Sodium Sulfate comes in three different forms:

1. The uncommon mineral thenardite is anhydrous Sodium Sulfate, which is used in chemical synthesis as a drying agent.

2. Heptahydrate Sodium Sulfate is a form of Sodium Sulfate that is relatively uncommon.

3. The chemical industry regularly uses the mineral mirabilite, which is decahydrate Sodium Sulfate. Another name for it is Glauber’s salt.

Formulas For Different Forms Of Sodium Sulfate

Sodium Sulfate is present in different forms. Each form of sodium sulfate has different formula. Following are the formulas for different forms of Sodium Sulfate.

1. Formula For Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate

The term “Anhydrous” literally means “without water.” In chemistry, compounds that are devoid of water are referred to be anhydrous. The word is most often used to describe crystalline solids after the crystallization water has been removed.

The presence or absence of water in the crystalline structure of salt compounds changes the name and function of the chemical. When Sodium Sulfate, Na2SO4, is devoid of water, it is known as anhydrous Sodium Sulfate. It is utilized as a drying medium.

2. Heptahydrate Sodium Sulfate Formula

The metastable phase of Sodium Sulfate is Sodium Sulfate heptahydrate. Its production may be seen during the fast cooling of a saturated at 40 °C solution.

1. Other forms include Na2SO4•10H2O and Na2SO4•10H2O. (Mirabilite)

2. Humidity of deliquescence at 20°C is 89.1%.

3. 3.143 mol/kg solubility (g/l) at 20°C

4. 268.14 g/mol molar weight

3. Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate Formula

The formula for Sodium Sulfate decahydrate is Na2SO4.10H2O is referred to as mirabilis or Glauber’s salt.

1. Alternate Names: Glauber′s salt
2. Purity: 97%
3. Molecular Weight: 322.20
4. Molecular Formula: Na2SO4•10H2O

The decahydrate form of Sodium Sulfate is known as “Glauber’s salt,” and it’s used to create glass. Because salt does not contain water attached to its molecules, it absorbs moisture when it comes into contact with it, which is why it is employed as a drying agent.

At normal temperatures, Sodium Sulfate decahydrate is chemically highly stable and unreactive toward most oxidizing or reducing agents. It is a neutral salt that will generate pH 7 aqueous solutions.

The decahydrate is the most common natural form, formed from the mineral mirabilite, which is often found in lake beds; anhydrous Sodium Sulfate occurs as the mineral thenardite in desert conditions.

Reactivity Of Sodium Sulfate

The sodium salt of sulfuric acid is known as Sodium Sulfate. The mineral thenardite is a white crystalline solid with the formula Na2SO4 when it is anhydrous. One of the most essential minerals in the chemical industry is Sodium Sulfate.

At normal temperatures, Sodium Sulfate is chemically very stable, being non-reactive with most oxidizing or reducing agents. It can be transformed into sodium sulfide via carbothermal reduction at high temperatures.

It produces hot corrosion, or material degradation induced by the presence of a deposit or ash, primarily Sodium Sulfate. In marine and aircraft engines, hot corrosion has been reported. It is generally known that when Sodium Sulfate is in liquid form.

It promotes accelerated oxidation of super alloys and coatings at high temperatures. The molten Sodium Sulfate deposit is thought to be required to launch a hot corrosion attack. Depending on the metal composition, the temperature range for a hot corrosion attack is commonly 1470 to 1740°F (800 to 950°C).

Sodium Sulfate is a significant contributor to corrosion rates. In water with 400 mg/l alkalinities (as calcium carbonate) at pH 7, for example, the corrosion rate is zero at 200 mg/l Na2SO4, but at 400 mg/l Sodium Sulfate, the corrosion rate is roughly 100 mg per square cm per day.


When handled appropriately, Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) is a non-toxic chemical. It is used in a variety of commercial applications, including detergents, paper, and pulp manufacturing, glass production, and a variety of other things. Two-thirds of the world’s output is mirabilite, a natural mineral form. The sodium salt of sulfuric acid is called Sodium Sulfate.

Structure Of Sodium Sulfate

[Na(OH2)6]+ ions with octahedral molecular geometry make up the decahydrate crystals. In these octahedra, eight of the 10 water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to sodium, while two others are interstitial and hydrogen-bonded to Sulfate.

These cations and the Sulfate anions are linked by hydrogen bonds. Between Na and O, the distances are roughly 240 pm. The crystalline Sodium Sulfate decahydrate has an extraordinary residual entropy (entropy at absolute zero) of 6.32 kJ/(mol) among hydrated salts.

Preparation Of Sodium Sulfate

Johann Rudolf Glauber discovered Sodium Sulfate in spring water in Austria in 1625, and the hydrate form is known as Glauber’s salt. Because of its healing properties, he named it sal mirabilis (miraculous salt).

As a by-product of other operations, the chemical industry generates one-third of the world’s Sodium Sulfate. The reaction of sodium chloride and Sulfuric acid produces it.

  • 2 NaCl + H2SO4→2 HCl + Na2SO4

Types Of Sodium Sulfate

Natural Sodium Sulfate and by-product Sodium Sulfate, also known as synthetic Sodium Sulfate, are the two types.

1. Natural Sodium Sulfate

Natural Sodium Sulfate is produced in California and Texas from naturally occurring brines and crystalline deposits. Saline lakes, such as Utah’s Great Salt Lake, contain it as a constituent.

2. Synthetic Sodium Sulfate

As a byproduct of various manufacturing processes, synthetic Sodium Sulfate is recovered. Both types of Sodium Sulfate have a variety of important and practical uses in consumer goods.

Sodium Sulfate was ranked 47th in terms of quantity produced in a survey of the top 50 basic organic and inorganic chemicals produced in the United States.

Until the 1900s, the crystals were utilized as a general-purpose laxative. Glauber’s salt was used as a raw material for the industrial production of soda ash in the 18th century by reacting with potassium carbonate or potash.

As the demand for soda ash grew in the nineteenth century, the large-scale Leblanc process, which produced synthetic Sodium Sulfate, became the primary method of soda ash production.

What Is The Most Effective Method For Making Sodium Sulfate?

1. To create Sodium Sulfate, utilize the Mannheim technique, which comprises the following reaction:

  • H2SO4 + 2NaCl = Na2SO4 + 2HCl

2. It may also be prepared using the Hargreaves technique, which is described below:

  • 4NaCl + 2H2O + 2SO2 + O2 = 4Na2SO4 + 4HCl

Sodium Sulfate In Chemicals Industry

Around one-third of the world’s Sodium Sulfate is created as a by-product of other chemical operations. The bulk of this product is chemically inherent in the primary process and is thus only modestly cost-effective.

The production of Sodium Sulfate as a by-product is reducing as a consequence of the industry’s efforts.

Hydrochloric acid, which may be generated from sodium chloride (salt) and sulfuric acid in the Mannheim process or Sulfur dioxide in the Hargreaves process, is the most major chemical source of Sodium Sulfate.

1. The Sodium Sulfate formed as a consequence of these activities is known as the salt cake.

  • 2 NaCl + H2SO4→ 2 HCl + Na2SO4

2. The process of neutralizing excess sodium hydroxide with sulfuric acid, which is widely employed in the rayon industry, is a substantial source of Sodium Sulfate. This is also a popular and useful laboratory practice.

  • 2 NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) H → Na2SO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) -112.5 kJ(highly exothermic)

3. Sodium bicarbonate and magnesium Sulfate may be combined in the lab to make it.

  • 2 NaHCO3 + MgSO4 → Mg + Na2SO4 (OH)2 + 2 CO2

Resources Of Sodium Sulfate

The most prevalent element in the Earth’s crust is sodium, which ranks sixth. Sodium Sulfate is a common component of saltwater and many salty or alkaline lakes and is found in abundance.

1. Mineral formations containing Sodium Sulfate are geologically young, generally post-glacial.

2. There are 3.3 billion tons of natural Sodium Sulfate deposits in the world.

3. Natural Sodium Sulfate reserves are adequate to meet projected demand for millennia, with annual world production averaging roughly 2.6 million tons.

4. The capacity of manufacturing enterprises to recover product Sulfate over time determines the quantity of synthetic Sodium Sulfate generated.

5. Spring streams flowing over volcanic rocks containing sulfide minerals usually form soluble sulfide salts, which are oxidized by air to produce Sulfates in surface depressions or lakes with no outlets.

Chemical And Physical Characteristics Of Sodium Sulfate

At normal temperatures, Na2SO4 is chemically highly stable, being unreactive to most oxidizing or reducing agents. It may be converted to sodium sulfide at high temperatures. It’s a neutral salt that creates pH 7 aqueous solutions.

The neutrality of such solutions is because Na2SO4 is made up of a strong acid (sulfuric acid) and a strong base (acid) (sodium hydroxide). Sodium Sulfate interacts with an equal quantity of sulfuric acid to form the acid salt sodium hydrogen Sulfate at equilibrium:

  • Na2SO4(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → 2 NaHSO4(aq)

In actuality, the equilibrium is complicated and depends on concentration and temperature, as well as the presence of other acid salts. Na2SO4 is an ionic Sulfate that contains both Na+ and SO42 ions.

When aqueous solutions are mixed with Ba2+ or Pb2+ salts, precipitates develop, which are insoluble Sulfates:

  • Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) ( s)→ 2 NaCl(aq) + BaCl2(aq)

Between 0 and 32.4 °C, its solubility increases by more than tenfold, reaching a maximum of 49.7 g Na2SO4 per 100 g water. The slope of the solubility curve changes at this point, and the solubility becomes nearly temperature independent.

The solubility of Na2SO4 is greatly reduced in the presence of NaCl. The use of Sodium Sulfate in passive solar heating systems, as well as the manufacturing and purification of Sodium Sulfate, is based on these developments.

Sodium Sulfate Production Rate

The worldwide production of Sodium Sulfate is estimated to be between 5.5 and 6 million tons per year (Mt/a), almost exclusively in the form of decahydrate. In 1985, output was 4.5 Mt/a, with natural sources accounting for half of it and chemical sources accounting for the other half.

After 2000, natural production increased to 4 Mt/a, stayed stable until 2006, while chemical production decreased to 1.5 to 2 Mt/a, for a total of 5.5 to 6 Mt/a. In every way, natural Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Sulfate made chemically are essentially similar.

Sodium Sulfate’s Applications

Organic liquids are dried using Sodium Sulfate.

1. In powdered home laundry detergents As a filler

2. It removes small air bubbles from molten glass as a fining agent.

3. Glauber’s salt, decahydrate, was used as a laxative to help people get rid of medications like acetaminophen.

4. Window defrosters, carpet fresheners, starch manufacturing, and animal feed supplementation

5. In the manufacture of detergents and the pulping of Kraft paper.


As a by-product of other operations, the chemical industry generates one-third of the world’s Sodium Sulfate. In a review of the top 50 basic organic and inorganic compounds produced in the United States, Sodium Sulfate was placed 47th in terms of the amount produced. The ionic Sulfate Sodium Sulfate comprises both the Na+ and SO42 ions.

Uses Of Sodium Sulfate On A Small Scale

In the laboratory, anhydrous Sodium Sulfate is a typical inert drying agent for removing residues of water from organic solutions. Although it takes longer to act, it is more effective than magnesium sulfate.

It’s only useful below around 30 degrees Celsius, but since it’s chemically inert, it may be used with a variety of materials. The solution is thickened with Sodium Sulfate until the crystals no longer cluster together.

Glauber’s salt decahydrate is used as a laxative. It is effective in eliminating some medications from the body, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen), after an overdose, for example. In 1953, Sodium Sulfate was suggested as a heat storage material for passive solar heating.

This is accomplished because of its exceptional solubility and high heat of crystallization (78.2 kJ/mol). Defrosting windows, starch manufacture, carpet freshener additives, and animal feed additives are some of the other uses for Sodium Sulfate.

For example, Thermaltake makes a laptop computer chill mat (soft Notebook Cooler) using Sodium Sulfate decahydrate in a quilted plastic cushion. The material dissolves slowly into a liquid and circulates, regulating the laptop’s temperature and serving as an insulator.

Frequently Asked Questions

People usually ask the following questions.

1. Which acid is found in Sodium Sulfate?

Sulfuric acid is a sulfur-containing acid. Sulfuric acid’s sodium counterpart is known as Sodium Sulfate. Na2SO4 is the chemical formula used for Sodium Sulfate.

2. What are the dangers of using Sodium Sulfate?

It is not combustible. It emits obnoxious or harmful smells in the event of a fire (or gases). If there is a fire in the area, use the proper extinguishing medium.

3. What is Sodium Sulfate’s (Na2SO4) molar mass?

The molecular weight of Sodium Sulfate is 142.04 g/mol. One mole of Sodium Sulfate is made up of two mole of sodium (45.98 g), one mole of Sulfur (32.06 g), and four mole of oxygen (64.00 g) according to the formula Na2SO4 (142.04 g).

4. Does Na2SO4 have a polar or non polar nature?

The Sulfate anion is formed via the covalent interaction of Sulfur and oxygen, and it has the formula [Na+]2[SO42-]. Because of their polarity, S-O bonds are polar covalent bonds.

5. Can you use Sodium Sulfate safely?

Avoid getting your eyes, skin, or clothes in contact with it. Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. When storage, keep it away from moisture. OSHA has revoked the following PELs: Sodium Sulfate (Sodium Sulfate): For this chemical, there is no OSHA Vacated PELs.

6. Is sodium chloride (NaCl) a polar salt?

A polar molecule is sodium chloride (NaCl), an anionic chemical. Because of the large difference in electronegativities between sodium and chlorine, their bond is usually polar. Furthermore, Na has a +1 charge whereas Cl has a -1 charge in sodium chloride, establishing a strong bond.

7. What is the chemical reaction that causes sodium chloride to dissolve in water?

When salt is combined with water, the water’s covalent bonds are stronger than the salt molecules’ ionic bonds, and the salt dissolves. Water molecules pull the sodium and chloride ions away, breaking the ionic bond that kept them together.

8. Can you tell me where you can get Sulfate?

Sulfate is a chemical that occurs in nature. It may be found in a variety of water levels. If the water has a high level of Sulfate, it may have a bitter flavor. Sulfates may be found in minerals, soil, rocks, plants, and food.

9. What is the definition of Sulfate?

Sulfate is a chemical that contains four oxygen atoms around a Sulfur atom. The Sulfate molecule takes on a tetrahedral shape when it bonds. When Sulfate is converted to sulfuric acid, salt is produced.

10. Who was the first to discover the element Sulfate?

Johann Glauber’s discovery of Sodium Sulfate - Sal Mirabile Glauber | Journal of Chemical Education

11. What causes ice to melt when it is exposed to salt?

The true reason why salt causes ice to melt is that a solution of water with dissolved salt has a lower freezing point than pure water. As a consequence, ice that comes into contact with salty water melts, causing more liquid water to be produced, which dissolves more salt, causing more ice to melt, and so on.


Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) is a chemical compound that may be found in nature as a mineral or as a byproduct of certain industrial operations. It has a wide range of commercial uses and is categorized as a non-toxic chemical when handled properly. Soaps and detergents, especially powdered soaps, are typically made using Sodium Sulfate.

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