How Do Blind People Read



What Is Braille?




How Do Blind People Read: Braille can be a system of raised dots that will be read with fingers by those who are blind or who have low vision.

Teacher, parents. Those who are blind blind read Braille with their eyes. Braille is not a language. Rather, it is a code by which many languages ​​- such as English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and dozens of others - can be written and skimmed. Braille is employed by thousands of people everywhere in their native languages ​​by the planet, and provides a way of literacy for all.

The specific code we use is English Braille, the American version, but the most code to read as of 2016 is Unified English Braille, a code used in seven other English-speaking countries.



How was it developed?




Braille actually began in France in the early 1800s as a cryptograph commissioned by soldiers to communicate quietly in the dark without using light. He called it “writing of the night”. At some point, a soldier came to visit a faculty for blind children, and talked about “night writing”, which intrigued one of the students named Braille. Louis found out how to simplify night writing, and by the time he was 15 years old, he had invented a new thanks for reading and writing! He even published the first Braille book in 1829, when he was only 20 years old.



Reading Braille



People read Braille by moving their fingers from left to right across lines of dots. Developed by Braille in the early 1800s, Braille may be a series of characters or “cells”, made up of six raised dot patterns, arranged along two columns of three dots during a rectangle. Huh. The pattern arrangement corresponds to the letters of the written alphabet.

The original Braille code is named Grade 1 Braille and may be a direct replacement of common print letters for letters of the Braille alphabet. Grade 2 can be a short form where some letter combinations and other frequently used acronyms are given abbreviated Braille patterns. These abbreviations make Braille very fast to read and write.



Learning the Letters of the Alphabet

More Step Here;


Step 01: Search for braille instructional material


Whether you are blind or sighted, there are many free resources available that will help you learn Braille code and start reading by touch. Look for non-profit organizations dedicated to helping the blind. Schools for the blind also have resources available to the general public.

  • The Hadley Institute for the Visually Impaired Braille offers distance learning courses for reading. These courses are free for the blind.

  • You can also buy Braille blocks and toys online to aid learning letters. These materials are often particularly helpful for young children.


Step 02: Recall the numbers for 6 dots in the Braille cell.


A standard Braille cell is made up of 6 dots arranged in 2 columns of three dots each. All dots are of different distances. The highest left dot is labeled “1,” the dot below “2”, and so the bottom point within the first column is “3.” The dots within the second column are numbered “4,” “5,” and “6” from top to bottom. Each Braille letter or symbol has a unique combination of dots and spaces.



  • Braille printed for visualization may contain "shadow dots" within spaces, to help people see the position of the dots more easily. Braille will not have shadow points for the blind.

  • To read Braille through touch, you want reasonable finger sensitivity. Most adults have sufficient finger sensitivity to read Braille. If your finger sensitivity is affected by an injury or health condition, you may want to use the “jumbo dot” braille.



    Step 03: Start with the first 10 letters of the alphabet




In Braille code, the primary 10 letters of the alphabet form the idea of all opposite letters. These letters only use the highest 4 dots in each cell. Brooding about the number of dots in the context of the letter’s place within the alphabet can help you learn them easier;



  • The letter has only 1 dot. This makes it intuitive because it is the first letter of the alphabet. Similarly, letter B has dot 1 and dot 2 for the second letter of the alphabet. The letter c has dot 1 and dot 4. The letter d has dots 1, 4 and 5. The letter E has dots 1 and 5.

  • The letter f has dots 1, 2 and 4. The letter g has dots 1, 2, 4, and 5 - all 4 top dots are filled. The letter h has dots 1, 2 and 5. You would consider adding g to letter 3 as dot 3, then h as removing dot 4 from letter g.

  • In the Nemeth codes used for mathematics texts and in non-fiction writing, the codes for the first 10 letters of the alphabet are dropped at the bottom of the Braille cell.



Writing Braille



Slate and stylus are habitual tools for writing Braille. A slate can be a metal or plastic guide that opens with one end dependent. A slate may be available in various shapes and sizes. A stylus can be a small device about 3 inches long, with a metal dot at one end and a wooden knob or plastic handle at the opposite end.

Card-stock paper is inserted into the slate, and the stylus is therefore employed to make holes within the paper. The holes are perforated which are raised dots that will be read by touch. A slate and stylus are often compared to paper and pencil.

When you write with paper and pencil, you write from left to right, and you also write letters as if they are going to read. Once you write Braille, you want to write the cells in reverse order and you also have to write the letter once from the slate, once you take out the paper from the slate and read the dots rose above. When you flip it, the braille cells are going to be within the correct orientation and order them to read properly.



What do you need to write in Braille?



If you want to write in Braille script, you will need Braille writer. It is a touch like an old-fashioned typewriter, but has only 6 keys. The use of a combination of keys creates all the letters and symbols within the alphabet. You’ll use a slate and stylus - like a notepad that allows you to create braille bumps, if you were to write something quickly.


Like what des braille look?



Braille symbols are created within units of space referred to as Braille cells. A complete Braille cell consists of six raised dots arranged in two parallel rows consisting of three dots. Dot positions are identified with digits from one to six. Sixty-four combinations are possible using one or more of those six points. A cell is often used to represent an alphabet letter, number, punctuation, or perhaps an entire word. This Braille alphabet and number page shows how a cell looks and the way each dot counts.



How Is Braille Written?



When each letter of each word is expressed in Braille, it is called uncontrolled Braille. Some books for young children are written in uncontrolled Braille script, although it is of little use for reading for adults. However, many new blind adults find unruly Braille useful for labeling personal or kitchen items when they are learning Braille for the first time.

The standard system used to reproduce most textbooks and publications is understood as contracted Braille. During this system, cells are used individually or together with others to spread contractions or whole words. For example, the phrase you want in unordered Braille requires twelve cell spaces. It may seem like it.



you like him

If written in contracted Braille, it would take only six cell spaces to write the same phrase. This is often because the letters y and l are also used for you and whole words, respectively. Similarly, it is formed by combining the words h and m. It may look like this:

180 different letter contractions are used in contracted Braille (including 75 abbreviated words like “him” shown above, which are simple abbreviations). These “short cuts” are used to reproduce books in Braille and reduce the amount of paper needed to make the reading process easier. Most young learn contracted Braille from kindergarten, and contracted Braille is taken into account the quality within us, which is used in public places and usually on reading signs.



Braille can also be written in many ways, as printed materials are often produced with a paper and pencil, typewriter, or printer. Braille equivalent to paper and pencil is that slate and stylus. It consists of a slate or template with uniformly spatial depressions for dots of Braille cells, and a stylus for making individual Braille dots. With the paper placed within the slate, tangential points are made by pushing the pointed end of the stylus into the paper over the depressions. The paper is bulging, forming dots on its reverse side. Being inexpensive and portable, slate and stylus are particularly helpful for carrying quick notes and labeling things like file folders.



Frequently Ask and Question



Q. How Does a Blind Person Use a Computer or Smartphone, Anyway?

A. Throughout my day, both at work and at work, both types of people ask me about the type of labor. Once I tell them that I test the software, many of them are understandably curious and ask questions about how a blind person can use a computer, smartphone, or tablet. Some people are curious but a touch nervous about asking questions. If you are interested in this topic, this page was written for you. I want to answer some common questions I often get from people who want to understand how this is possible.



Q. OK, so how does a blind person use a computer, anyway?

A. There are several ways during which this is often done.
First, you want a program on your computer referred to as a screen reader. A screen reader does what its name suggests: it reads what is on the screen using artificial speech and therefore sounds are heard from the computer’s speakers.


Q. Does the voice sound like a robot, like the one from "Lost in Space?"

A. No danger of that, Will Robinson. Actually, most of the synthetic voices used today are very pleasant and a few of them sound remarkably human. I feel closer to voices sounding more like Hal from “2001: an area Odyssey” instead of the robots from fantasy shows from the 1960’s.