Chlorine Metal Or Non Metal

Is Chlorine A Metal Or Non Metal? Yes, it is a Non Metal. Chlorine belongs to group of halogens. When you move from left to right in periodic table, you will find chlorine very next to oxygen. You will found this element very next to oxygen. A number of properties are associated with chlorine. Being non metal, it usage is very common at industrial level and in our daily life. Besides chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine are also halogens and have many characteristics in common with chlorine.

Chlorine Metal or Non metal

Properties Of Chlorine:

The physio-chemical properties of chlorine made it , an important element in the periodic table. its non metallic features are of great importance.

Non-Metallic Properties:

In nature chlorine behaves like a non metal. It is poor conductor of heat and electricity, it is brittle having dull surface, also it is a rigid element. It is obvious that, chlorine is a non metal. Chlorine is not either in liquid state or solid. It is found in gaseous state. It mostly exhibits yellowish green color and a highly reactive gas. It is highly reactive towards many other metals, forming a number of compounds.


In common observation, you will find chlorine in bimolecular form. It need one electron to complete its valence shell, so it is stable. It is the property of non metal to accept electrons from others. So, chlorine is also an electron acceptor. Usually, it accept one electron from others in a chemical reaction, As it need one electron to fulfill its valence shell. While making bond with other elements, chlorine will snatch one electron from the donor atom thus, complete the need of electron to attain stability.


The study of periodic table reveals many information about chlorine. It is member of group 17, its period number is 3. Chlorine fall in p block with an atomic number of seventeen and have seven electrons in last shell.

Physical features:

At room temperature you will find chlorine in gaseous form. You can change it from gas to liquid state, by decreasing the temperature. Some of the physical properties of chlorine are as under: When density of chlorine is considered, it is denser than air.

1. Conductivity:

It is a bad conductor of electricity, as it exists in gaseous form, so the molecules are far from each other, making conduction of electricity difficult.

2. Adour:

It has a very pungent smell. Whenever, you inhale this gas it cause suffocation, irritation in throat, chest pain. When higher concentration is inhaled, it may cause death, because it is poisonous gas It is causally used at industrial level by ensuring the safety of workers.


But long term exposure to this gas is extremely hazardous and harmful for health. Chlorine is slightly soluble in water, due to its non polar nature. It starts dissolving in water with increased temperature and it remain soluble up to a certain temperature. When the optimum temperature of solubility is gained, it becomes insoluble and starts forming hydrates.

4. Isotopes:

Chlorine exists in two isotopic form. When an element exists, having same atomic number but different atomic mass, then it forms isotope Same way, one isotope of chlorine has an atomic mass of 37 and other is of 35 atomic mass. The above mentioned isotopes of chlorine are natural. You can make many isotopes of chlorine artificially.

5. Boiling Point:

In addition, boiling point of chlorine is low. The reason of low boiling point is the weak force of attraction between the molecules. A small amount of energy is needed to break such weak forces. When occurrence of chorine is investigated, it is widely found in earth crust, as well as found in ocean water. It is found in free state and also in combined state in form of salts and minerals.

Chemical Properties:

Chlorine is highly reactive towards many other metals and non metals. On the basis of its good reactivity is is part of a number of compounds like salts of KCL, NACL and many other compounds. Chlorine is reactive towards the following compounds:

1. Reaction With Water:

Chlorine reacts with water to form hypochlorous acid. The reaction of water with chlorine is basic reaction used for water disinfection and bleaching. As result of this reaction, hydrochloric acid is formed as as a byproduct.

2. Reaction With Oxygen:

It reacts with oxygen to form Oxoacids. As the oxidation state of chlorine is -1, it can have oxidation state of of +1, +3 when it forms bond with other metals.

3. Reaction With Hydrogen:

In presence of sunlight, chlorine reacts with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid. This reaction is a quick and spontaneous reaction.

4. Reactions With Metals:

When chlorine reacts with metals, it forms water soluble compounds like chloride compounds. Some compounds formed are insoluble in water. Presence of chlorine in liquid state has no any effects on metals like iron, copper and steel. But at high temperature the reaction become feasible with these metals.

5. Reaction With Organic Compounds:

Chlorinated compounds are result of reaction of chlorine with other organic compounds. Combination of chlorine with hydrocarbons, alcohols is really violent.

6. Chloramines:

Chloramines are inorganic in nature. They are formed by combination of chlorine and ammonia. This reaction highly depends on the concentration of chlorine and ammonia used . Moreover, other factors like temperature, PH also determine the success of reaction. The diamines and trichloramines formed as result of reaction, are widely used in disinfection of water. It is mostly added to water to stop the regrowth of bacterial colony.

Mode Of Action:

the inactivation of bacterial growth by addition of chlorine is not known. Some studies revealed that, it denatures the proteins of microorganism. Sometimes chloramines inactivate the nucleic acid and also target the permeability of membrane. There is high concentration of ammonia in sewage water, therefore chlorine is added to contaminated water for the formation of chloramines. Chlorine residual effect is high when it is used in disinfection.

7. Chlorine Dioxide:

It is a compound containing chlorine. It is soluble in water nd acts as good oxidizing agent. This compound not usually reacts with ammonia. It usage is common as a good water disinfectant. Chlorine dioxide cannot be stored therefore, it is generated at the spot. This compound is more effective than chloramines in destroying microorganisms.


Chlorine is not that much explosive. Sometime, it favors combustion. In presence of chlorine, many materials start burning. This reaction may be violent or sometimes may be slow.

Oxidizing Agent:

Chlorine behaves like an oxidizing agent. It make other elements to reduce loss electrons. As chlorine needs one electron to complete its valence shell electrons. Therefore, the reaction of metals with oxygen is a common phenomena.

Reducing Agent:

Because metals behave as reducing agents, they are capable to loss electrons. All elements of 17 groups are good oxidizing agents i.e chlorine, fluorine and bromine. Oxidation reactions are highly dependent on temperature, the time duration for completion of reaction.


It is the ability of an atom to attract the electrons toward itself. This term is mostly applicable at that time when, a chemical bond has formed. It is the ability of atom to attract shared electrons toward itself. If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is zero, then it leads to the formation of non polar covalent bond.

Electronegativity Difference:

If the difference is large, then there is formation of ionic bond. While a small electronegativity difference, cause the formation of covalent bond. when chlorine reacts with metals, it act as high electronegative atom, leading to the formation of ionic bond.

Atomic Size:

The distance of last shell from the nucleus determine the atomic size of an element. When we move from left to right across the period, atomic size will decrease. Because more number of electrons are added to the last shell, which lead to increase in force of attraction between last shell and the nucleus. In this way the size of atom reduce.

Down The Group:

Likewise, atomic size increases as we move from top to bottom. Because number of electrons in the valance shell remain same, and number of shells start increasing. This will reduce the force of attraction between nucleus and outer shell. The size of chlorine would be less as compared to iodine down the group.


Chlorine is considered as non metal. It is member of halogens of group seventeen. Being a good non metal, this element has the attention of chemists and industrialists. It is treated as a good oxidizing agent among non metals. It is found in nature in form of gas. By decreasing temperature, it is converted into liquid. Furthermore, is a reactive elements forming a number of compounds with metals, non metal and hydrocarbons. Many useful salts are formed, if chlorine reacts with group two elements. Sodium chloride, which is called table salt, is a product of chlorine. Moreover, a very violent reaction takes place when chlorine reacts with hydrogen in presence of light, forming hydrochloric acid.

Uses OF Chlorine:

In our daily life, we are using chlorine for different purposes. It is used as water disinfectant. It is also used to make different products which are essential for improving health of people. It is also playing a vital role in technology, medicines and in chemistry. Some of the important uses of chlorine are as under:

Household Disinfectant:

For disinfection of clothes, room surfaces, it is used as a bleaching agent. Chlorine is diluted by addition of water, to kill germs on the surface of tables and floor. Nowadays, Corona is an emerging health issue for people all over the world. The use of chlorine as a disinfectant will reduce the occurrence of corona and other health issues associated with it.


Many bacteria are part of our food, causing foodborne diseases i.e food poisoning. By disinfecting surfaces with chlorine, which are in contact with our food, we can easily reduce the risk of unsafe food consumption. use of chlorine in chemistry can also help to increase crop yield, by protecting crops from pests and other microorganisms.


Manufacturing of different medicines for cholesterol, arthritis pain and allergy symptoms involve chlorine. So chlorine chemistry play a great role in ensuring our good health.


There is role of chlorine in generating solar energy for industrial and household usage. Wind turbine blades are made from chlorine based resins, which re really useful for generating wind energy.

Building And Construction:

Chlorine chemistry involves the formation of plastic foam, which are efficient in reducing energy bills and play role in heating and conditioning of home. Colorful paints, which we are using in our daily life for enhancing beauty of buildings are product of chlorine.


In planes, trains, boats, chlorine is used for the manufacture of seat cushions, and airbags. The windows, wires and navigation system also involve chlorine chemistry.


Chlorines is used to disinfect water of consumption as well as in swimming pool. Where it serves to kill bacteria and other gems that can cause different disease in the body of consumers. Chlorination of water is also important to remove the smell and bad taste of water. Chlorination also reduce the fungal and algal growth in water storage.

Safety Information

As chlorine is Highly reactive, therefore it rarely found in elemental form. Therefore, chlorine is found in form of compounds. It is not sold to consumers directly, but it is used to make consumer products. As chlorine is used in swimming pool, so swimmer should use protective masks and gears to avoid the entry of chlorine in the body, as it is highly harmful for harmful health. While using chlorine as as bleaching agent, handle with care to avoid any sort of damage.

Sodium Chloride:

It is a salt which is formed, when chlorine reacts with sodium metal. It is an important compound which played vital roles in our body. Sodium chloride is of whitish color.

Common Usage:

  • We need optimum concentration of NaCl for normal functioning of our body. For absorption and transportation of nutrients we need sodium chloride.

  • In addition, for maintenance of blood pressure and body fluid, it is important.

  • It play a huge role in transmitting nerve signals in our whole body thus, helps in coordination.

  • We prefer to use sodium chloride for cooking to enhance the taste of our food. It is a good preservative and additive, used in processed food for long term preservation of food.

Role In Medicines:

In field of medical, it is used as saline solution like IV drips, nasal drops, cleansing drops and saline injections. If you are a heart patient, then a diet containing low sodium is recommended. When you take sodium in excessive amount, it can cause irritation to eyes, skin and stomach. it excess usage also leads to increase blood pressure.


The elements which belongs to 17 group are halogens. Among which chlorine is on the top. Besides, fluorine, bromine and iodine are good halogens. These elements are called halogens because they are salt formers. Mostly produce sodium salts. Halogen elements have a close relationship with each other in aspects of chemical behavior and in properties of their compounds. But some properties change from top to bottom. Fluoride’s compounds are of great importance.


  • They are also in common usage to prevent tooth decay.

  • Iodine is a good antiseptic used for wounds dressing. At room temperature, halogens exists in diatomic form.

  • Halogens need high ionization energies. As atomic number of halogens increase, the ionization energy also increase. All halogen elements have ability to form bond with hydrogen. Hydrogen bond between hydrogen and fluoride is weaker, therefore need less energy in order to break the bonds. All halogens have seven electrons in valence shell so mostly, they have an oxidation number of -1.


We cannot avoid the use of chlorine in our daily life. we don’t buy chlorine directly from any store for our consumption. It is part of different compounds, and products which we are using in our life. We use it as disinfectant of water and swimming pool. A number of microbial diseases are overcome by its usage. Chlorine chemistry is doing great work, in ensuring good health and food safety. Salts of halogens like sodium chloride is essential component of our body.

metals Nonmetals
Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity Nonmetals are poor conductor of electricity
Metals are of shiny surface The surface of nonmetals is really dull
These are strong and hard While these are brittle and weak
Mostly these are solid at room temperature These are liquid and gas at normal temperature.
Strong bonding exists between atoms of metal Weak force of attraction is present

Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Is breakdown of chlorine is possible in water?

Yes, dissociation of chorine is possible. As it is unstable element so, it reacts with water and other compounds forming chloride and acids.

2. What concentration of chlorine is safe in drinking water?

The concentration of chlorine should be in less amount which is added to water. At high concentration it is toxic to the consumer adversely effecting the health.

3. Is sunlight is needed for chlorine to work?

Exposure to sunlight for some duration is needed to make reaction of chlorine feasible. The exposure should not be for long period of time. Otherwise, the reactivity will reduce drastically.

4. What are the side effects of chlorination?

The long term effects of chlorination are not good for health. It reaction with other elements in water many form some deleterious compounds which would be harmful for human and also for aquatic life.

5. Does chlorine has any effect on human health?

Yes, chlorine effects our health in many ways. Either it is building block of medicines which are useful for our health. At the same time, it may cause problems in breathing and increase in the lungs fluid.

6. Can we heat chlorine?

On heating, chlorine reacts with substances explosively forming such substances which are hazardous. It may reacts with ammonia, other metals and non metals in nature.

7. Can non metals reacts with chlorine?

Of course, non metals can react with chlorine. But the bond between chlorine and non metal would of covalent in nature. Thus leading to the formation of covalent chlorides.

8. What are the uses of non metals?

Non metals are used in different fields. Chlorine is use in chlorination, oxygen is used for breathing. Likewise, we are using nitrogen and potassium in fertilizers to improve corps yield.

9. What is chlorine chemistry?

The practical application of chlorine is included in chlorine chemistry. Nowadays, practical application of chlorine is common and widely spread for the betterment of human being.

10. What make non metals unique?

Non metals are really brittle and have low melting point. Moreover, they are either in liquid or in gaseous state at normal temperature. In this way non metals are considered unique.


From above comprehensive discussion ,it is proved that non metallic properties are associated with it, differentiating it from metals in our surrounding. Being non metal, it is an insulator. Moreover, it forms strong bonding with other metals in the periodic table. In the formation of covalent bonds, it has to react with non metals. There is existence of weak force of attraction between atoms, participating in covalent bonding. Application of chlorine, is widely spread in every sector of our life from health to the transportation sector. So, no body can deny its importance in our life. Day by day, we are observing development in chlorine chemistry. Which is a good sign of continuous progress in proper application of chlorine.

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