Ammonium Sulfide

Ammonium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2S. It can react with base and acid both with different outcomes. Ammonium Sulfide is strong reducing agent and can be found in yellow color or colorless. Its smell resembles with the ammonia compound.

:eight_pointed_black_star: About Ammonium Sulfide

:small_red_triangle_down: Fast Facts

Compound Ammonium Sulfide
Formula: (NH4)2S
Molar mass: 68.154 g/mol
Density: 997 kg/m³
Boiling Point: 104 ° F
Appearance: Yellow crystal
Flash Point: 72 ° F
Formulation: 20-24% in water
Physical State: Liquid
Solubility: Soluble in water.
ChemSpider ID: 23808

The aqueous solution of AMMONIUM SULFIDE is very alkaline. Hydrogen sulphide is formed when hydrogen sulphide reacts with acids. Ammonia gas is released when it reacts with bases. Oxidizing substances, such as inorganic oxoacids, organic peroxides, and epoxides, may react violently with this compound.

Commercially accessible aqueous solutions of ammonium sulphide (CAS registration number 12135-76-1), also known as diammonium sulphide, are available, although their composition is unknown, as they might include a combination of ammonia and (NH4)SH.

Photographic development, metal patination, and textile manufacture all employ ammonium sulphide solutions. For example, 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene can be employed as a selective reducing agent (cf. 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene).

NH4HS is not mentioned in the 1990-1991 CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, but the former two are described separately as yellow crystalline substances that are soluble in cold water and alcohol and decompose in hot water or at high temperatures (115°C for the pentasulfide) and that decompose in hot water or at high temperatures (NH4HS).

When it comes to the “stink shell,” the solution of ammonium sulphide in water enclosed in an ampoule has been dubbed the “stink shell” (a small bottle-like container used to store a liquid securely). Hydrogen sulphide gas and ammonia gas are emitted when the ampoule is shattered.

The stench of these substances is really noxious. As a white crystallised solid, however (which also decomposes in hot water). Solid ammonium sulphide appears to be separate from solid ammonium hydrosulfide, even though this is not true in water.


In this salt, ammonium cation and hydrosulfide anion are combined. Colorless, water-soluble, micaceous crystals of salt are found. NH4SH ice is thought to make up a significant portion of the cloud decks of Jupiter and Saturn, and the sulphur created by its photolysis is thought to be responsible for the hue of certain of those planets’ clouds.

:eight_pointed_black_star: Reactivity Profile Of Ammonium Sulfide

Reactivity Profile Of Ammonium Sulfide

AMMONIUM SULFIDE SOLUTION is a very alkaline aqueous solution with a strong base. When it comes into contact with acids, it produces hazardous gaseous hydrogen sulphide. When it comes into contact with bases, it releases gaseous ammonia. It has the potential to react violently with oxidizing agents such as inorganic oxoacids, organic peroxides, and epoxides.

Special Dangers Associated with Combustion Products: When a solution is heated, a toxic gas called hydrogen sulphide is released. If this is burned, it will release irritant sulphur dioxide gas into the atmosphere. The following are some examples of reactivity alerts:

:small_red_triangle_down: Air & Water Reactions

In air, it is easily oxidised and becomes pyrophoric. Ammonium sulphide decomposes slowly in the presence of moisture, releasing hydrogen sulphide, which is a dangerous gas. When the pure chemical is initially dissolved in water, it generates a significant amount of heat.

:small_red_triangle_down: Potential Fire Hazard

Heat causes toxic hydrogen sulphide gas to be emitted, posing a danger to anyone who work with or around combustion products. If this is burned, it will release irritant sulphur dioxide gas into the atmosphere.

:small_red_triangle_down: Health Hazard

Inhalation of 500 parts per million (ppm) for 30 minutes results in headaches, dizziness, and bronchial pneumonia; inhalation of 600 parts per million (ppm) for 30 minutes might result in mortality.


The ingestion of this substance produces significant irritation of the mucous membranes and the stomach. When liquid comes into contact with the eyes, it produces severe burns and severe skin irritation. It is possible that this substance will be absorbed via the skin and induce hydrogen sulphide poisoning.

:eight_pointed_black_star: 10 Basic Rules for Safely Handling Compounds

Rules for Safely Handling Compounds

Human exposure to chemicals and other hazardous elements can have a variety of consequences, ranging from minor skin irritation to serious long-term diseases such as cancer. As a result of being aware of the hazards that exist, it is critical to establish a culture of safety for those who handle, transport, and store these types of products.

It is necessary by federal laws that all personnel who have a responsibility for handling hazardous chemicals receive adequate hazmat training. However, this does not absolve your organisation of the obligation of creating an atmosphere that is favourable to the safe handling of hazmat materials.

Make it a point to encourage your staff to take responsibility for establishing and maintaining a safe working environment. Begin by adhering to these ten guidelines, which reflect the most effective methods of avoiding a hazmat event.

1 - Determine the dangers that exist in the workplace. Recognize which items in the workplace pose a threat to health and safety.

2 - Training and information on hazardous items in your workplace should be provided to employees. As previously indicated, government training is required, but only a bare minimum is specified.

3 - Consider the possible risks and plan beforehand… Prepare for the possibility of hazardous spills or exposure-related emergencies with plans and procedures in place. Emergency protocols, including evacuation, clean-up, or what to do in the event of a fire, must be made clear to staff.

4 - Always make use of personal safety gear (PPE). The PPE should be examined before each usage and replaced if it is old or broken. Using and regularly inspecting proper control measures like ventilation hoods is a must in every industrial setting.

5 - Ensure that any potentially dangerous products are clearly labelled… Do not store hazardous materials in anything that isn’t properly labelled as hazmat containers.

6 - Properly store and dispose of all dangerous items. Chemicals should be stored in dry, cold, and well-ventilated places, and incompatible materials should be kept apart. All hazardous containers should have their lids securely secured, meaning they are leak-proof and vapor-tight. It’s important to keep these storage locations clear of hazards like sharp objects or anything that might attract pests or rats.

7 - Use dangerous items only for the reasons for which they were designed.

8 - Do not eat or drink anything while working with potentially hazardous products, and wash your hands often after completing any of these activities.

9 - Before handling any chemicals, employees handling hazardous materials should read the labels and have the safety data sheet (SDS) available so they know what to do in the event of a spill or exposure to that chemical.

10 - If you have any concerns regarding broken containers or any leaks or spills, please let us know right once! Even if a suspicion turns out to be false, it’s better to be safe than sorry, as the adage goes.


When it comes to working with potentially dangerous products, the old adage “prevention is better than cure” certainly applies. You may reduce the likelihood of a hazmat handling mishap by following these ten principles religiously.

:eight_pointed_black_star: Physical Properties

The chemical Ammonium Sulfide has a yellow-orange tint to it due to the presence of sulphur. It is a crystalline solid at temperatures below -18 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, when it comes to the way it smells, it has a strong, terrible stench that is comparable to that of rotten eggs and ammonia.

Furthermore, the melting point of Ammonium Sulfide is zero degrees Celsius, but the boiling point is forty degrees Celsius. Ammonium Sulfide has a density of 1 gmL-1 in addition to the other characteristics. It is also soluble in two different substances, namely water and ethanol.

Similar to this, it is not soluble in toluene, benzene, hexane, or ether, among other substances. First and foremost, it becomes unstable at temperatures higher than 0 degrees Celsius.

:eight_pointed_black_star: Preparation Of Ammonium Sulfide

It is possible to generate ammonium hydrosulfide solutions by passing hydrogen sulphide gas through a solution of concentrated ammonium chloride. The reaction of hydrogen sulphide with concentrated aqueous ammonia solution at normal temperature produces (NH4)2S2NH4HS, according to a thorough 1895 paper on the subject.

(NH4)2S12NH4HS is formed when the above-mentioned species is cooled to 0 degrees Celsius and treated with additional hydrogen sulphide. Using an ice-cold solution of this chemical, maintained at 0 degrees Celsius, and passing hydrogen sulphide through it continuously, the compound hydrosulfide is formed.

The most popular “stink shell” is an aqueous solution of ammonium sulphide, which is flammable. A quick conversion of the mixture into ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gases occurs. This conversion demonstrates the simplicity with which the following equilibrium may be achieved:

(NH4)SH⇌ NH3 + H2S

:eight_pointed_black_star: The Formula and Structure of Ammonium Sulfide

It is possible to write the formula for Ammonium Sulfide as (NH4)2S. On the other hand, the molar mass of Ammonium Sulfide is 66.122 grams per mol-1 of water. When we look at the synthesis of this molecule, we can see that it is formed with the help of a sulphur atom that is center-centered and to which two ammonium cations NH4+ are attached.

Furthermore, the chemical structure of the formula may be written as follows, using the usual representations for synthesis Protein synthesis process that we are familiar with. The odours of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide are both strong and unpleasant to the senses.

:eight_pointed_black_star: Things to Consider While Preparation Of Ammonium Sulfide

All of the work techniques covered in this chapter are underpinned by four essential ideas. As part of the laboratory’s culture of safety, it should be recommended that each of these factors be taken into account before commencing work.

:small_red_triangle_down: Make a plan ahead of time

Before commencing an experiment, identify any potential dangers that may be involved in the experiment.

:small_red_triangle_down: Reduce contact to chemicals

Allowing laboratory chemicals to come into touch with the skin is not recommended. When it is practicable, use laboratory chemical hoods and other ventilation systems to protect yourself from exposure to airborne contaminants.

:small_red_triangle_down: Don’t underestimate the dangers or threats that may be there

It is reasonable to assume that any chemical combination will be more harmful than the sum of its most poisonous components. All novel chemicals and substances with unknown toxicity should be treated as harmful substances.

Consider how the chemicals will be treated and whether the nature of the danger will vary as a result of changing states or forms (for example, small particles vs bulk material).

:small_red_triangle_down: Accidents can happen at any time

Before you begin an experiment, be sure you understand what you will do in the case of an unintentional discharge of a potentially harmful material. Placing emergency and accident phone numbers in a visible area will help people in an emergency or accident.

Understand the position of all safety equipment, as well as the location of the nearest fire alarm and telephone, and who to contact in the case of a disaster. Prepare to give basic emergency medical care if the need arises. Keep your coworkers up to date on your actions so that they can respond in the best way possible.


The waste generated by virtually every laboratory experiment includes items such as used disposable labware, filter media and related materials, aqueous solutions, and potentially dangerous substances.

:eight_pointed_black_star: Occurrence

In nature, ammonium sulphide does not exist as a free compound, as has been demonstrated by scientific evidence. On the contrary, it must be prepared in advance, and the procedure for preparing this chemical is as follows:

In order to manufacture Ammonium Sulfide, one must first obtain a reaction between ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, which is a chemical reaction.

HS + exc NH3 → (NH4)2S

:eight_pointed_black_star: Uses Of Ammonium Sulfide

Uses Of Ammonium Sulfide

Ammonium Sulfide is a common chemical ingredient. Most commonly, it’s used to play pranks on people. As a result, you can utilise it to make a “stink shell.” The chemical is diluted with water. Ammonia and hydrogen sulphide are produced when the stink shell is submerged in water.

As a result, there is a noxious odour. Similarly, it’s used in photo development. A patina may be applied to bronze using this combination.

Additionally, it is used in the textile manufacturing process. A reducing agent, Ammonium Sulfide can also be used in some organic synthesis procedures. Ammonium sulphide has a wide range of uses, including:

  • Process input for developing film for photography

  • The patina for bronze is applied with this sponge.

  • Used in the textile industry

As a synthetic fertilizer for alkaline soils, ammonium sulphate is the most typical choice. An ammonium ion is released when ammonium sulphate is dissolved in water. Acid is produced as a result, lowering the soil’s pH level.

As a result of its nitrogen content, it assists in the development of plants. In comparison to other synthetic fertilizers, it degrades more slowly, making it more cost-effective. Herbicides employ ammonium sulphate because it burns the leaves of plants, either killing them or weakening them so that they may be easily removed.

Printed circuit boards are made with this substance. Because it decreases the combustion temperature and increases the amount of residue or chars produced, it is also used in flame retardant materials such as fibreglass and polyester.

Ammonium sulphate is a food ingredient that stimulates yeast, hence it helps to get bread to rise in an industrial setting. Finally, throughout the purifying process, it plays a vital function. Ammonium sulphate is used in the DTap vaccination, which protects children against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.

People and the environment might be in risk if ammonium sulphate is used carelessly. If inhaled, it can cause severe respiratory system irritation and inflammation. Ammonium sulphate can produce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea when ingested.


Although it is not harmful unless consumed in excessive quantities. Irritation, redness, itching, and soreness are all signs of contact with the skin or eyes. Confusion and behavioral problems may also be a result of this neurotoxic.

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs

People ask many questions about ammonium sulfide. We discussed a few of them below:

:one: What is ammonium sulfide used for?

There are several uses for ammonium sulphide solutions, including photography processing and bronze patina application. There are several stink shells that employ it as an active ingredient due to its unpleasant odour.

:two: What is the name for ammonium sulfide?

It is also known as diammonium sulphide. It is an inorganic chemical that is most commonly found in a solution, and it is utilized in a variety of applications such as photographic development and textile manufacture. Formula and organisational structure: The chemical formula for ammonium sulphide is (NH4)2S, and the molar mass of the compound is 66.122 g mol-1.

:three: What is ammonium sulphate, and how does it work?

Ammonium sulphate is a sulphate salt produced by the reaction of sulfuric acid with two ammonia equivalents. It is widely used as an alkaline soil fertilizer in both agricultural and industrial contexts due to its high melting point (280°C) and high water solubility (70.6 g/100 g at 0°C and 103.8 g/100 g water at 100°C).

:four: What is the purpose of ammonium phosphate?

Not only may ammonium phosphate be used to help feed humans, but it can also be used to help feed plants. Additionally, fertilisers containing ammonium phosphate frequently aid in the supply of nitrogen to the surrounding soil, which further aids in the development of root systems and the growth of plants.

:five: Is ammonium a chromate in any way?

Sodium Chromate (also known as Ammonium Chromate) is a yellow crystalline (sand-like) substance that may be utilized in solution. It is used to prevent corrosion, dye fabrics, photograph, and conduct chemical processes, among other things… * Due to the fact that it is a CARCINOGEN, this compound is included on the Special Health Hazard Substances List.

:six: What is the pH of nh4cl in decibels?

Using ammonium chloride as a 5 percent by weight solution in water, the pH will be in the range of 4.6 to 6.0. Some of the interactions that ammonium chloride has with other compounds are endothermic, such as its reaction with barium hydroxide and its dissolution in water, for example.

:seven: Is ammonium sulphate a beneficial fertiliser or a waste product?

Ammonium sulphate contains 21 percent nitrogen, making it an excellent fertilizer for any growing plants, especially evergreens, that require nitrogen. However, because of its 24 percent Sulphur content, Ammonium Sulfate will reduce the pH level of the soil as well, therefore you must take care to ensure that the pH level of the soil does not drop too much.

:eight: Do you think ammonium sulphide can be used as a reducing agent?

A selective reducing agent (e.g., 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene) can be utilized when there are two nitro groups present, with just one of the nitro groups being selected for reduction.

:nine:When ammonium sulphate is heated, what exactly happens?

When heated over 250 degrees Celsius, ammonium sulphate decomposes, first generating ammonium bisulfate and then ammonium sulphate. When heated at higher temperatures, ammonia, nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, and water are released, resulting in decomposition.

:keycap_ten: What is the function of ammonium sulphide?

In its natural state, ammonium Sulfide appears as a yellow, crystalline (sand-like) solid that is commonly found in solution in water. It has a distinct rotten egg and ammonia stench and is used in “stink shell,” photographic development, and textile manufacture, among other applications.

:closed_book: Conclusion

Ammonium sulphide is a volatile salt. It is a large-scale reagent used in textile manufacturing, photographic development, bronze patina, and trace metal analysis. This molecule is also used in cell culture, organic chemistry, and immunohistochemistry. It is also utilised in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivation. It has been used to doubly stain astrocytes and microglia in brain slices and astroglial cell cultures.

It is a poisonous substance with a very strong and unpleasant odour. They are very flammable and have the chemical formula (NH4)2S. This is made by treating ammonium hydroxide with excess hydrogen sulphide, which is then treated with the equivalent amount of ammonia to yield ammonium sulphide. An overview of the ammonium sulphide formula and its features.

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