C++ Programming Language

C++ is a programming language that is based on professionalized work. C++ is mostly used in high-level databases like huge companies of business and trades. Bjarne Stroustrup officially developed and introduced C++ to the world and made it an important role in the history of programming. There are many programming languages but C++ is known for the best.

What is C++ made for?

Stroustrup states that the purpose of C++ is to **make writing good programs easier and more pleasant for the individual programmer. When Stroustrup was working on C++, he added OOP (Object Oriented Programming) features to C without significantly changing the C component.

In the early 1970s, a guy named Dennis Ritchie who used to work for Bell Laboratories reached out for an operating system. Ritchie found out that in order to complete his work precisely, he would need a programming language to work on to make his work more easier. This need made him to make a professional programming language which we call it C++.

In the 1980s, a new programming language was invented which was based on C language and it had some more features than C language. This new language was C++ which was created by Bjarne Stroustrup. Stroustrup announced that he has created C++ to make it easy for the new programmers and individual programmers who used to work on their own.

He added the main material known as OOP (Object Oriented Programming) when creating the programming language which included many features. While C++ has a close relation with C, because of its name and its features too. There are multiple version of C++ around the internet, but there is only one of them which is Visual.

Why Use C++?

C++ is known for its best programming features and the features it provides for databases. It is popular among the computers of today’s generations because of its reliable features. C++ allows its users or programmers to code their work without any script hooking which means it does not takes any kind of root to work. C++ known as an outdated programming language but it is known for the best because of its quality and the features it provides with less effort.

How C++ works?

Developers are often vague about what happens behind the scenes when a compiler creates a C++ source code. Google “how does a compiler work in C++? and you will find a lot of information about it which will clear all your doubts about C++.

Here’s a simple breakdown of the process. A source code is converted to an object code to make it easy and readable for the computer which is done by a compiler. This machine-readable code is usually made up of zeroes and ones since it’s in binary form. Now, the compiler will be able to run the program as executable files.

In reality, the process is much more complex. You must learn some information about nuts and bolts to be safe from all the errors.

If you are having trouble with the C++ code you have written, or someone else has written for you, you can always find expert advice on Freelancer.com. The people who are professionals in C++ can find some codes in your work…

First Step: Preprocessing

Whenever you write a source file with C++, you uses extension like .h, .hxx, or .hpp and sometimes you dont even you any extension. Mostly, the source file has the extension .cc, .cxx or .cpp.

In the first step, the compiler send a code to the preprocessor. Then, a preprocessor is simply directive and starts with #. There are some preprocessors like #include, #if, #then, #else, and #line which the compiler uses to contract with

Have a look at #define as it describes its forms. The operator # tells the compiler to carry out all the mathematical instructions. The compiler creates a symbol with #define known as a macro.

define macro-name replacement-text

Here’s an example code:

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

#define PI 3.14159

int main()

{
    cout << "Value of PI:" << PI << endl;
    return0;
}

In the preprocessing stage, the file will read like this:

int main()

{
    cout << "Value of PI:" << 3.14159 << endl;
    return 0;
}

You can see the preprocessed source code by passing -E to the g++ compiler.

$gcc - E test.cpp > test.p

Using this way, the compiler will run the C++ on each of the source files. When it comes to #include, the preprocessor starts searching the files covered in it.

At this stage, the preprocessor also takes a look at conditional compilation blocks such as #ifdef, #ifndef, #endif, and removes code that won’t be needed. These conditional directives will let you to make a seperate part of a program.

Meanwhile, the source code file is temporarily expanded throughout the preprocessing stage, which makes it even more efficient. This file has a greater number of lines than your simple source code. You can print this preprocessed file on stdout. Header files add bulk to the code. The more will be the header file, the longer preprocessed file will be.

Step Two: Compilation & Assembly

The next stage of compilation in C++ is very similar to what happens in C. The compiler then takes each output from the preprocessor then turns it into a assembly code.

Firstly, it transform the C++ code into the assembly code. Assembly code is a binary code that we can read.

Sometimes, it can be useful to read the assembly code. It is the satge when the compiler performs its main tasks and does them better than humans. Here gives you an example of how compilation.

#include "print.hpp"

int main(int argc, char* argv[])

{
    printSum(2, 3);
    pringSum(2.5f, 3.5f);
    printSumInt(4, 5);
    printSumFloat(4.5f, 5.5f);
    return 0;
}

Format! Style:

C++ online code formatter © 2014 by KrzaQ

Powered by vibe.d, the D language and clang-format

You have to compile this code to get the .cpp, here is an example of how will it look alike:

$ g++ - c CPP - main.CPP

                    $ nm
    - C cpp - main.o

              0000000000000000 T main

                  U printSumFloat

                      U printSumInt

                          U
                          printSum(float, float)

                              U printSum(int, int)

Here, you can see that the compiler exports the function main, and four other sum functions, which are symbols. In the example above, the compiler created an object code with the help of source code. The object code contains various symbols with data.

Note that object files can also refer you the codes or symbols that they have not defined properly. It happens when you use any declaration file but does not provides its definition. The compiler will be able to produce an object file by using the the help of source code.

Step 3: Assembly

After that, the assembler then converts the code from assembly into a bit code. A binary file becomes an output for this stage which uses the format of COFF, ELF. You can stop compiling at this point, which is good because you can then compile each of them separately.

You can put every single object in your save libraries to make his data safe and to keep using it further and can easily make edits in it.

Step Four: Linking

When you link and run the code that we’ve used as an example in step two, you get the result:

$ g++ - o CPP-app sum.o print.o CPP - main.o

$. /cpp-app
2 + 3 = 5

2.5 + 3.5 = 6

4 + 5 = 9

4.5 + 5.5 = 10

You would not get the result without linking the object files that the assembler made in previous various locations, which are then turned by assembler. It is stated a job of a professional linker to produce either dynamic library orany executable file.

Shared and Static libraries does have any relation with the static libraries. Static libraries are used as archives of the object code to avoid data interruptions and are linked with a user-end application.

Dynamic libraries are modules that contain data and functions that can be used by another application. The linker links all the correct files and replaces them with their correct symbols with all the data captured and transferred. Each of the symbols can easily be defined with a different static library source. If the static symbols are defined in not any standard library, then you need to let the compiler do so.

The stage of linking can obviously produce some errors. The definition which are missing can contain alot more useful data and information that need to be accesed early, then the compiled data gets stored to perform the task. Error of duplication mainly occurs when two libraries or even object files contains the definiton of the same library.

These are a few stages that are used by compilers to get your codes to go through. There are obviously more of them but there is not so much space to get it fit, the header guard or even compilers get to their works. Lets assume, you will be able to use header guards more perfectly when you will understand preprocessing.

Header guards can easily be placed using 3 or more preprocessors working on the same header file. You can place two of these at the beginning of a file, in the formats:

#ifndef MY_HEADER

#define MY_HEADER

These two lines follow each other at the top of the code. At the end of the file, you place the line:

#endif /*MY_HEADER*/

Here, the unique, user-defined symbol MY_HEADER serves as a marker. When the pre-processor comes through the symbol for the very first time, the #ifndef becomes true. The pre-processor includes the code between the first and the last lines of the header and the rest are sent to the compiler.

How Complicated is C++?


C++ is particularly complicated because it is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose language, which strives to be efficient, not easy to learn. The language C++ was officially designed to make poor people get out of their foolish thinkings and start over their new lives with new broad minds ahead, so it makes a fact that it must have been created to its easiest level as it can. Its user interface is very minimalistic and sufficient enough for a newcomer get to understand.

But C++ contains some sort of lengthiness, as it is a programming language and is specially used in databases. At the time of its launch, many newcomers to get stressed out by using it, because of its lengthiness. C++ also contains some bugs and glitches. The application holding many bugs will get terminated from your computer as it cannot handle it. It contains many useful knowledge that will lead it to a big fault as it cannot be recycled. However: C++'s weaknesses are also its strengths.

It’s very predictable. C++ always follows your commands, if you want it to work on this material, it will do as you said. The lack of built in memorization lets you perform heavy tasks, and get concerned with your go to algorithms. You can use reference counting if you want. Or not. There are lots of great container libraries (boost!).

Majority of today’s generation operating systems still uses C++ as their main processing language. Many people have predicted the death of C++ for years. (Even after they spent years writing nothing but C++).

What are the Advantages and Dis Advantages of C++?

There are many advantages of C++, some of them are:

Advantages :

1) Object-oriented

One of the biggest advantages of C++ is the feature of object-oriented programming which includes concepts like classes, inheritance, polymorphism, data abstraction, and encapsulation that allow code reusability and make a program even more reliable.

2) Multi-paradigm

C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language. The term “Paradigm” is used to confirm the style and the way of programming. It contains the logics and the stuctures of the program.

3) Low-level Manipulation

The C++ is closely associated with C, which contains many types of procedures, it refers to the best manipulation through its databases. Embedded systems and compilers are created with the help of C++.

There are not too many disadvantages of C++, some of them are :

Dis Advantages

1) Security Issue

Although object-oriented programming offers a lot of security to the data being handled as compared to other programming languages that are not object-oriented, like C, certain security issues still exist due to the availability of friend functions, global variables and, pointers.

2) Garbage Collector Absence

C++ provides its users early access to get their data onto the ave places and make sure that it is safe.

3) Absence of Built-in Thread

C++ does not support any built-in threads. Threads were not officially announced, but it has been updated.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is C++ the hardest programming language?
C++ is not so hardest, but yes it is hard for a new comer to understand. We don’t actually say that java is easier or C++ is easier, but yes both of them are easy.

Is it hard to learn C ++?
Nothing is hard for you if you want to clearly learn it. C++ are known to be the most basic programming languages because of their user interface…

Is C++ harder than Java?
No, not actually, but it is more effiicient and have more feature then java. For a guy who wants to learn basic programmming, C++ is the best choic in my opinion.

Is C++ a good first programming language?
Particularly yes, it is because as I told you that C++ is a very basic programming language because of its features, it can be easily learnt by a new comer.

Should I learn C or C++ first?
For beginners, it is suggested by many professinals that they should use C first then after 3 to 4 months working on C, they can easily switch C++.

CONCLUSION

If I had to extract this article in some lines it would be that, it is that C++ is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. Most high-level machine language libraries use C++ as the backend. C++ is more faster than any other programming language because it is a basic one and has many advanced features.

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