Phosphorus Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

Phosphorus is a chemical element having 15 protons, 15 electrons & 16 neutrons. The atomic number 15 determines the group of fifteen for phosphorus in the periodic table. Phosphorus has a triply locked electronic structure with 2, 8, and 5-shells in K, L, and M. Therefore, the element belongs to PERIOD 3. This article explores phosphorus as a non-metal & where to find it in nature.

Configuration of Phosphorus Electrons

Phosphorus is present in two main forms; red and white Phosphorus. This element does not occur in its pure form on Earth because of its reactivity.

Phosphorus for plants is a vital part. Phosphorus demand for it is growing twice as fast as human community growth. Plants take phosphate from the soil each year in large amounts. There needs to be a fill-up of the phosphate in the ground.

Fact Box

Symbol P
Melting Point 44.15 C
Boiling Point 280.5C
Atomic Number 15
Period 3

Protons and Neutrons in Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P) has 15 atomic numbers with 15 protons and 16 neutrons. Its chemical symbol is "P ".

An atomic number is the sum of protons in an atom’s nucleus. “Z” represents the total number of protons in the atom. “+Ze” denotes the nucleus’ entire electrical charge.

The neutron number of an atom is “the sum of all neutrons in its nucleus”, and “N” denotes them. The sum of the N & Z equals the mass number.

Neutron excess can achieve by subtracting N and Z. The method to compute neutron excess is.

There may be many distinct stable isotopes for each solid element. The mass numbers of P isotopes are 31p.

About Protons

Proton is a spin–½ fermion with a mean square range of about 0.87 1015 m, or 0.87 fm. Protons have a positive charge that contributes to forming an atom’s nucleus. These ions are common in the universe & account for half-visible matters. Although a proton has the same amount of charge and rests mass as a neutron, it is lighter. Proton has a +1e electric charge and a rest mass of 1.67262 × 10-27 kg (938.272 MeV/c2), which is less than a Neutron.

The nucleus of standard atoms includes protons and their neutral partners, neutrons. Nuclei or nucleons are bound with each other and account for 99.9% of the atom mass.

About Neutrons

Neutrons are a rich component of the universe and account for over half of all visible matter. Subatomic ions form matter and contain neutrons. Neutrons having a mass of 1.67493 x 10 -24 grams are charge free. The neutron is a spin-½ fermion with a mean square radius of about 0.81015 m or 0.8 fm.

The nuclear force attracts neutrons and protons. The electric power repels them, owing to their “+ive” charge. So These two forces compete with various nuclei constancy.

Neutrons & Protons keep the nucleus forth by the attraction of each other. It helps to counter the electrical repulsion between them. For a stable nucleus, there must be equal electrons and protons. If any one of them leads or lags, it makes isotopes unstable. And due to instability, it emits radioactivity. Most unstable isotopes undergo alpha and beta decline. There can be electron capture due to being radioactive. Many further rare forms of failure are common. Most unstable isotopes undergo alpha and beta decline. There can be electron capture due to being radioactive. And many radioactive elements emit gamma radiation, which is a type of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation can occur in all these declines at the same time.

Main Isotopes of Phosphorus

Twenty-three isotopes of P, ranging from 25P to 47P. P-31 is stable, so it is present to its full extent.

P-31 has a half-life of about 0.2 ms. 31P is stable, and thus it is present in its entirety. It is one of the most stable nuclides.

Phosphorous-31 NMR is a powerful analytical tool in P analysis. P-31 has 15 protons, 15 electrons, and 16 neutrons. Half-integer, nuclear spin and high amount of 31P make it robust.

Electrons and Electron Configuration

The atomic number of electrons in an electrically neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. As a result, the P-31 atom has 15 electrons. The electric fields generated by the “+ive” charge affect each electron.

The Z denotes the chemical elements. It also describes electrons’ form and structure. Quantum mechanics rules define the arrangement of electrons.

We can determine a chemical bond auction by the atomic number in each shell. P-31 electron arrangement is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The possible oxidation states are +3,5/-3.


Phosphorus is a non-metal classified as a metalloid. It’s found in white or yellow crystal form. Half-integer, nuclear spin and high amount of 31P make it a robust analytical tool. For element P-31, 15 electrons are arranged in shells of 2, 8, and 5. Z 15 of P-31 makes it the fifth element in the periodic table. And most stable isotope of P is P-31. Which has a half-life of 0.2 ms.


1. What is an Isotope?

Isotopes are the same members of an atom with the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons. The symbol “A” represents the total number of Nuclei (protons and neutrons) in an atom.

2. What is an Atomic Number?

An atomic number is a number that represents the number of protons in an atom. It is also known as the proton number. The letter “Z” denotes the atomic number.

3 . What is the Neutron Number?

The neutron number of an atom is the sum of all neutrons in its nucleus, and the letter "N " denotes the neutron Number.

4 . What is 1 coulomb?

One coulomb is a unit of electric charge. It is equal to the amount of one electron charge.

5 . What is electron configuration?

An atom’s electron configuration is the pattern of electrons in orbitals. The electrons are arranged around the nucleus.

6 . What are Nucleons?

The term nucleon refers to both protons and neutrons.

7 . What is gamma radiation?

Gamma radiation is high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by specific atomic nuclei nuclear decay. It has a very short wavelength and is thus highly energetic and penetrative.

8. What is the symbol of phosphorus?

“P” is a symbol of phosphorus with the atomic number 15.

9. What is ms?

A millisecond (ms) is one-thousandth of a second. It is a unit of time measurement.

10. Phosphorus is metal or non-metal?

Phosphorus is a non-metal. It is located on the periodic table’s right side and thus classified as a non-metal.

11. Why is Phosphorus essential for plants?

Phosphorus and nitrogen, and potassium are the main nutrients for plant growth.


Phosphorus is a non-metal atom with Z of 15. It has 15 electrons arranged in shells of 2, 8, and 5. The most stable isotope of P is 31P, which has a half-life of 0.2 ms. P is a metalloid that exists in white or yellow crystalline form. P-31 NMR is a robust systematic tool in P analysis. Half-integer, nuclear spin and high amount of 31P make it robust.