What is oleander?
Nerium oleander, more commonly known as Nerium or oleander, is a shrub or small tree in the oleander family Apocynaceae, cultivated throughout the world in temperate and subtropical areas as an ornamental plant and landscaping.
Oleander is a bush or little tree that sprouts in summer with huge, ostentatious blossoms in shades of red, white, light yellow, and pink. Due to its dense branching and rapid growth rate, it is a popular hedge. Planting an oleander hedge is a great way to hide utilities, chain-link fences, and other monstrosities in the landscape. It is also an attractive display plant if planted singly or on the edge of a garden.
While it can reach six meters, the oleander is well adapted to pruning and generally stays at six to ten feet. Tolerant of dry soils and hot sun, oleander is an excellent desert plant, but it can also thrive in hot, humid climates.
Increasing requirements for oleander
For best blossom, plant oleanders in full sun, yet in extremely blistering atmospheres they sprout most dependably in light shade. Oleanders tolerate a variety of soil conditions, from dry sandy soils to moist clay soils. They grow best where the climate stays above freezing, although they can tolerate short periods of freezing temperatures.
Depending on how the plants will be used and the size of the cultivar, the ideal distance for planting varies from five to ten feet. In the correct atmosphere, oleander is anything but difficult to develop and requires no uncommon consideration past yearly pruning and taking care of.
Propagate oleanders by taking cuttings from young, healthy stems in summer and rooting them in a mixture of sand and peat.
Pests and diseases of oleander
Oleanders usually don’t have insect problems or serious illnesses. In humid climates, aphids and mealybugs can be a problem. Caterpillars can strip oleander leaves in only a couple days.
Toxicity of oleander
All parts of oleander are poisonous. They contain a toxic chemical that can cause illness, skin irritation, or even death if consumed in sufficient quantities. Fortunately, the plant has a pungent taste that causes most people to have a nauseating reaction that makes them vomit. Consuming oleander likewise causes harmfulness, so it should never be placed in a consume heap, or utilized as a stake for simmering food over a fire.
Wearing gloves when working with oleander can prevent allergic skin reactions. Due to its toxicity, oleander is not recommended for use in playgrounds or other places where children play.
Oleander (Nerium oleander) plants are among the most flexible bushes, with many utilizations in southern and waterfront scenes. They endure a wide scope of conditions including troublesome soil, salt haze, high pH, severe pruning, heat reflected from asphalts and dividers, and dry season. But the only thing they can’t stand are winter temperatures below 20 degrees Fahrenheit (6.66 C). Notwithstanding, in cooler atmospheres, you can grow an oleander plant in a holder and bring it inside when the temperatures drop.
Growing oleanders in the garden
The principal thing you need to know whether you need to grow an oleander plant in the nursery is that you ought to try not to develop oleanders in family scenes where youngsters and creatures play. All parts of oleander shrubs are poisonous, and the smoke from oleander debris is poisonous. Ingesting even a small amount of an oleander’s foliage, flowers, or shoots can be fatal. Contact with foliage and flowers can also cause severe skin irritation and allergic reactions. Continuously wear long sleeves and gloves when working with the bush. Oleanders sprout from spring to pre-fall, delivering huge bunches of roses in shades of yellow, white, pink or red at the tips of the stems. They grow and flower best in full sun, but they tolerate light shade.
Oleander plants are strong bushes or trees that contain a reasonable, sticky sap. The rugged, spear formed foliage is dull green and might be orchestrated inverse along the stems or in whorls. Oleander channel molded blossoms sprout in groups at the tips of twigs from summer to fall and come in shades of white, pink, red or yellow. Flowers are often abundant and some varieties of oleander have a pleasant scent. Oleanders typically grow between 6 and 12 feet tall, with a spread of the same width, but some can be formed into small trees that reach up to 20 feet tall.
Oleander plants contain a couple of destructive parts, including heart glycosides, saponins, digitoxigenin, oleandrine, oleondroside, nerioside, and other dark poisons.These poisonous substances are found in all bits of the oleander plant and are harmful whether the bits of the plant are dried or green. Ingestion of any bit of the oleander plant can incite veritable infection and possibly passing.
Symptoms of poisoning
Ingesting oleander plant parts can lead to a variety of symptoms, ranging from moderate to severe or fatal. These incorporate rash, obscured vision, visual unsettling influences, for example, radiance, the runs, sickness, stomach torment, regurgitating, loss of hunger, unpredictable or moderate heartbeat, shortcoming, low pulse, disarray, discombobulation, migraine, fainting, depression, drowsiness, or lethargy. Manifestations, for example, wretchedness, loss of hunger, and halosurgery normally just happen with constant or extreme inebriation.
Oleander, one of the evergreen ornamental shrubs of the genus Nerium, which belongs to the Dogbane family (Apocynaceae) and has a poisonous milky sap.
The most popular is the regular oleander (* N. Oleander *), which is often referred to as the rose bay. Native to the Mediterranean region, this plant is characterized by its tall shrub and thick lanceolate opposite leaves. The flowers are carried in terminal clusters and are pink in color, rarely white or yellow. The furry anthers hold fast to the thickened disgrace. The fruit or seminal receptacle is made up of two long pods that release a series of seeds, each with a clump of silky hair.
Oleander was known to the Greeks by three names (rhodo *dendron, nerion, and rhododaphne), as Pliny the Elder aptly described, who mentions its pink flowers and poisonous qualities. The normal oleander has for quite some time been developed in nurseries, and numerous assortments have been presented. Sweet oleander (N. Indicum) is a more modest plant with vanilla-scented blossoms. In warmer countries, oleanders are widely grown outdoors. All parts of the plant are very poisonous if eaten and contacting them can cause skin irritation.
Oleander is a dangerous beauty
How can some of the most beautiful plants be so poisonous? Take the oleander, that wonderfully tall shrub that despite the strong winds and salt spray along our coasts somehow manages to produce clusters of gorgeous flowers in the summer in white, yellow, peach, salmon, pink or red. But, oleander is viewed as one of the most noxious plants on the planet. All parts of this gracefully mounted shrub contain poison; a single leaf ingested by a child is known to be fatal.
Be that as it may, similarly as with prickly roses, thorny desert flora, and noxious occasion plants, information is critical to forestalling perilous experiences with these scene delights. Native to the Far East and the Mediterranean, the oleander nerium oleander grow easily and quickly in the United States, particularly in the southern coastal areas, where they are often planted as a noise and pollution barrier along highways. These evergreen plants thrive with little care and are very heat and drought tolerant. Most survive temperatures as low as 15 to 20 degrees, although their foliage can be damaged. But even then, the bushes recover quickly in spring, as long as their roots are not damaged.
Oleanders grow best in full sun, and most reach 8 to 15 feet in height and width. So make sure you give these big guys plenty of room in the landscape. They bloom from early summer through mid-autumn with large clusters of 2-inch single or double flowers. Their long, thin leaves are smooth however weathered.
Frequently asked questions (FAQ)
Q. How many oleander is lethal?
A. Varieties of oleander with red flowers appear to be more poisonous. Oleander remains poisonous when dry. A single leaf can be fatal for a child who eats it, although mortality is generally very low in humans. The lethal dose of oleander leaves for cattle and horses was found to be 0.005% of the body weight of the animal.
Interestingly, oleander poisoning can be fatal with relatively small amounts ingested. Osterloh and his associates calculated that their patient’s lethal dose of oleander leaves was around 4 g.
Q. Are oleanders poisonous to dogs?
A. “Nerium oleander is an acclaimed luxurious nursery plant because of its brightness and insurance from weak soils and dry season, yet lamentably it is altogether pernicious to different sorts of animals.” Dogs, cats, goats, cows, sheep, camels, parakeets, rabbits, and horses are overall species that have been impacted by oleander.
Ingestion of 0.005% by weight of an animal in leaves of dry plants is generally considered fatal in horses and ruminants. This is around 10 to 20 dry leaves for a grown-up pony. A dose of 0.25 milligrams of green (vs. dry) leaves per kilogram of body weight has been proposed as a deadly portion for canines.
Q. How fast do oleanders grow?
A. Growth Rate
Oleanders develop at a medium to quick rate, delivering 1 to 2 feet or a greater amount of development every year. Established plants that have been damaged by cold will grow back very quickly from the base.
Q. How to prune oleander?
A. Oleander managing isn’t troublesome yet requires some arranging. Get away from your bush and formulate a pruning plan in your head. Make a note of the desired shape you want to achieve and get an idea of how much you need to trim.
Annual pruning of oleander bushes involves first inspecting dead or damaged branches. Remove these limbs on the ground or at the point where they join a healthy limb. As a general rule of thumb, remove no more than a third of the entire bush. Trim the branches simply over a leaf hub. This will encourage new growth. Continued pruning in this manner will encourage your oleander to be bushy, rather than tall and lanky. Every two or three years you can prune your oleander to renew it. This means removing more than a third and cutting the oleander aggressively.
Q. When to prune oleanders?
A. Prune in late summer or early fall. Overall, oleanders are low maintenance plants that do not need regular pruning. However, you should aim to have your oleander pruned at least once a year in late summer or early fall. This pruning will help you shape your plant and animate sound development.
- Pruning at this time will not interfere with the flowering of the plant, as this is after the plant has already flowered for the season.
- Do not prune after October. Pruning too late can leave recently cut sections of the plant vulnerable during the winter.
Q. How do I kill the oleander?
A. Follow these simple steps to cut oleander:
Cut off the oleander completely and place the branches in a garden waste bin.
Drill or cut a hole in each of the stumps and fill it with undiluted glyphosate weedkiller or any other strong weedkiller designed for the brush. Alternatively, spray oleander directly all over the stump. If you prefer to avoid toxic weedkillers, boil water and pour it directly on the stumps, covering them carefully. Avoid splashing water on yourself or on nearby plants.
Cover the oleander with a few sheets of paper, a dark canvas, or other obstruction to keep daylight from arriving at the oleander. This forestalls new development.
Remove the newspaper or tarp and inspect the oleander stump for new growth twice a week or more. When you see one, cut it off and spray some weedkiller or pour boiling water directly on the sore. Continue to keep an eye on your oleander stumps until you have not seen new growth for several weeks. At this point, your oleander is probably dead. Check it at least once a season to make sure it doesn’t come back.