When nitroprusside is dissolved, it tends to decompose when exposed to light. It must be protected from light by wrapping the reconstituted solution container in aluminum foil or other opaque material. Nitroprusside solutions should not be stored or used for more than 12 hours.
The drug is photosensitive and must be protected from light to prevent decomposition. Sodium nitroprusside increases both arteriolar resistance and venous capacity and reduces peripheral resistance without increasing venous return.
This lowers blood pressure and allows blood to flow more easily through the veins and arteries. Nitroprusside is used to treat congestive heart failure and hypertension (hypertension). Nitroprusside is also used to keep blood pressure low during surgery.
Mechanism of action Sodium nitroprusside is broken down in the circulation to release nitric oxide (NO). It does this by binding to oxyhemoglobin to release cyanide, methemoglobin and nitric oxide. NO activates guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle and increases intracellular production of cGMP.
Nitroprusside (Nitropress) Since nitroprusside is sensitive to light, the ampoule and tube must be wrapped in aluminum foil. Before starting nitroprusside treatment, administer a beta blocker to counter the physiological response of reflex tachycardia that occurs when nitroprusside is used alone.
Treatment of cyanide toxicity requires discontinuation of nitroprusside and, if toxicity is severe, use of the cyanide antidote kit. The toxicity of nitroprusside cyanide can be prevented by simultaneous administration of thiosulfatin sodium infusions.
(g) Sodium nitroprusside test:
Sodium nitroprusside, which has the empirical formula Na2 [Fe (CN) 5NO] • 2H2O and the molecular weight is 297.95. Dry Sodium Nitroprusside is a water-soluble reddish-brown powder.
Acute cyanide toxicity occurs when cyanide ions bind to tissue cytochrome oxidase and disrupt normal oxygen consumption. Cyanide toxicity can generally be avoided if the cumulative dose of sodium nitroprusside is less than 0.5 mg / kg / h.
Sodium nitroprusside is used to detect illegal substances such as secondary amines in forensic laboratories (Simons test). It is used to control blood pressure and treat hypertension.
Like all drugs in this class, sodium nitroprusside works by relaxing the blood vessels. Once in the body, sodium nitroprusside is rapidly broken down into nitric oxide, a powerful vasodilator. As blood vessels enlarge, blood pressure decreases.
significant increase in heart rate. Hydralazine reduced right atrial pressure less than nitroprusside, but reduced vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. The nitroprusside maintained cardiac activity during tamponade despite a decrease in right atrial pressure, but only increased cardiac output after transfusion.
Hence (a) although nitroglycerin i.c. and nitroprusside have similar effects on the safety function, nitroglycerin is more effective than IV. Nitroprusside to increase the safety current (b) Phentolamine has negative effects on the safety function and (c) the relative vasodilating power of nitroglycerin
A sodium nitroprusside molecule is metabolized by combining one cyanohemoglobin molecule and four KN ions with hemoglobin, thiosulfate reacts with cyanide to form thiocyanate, thiocyanate is excreted in the urine.
Dopamine is used to treat hypotension (low blood pressure), low heart rate, and decreased blood flow to the body’s organs due to shock, trauma, and sepsis. Dopamine is only available in generic form. The side effects of dopamine are: Irregular heartbeat.
Therapeutic doses of nitroglycerin can lower systolic, diastolic and mean pressure. Heart rate is usually slightly increased, possibly due to a compensatory response to the drop in blood pressure. The cardiac index can be increased, decreased or changed.
Nitroglycerin relaxes the smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels (especially the veins), causing them to widen (widen). This helps relieve chest pain caused by narrowing of the arteries and also reduces the force the heart has to work to pump blood around the body, lowering blood pressure.