They built walls and moats around their cities. They built mud brick walls and a moat.
Because they were independent countries.
The earliest cities of Sumer date back to 3500 BC. approximately. These first cities were like small independent towns. Each of them had their own ruler and their own agricultural land for food. This is why they are called city-states.
Around 2300 BC The independent city-states of Sumer were conquered by a man named Sargon the Great in Akkad, who once ruled the city-state of Kish. Sargon was an Akkadian, a Semitic group of desert nomads who eventually settled in Mesopotamia, north of Sumer.
These city-states were like independent countries. They often quarreled with each other. To defend themselves, the Sumerians built walls and dug trenches around their cities. By 3000 BC, the solutions to the Sumerian challenges had turned the Sumerian farming villages into ramparts.
In the third millennium BC There were at least 12 different city-states in the country: Kish, Erech (Uruk), Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Badtibira, and Larsa.
Help. A city-state is an independent city - and sometimes the surrounding country - with its own government completely separate from the neighboring country. Government today is generally centered around a larger country rather than divided into small, sovereign cities.
King Sargon of Akkad - destined to rule according to legend - founded the world’s first empire in Mesopotamia over 4,000 years ago.
The Sumerians traded overland with the eastern Mediterranean and by sea to India. The invention of the wheel 3,000 years ago improved land transportation. The Sumerians were known for metalworking, a craft in which they excelled.
This has been confirmed by other researchers, including Chandra Chakaberty, who stated in her book A Study in Hindu Social Polity that the Sumerians had dark (chocolate brown) skin, small in stature but with a solid structure based on images and styles. . of Babylon. . . , oval face, stuffy nose, straight hair,
Ziggurat. At the center of each city was the Zigkurat. Zigkurat was a temple. The ancient Sumerians believed their gods lived in heaven.
Sumerian city-states include Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma, and Ur.
The core of the ziggurat consists of unfired bricks covered with baked bricks covered with bitumen, a natural tar. Each of the baked bricks measured approximately 11.5 x 11.5 x 2.75 inches and weighed 33 pounds.
The Sumerians disappeared around 2000 BC. From history. following the military rule of various Semitic peoples. Especially around 2000 BC Sargon established an empire in Mesopotamia which included the Sumerian region. But long before the Sargons were conquered, the Semitic peoples had invaded Sumerian territory.
The physical environment has existed since about 8000 BC. Chr. Relatively the same. The landscape is flat and swampy. The land consists mainly of sand and silt, without stones. The climate is very dry, with only 16.9 inches of rain per year.
Sumerian cuneiform. The Sumerian cuneiform is the oldest known writing system. Its origins date back to around 8000 BC. BC and come from icons and other symbols used to represent goods and livestock on clay tablets. The Sumerians originally made small fragments of pottery to represent the elements
Cuneiform script is the spelling developed in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, the region known as Mesopotamia. It had the advantages of any type of written language. It allowed people to keep accurate records.
Technology. The Sumerians invented or improved a variety of technologies, including wheels, cuneiform writing, arithmetic, geometry, irrigation, saws and other tools, sandals, chariots, harpoons, and beer.