Where does the Mississippi River start? It runs 2,320 miles (3,730 kilometers) south to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. In terms of size, habitat diversity, and biological productivity, the Mississippi River is one of the world’s main river systems. It’s also one of the world’s most important commercial waterways, as well as one of North America’s most vital bird and fish migration corridors.
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river in North America and the primary driver of the continent’s second-largest drainage system, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
For thousands of years, Native Americans have lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries. The majority of the people were hunter-gatherers, but others, like the Mound Builders, developed thriving agricultural and urban civilizations.
As explorers, then immigrants, flocked to the basin in increasing numbers in the 16th century, the native way of life transformed. The river functioned as a barrier for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, as well as an important traffic and communications link.
The Mississippi and numerous western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed paths for the United States’ western expansion in the nineteenth century, at the height of the manifest destiny philosophy.
The Mississippi embayment, formed from thick layers of the river’s silt deposits, is one of the most fertile regions of the United States; steamboats were commonly utilized to convey agricultural and industrial goods in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Because of the river’s strategic importance to the Confederate war effort, the Mississippi’s conquest by Union forces represented a turning point toward victory during the American Civil War.
The first decades of the twentieth century witnessed the construction of major engineering works such as levees, locks, and dams, frequently in combination, due to the rapid rise of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats.
Preventing the lower Mississippi from shifting into the Atchafalaya River’s channel and bypassing New Orleans has been a key focus of this program.
The Mississippi River has been plagued by pollution and environmental issues since the turn of the century, most notably rising nitrogen and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, which is the primary cause of the Gulf of Mexico inactive zone.
|River name||The Mississippi River|
|Mouth||Gulf of Mexico|
|Basin size||1,151,000 sq mi|
Misi zipi, the French version of the Anishinaabe (Ojibwe or Algonquin) name for the river, Misi-ziibi, is the source of the word Mississippi (Great River).
The Mississippi River served as the young United States’ primary western boundary in the 18th century, and since the country’s westward expansion, it has been widely regarded as a convenient, if approximate, dividing line between the Eastern, Southern, and Midwestern United States, and the Western United States.
The Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase “Trans-Mississippi” as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition are examples of this.
It’s usual to use phrases like “the tallest peak east of the Mississippi” or “the oldest city west of the Mississippi” to qualify a regionally exceptional site.
The FCC also utilizes it as a dividing line for broadcast call signs that start with W in the east and K in the west and mix up in media markets along the river.
Where does the Mississippi River start? It runs 2,320 miles south to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. It is the second-longest river in North America. Native Americans have lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries for thousands of years.
It flows south for 2,320 miles from its traditional source of Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi’s watershed drains all or portions of 32 US states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains, thanks to its numerous tributaries.
The main stem is entirely within the United States; the drainage basin’s total area is 1,151,000 square miles (2,980,000 square kilometers), with only about 1% in Canada.
The Mississippi is the world’s fourteenth-largest river by discharge.
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana all border or pass through the river.
The Mississippi River is divided into three sections
The Upper Mississippi, which runs from its headwaters to the Missouri River’s confluence.
The Middle Mississippi, which runs from Missouri to the Ohio River.
The Lower Mississippi, which runs from Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico.
The Upper Mississippi River flows from its headwaters to the Missouri River’s confluence in St. Louis, Missouri. It’s broken down into two sections:
From the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the headwaters is 493 miles (793 kilometers).
A 664-mile navigable route built by a series of man-made lakes that connects Minneapolis with St. Louis, Missouri (1,069 km).
Lake Itasca, located 1,475 feet (450 meters) above sea level at Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota, is said to be the source of the Upper Mississippi branch. Itasca was chosen as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head to signify the “real head” of the Mississippi River.
The lake, on the other hand, is fed by a variety of smaller streams. The flow of the stream is regulated by 43 dams from Lake Itasca to St. Louis, Missouri. Fourteen of these dams are located in the headwaters region above Minneapolis and serve a variety of uses, including power generation and recreation.
Beginning in downtown Minneapolis, the remaining 29 dams all have locks and were built to assist commercial transportation of the upper river. Taken together, these 43 dams have a considerable impact on the upper river’s geography and ecosystem.
Thousands of Wing, beginning immediately beyond Saint Paul, Minnesota, and extending across the upper and lower Mississippi, regulate the river’s flow to preserve an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks.
The Rapids Dam near Rapids, Minnesota, is the Mississippi’s head of navigation. Steamboats might occasionally go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, Minnesota, before it was founded in 1913, depending on river circumstances.
The Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam near Minneapolis is the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River. The river’s elevation is 799 feet above the dam. The river is 750 feet above sea level below the dam (230 m). The Mississippi River locks and dams have a total drop of 49 feet.
A waterfall, kept near to the lock under a concrete apron, is the source of the spectacular plunge. The only genuine waterfall on the Mississippi River is Saint Anthony Falls. As it goes through the gorge cut by the waterfall, the water’s elevation continues to drop sharply.
The river’s head of navigation was moved upstream to the Rapids Dam after the St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam was completed in 1963. However, in 2015, the locks were closed to limit the spread of invasive Asian carp, making Minneapolis the river’s head of navigation once again.
The Upper Mississippi features a variety of natural and man-made lakes, the largest of which is Lake Winnibigoshish, which spans over 11 miles and is located near Grand Rapids, Minnesota. Lock and Dam No. 7 near La Crosse, Wisconsin, formed Lake Onalaska, which is more than 4 miles wide.
Lake Pepin is a natural lake that forms behind the Wisconsin Chippewa River’s delta as it enters the Upper Mississippi. It is over 2 miles wide.
The Upper Mississippi has reduced more than half its original elevation by the time it reaches Saint Paul, Minnesota, below Lock and Dam No. 1, and is now 687 feet (209 m) above sea level. The river’s height lowers much more slowly between St. Paul and St. Louis, Missouri, and is controlled and managed as a succession of pools created by 26 locks and dams.
The Upper Mississippi is a multi-thread stream with numerous islands and bars. The river is entrenched from its junction with the St. Croix River downstream to Dubuque, Iowa, with towering bedrock bluffs on either side.
To the south of Dubuque, the height of these bluffs reduces, although they remain considerable through Savanna, Illinois. The Lower Mississippi, on the other hand, is a meandering river in a large, flat terrain that only sometimes flows alongside a cliff (as at Vicksburg, Mississippi).
From the Upper Mississippi River’s confluence with the Missouri River in St. Louis, Missouri, to its confluence with the Ohio River in Cairo, Illinois, the Mississippi River is known as the Middle Mississippi. The Mississippi River in the Middle is rather free-flowing.
The Middle Mississippi River drops 220 feet over 180 miles from St. Louis to the Ohio River confluence, at an average rate of 1.2 feet per mile. The Middle Mississippi is 315 feet above sea level at its confluence with the Ohio River. No major tributaries reach the Middle Mississippi River save the Missouri and Meramec rivers in Missouri and the Kaskaskia River in Illinois.
From its confluence with the Ohio River to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi River is referred to as the Lower Mississippi River.
At the confluence of Ohio and the Middle Mississippi, Ohio’s long-term mean discharge at Cairo, Illinois is 281,500 cubic feet per second, while the Mississippi’s long-term mean discharge at Thebes, Illinois is 208,200 cubic feet per second.
As a result, rather than the Middle Mississippi, the Ohio River (and the Allegheny River further upstream) might be considered the primary branch of the Mississippi River system at Cairo.
The White River, which flows into the Mississippiat the White River National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Arkansas, the Arkansas River, which joins the Mississippi at Arkansas Post, the Big River in Mississippi, and the Yazoo River, which meets the Mississippi at Vicksburg, Mississippi, are the major tributaries of the Lower Mississippi River.
Rather than continuing down the Mississippi’s current channel past Baton Rouge and New Orleans on a longer route, deliberate water diversion at the Old River Control Structure in Louisiana allows the Atchafalaya River in Louisiana to be a major distributary of the Mississippi River.
With 30 percent of the combined flow of the Mississippiand Red Rivers flowing to the Gulf of Mexico via this route. Although the Red River is often confused with another river, its water goes into the Gulf of Mexico via the Atchafalaya River.
Where does the Mississippi River start? It runs 2,320 miles (3,730 kilometers) south to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. It has three divisions. These are Upper Mississippi, Middle Mississippi, and Lower Mississippi.
The dimensions of the Mississippi River are given below:
The Mississippi River is North America’s second-longest river, stretching 2,350 miles from its source at Lake Itasca through the heart of the continent to the Gulf of Mexico. The Missouri River, a Mississippi River tributary, is about 100 miles long.
When the lengths of the Missouri and Ohio Rivers are added to the Mississippi’s main stem, some consider it to be the world’s third-longest river system. The Mississippi-Missouri River combination is the fourth-longest river in the world, after the Nile, the Amazon, and the Yangtze Rivers.
As deposition and erosion occur in a river delta, the stated length may increase or decrease. As a result, depending on the year or measurement method, different lengths may be recorded. The Mississippi’s main stem, according to the personnel at Itasca State Park near the river’s headwaters, is 2,552 miles long.
The river’s length has been estimated to be 2,300 miles by the US Geological Survey, 2,320 miles by the EPA, and 2,350 miles by the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area.
The river is between 20 and 30 feet broad at Lake Itasca, the narrowest point of its entire length. The Mississippi River reaches its widest point in Bena, Minnesota, at Lake Winnibigoshish, where it is more than 11 miles wide. Lake Pepin has the widest navigable stretch of the Mississippi’s shipping channel, which is approximately 2 miles wide.
A river’s size can also be determined by the volume of water it discharges. According to this metric, the Mississippi River is the world’s 15th largest river, with a discharge rate of 16,792 cubic meters per second into the Gulf of Mexico.
The Amazon, with a discharge volume of 209,000 cubic meters per second, is the world’s largest river by volume. The Amazon River drains a rainforest, whereas the Mississippi River drains much of the land between the Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains, which is mostly dry.
The average flow rate in Lake Itasca is 6 cubic feet per second. The average flow rate at Upper St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, the northernmost Lock, and Dam, is 12,000 cubic feet per second (89,869 gallons per second). The average flow rate in New Orleans is 600,000 cubic feet per second.
The average surface speed of the water in the Mississippi headwater is about 1.2 miles per hour or about half the speed at which people walk. The river runs at around three miles per hour in New Orleans.
However, if water levels rise or fall, and the river expands, narrows, or becomes more shallow, or a combination of these variables, the speed varies. Water from Lake Itasca, the river’s source, takes around three months to reach the Gulf of Mexico.
Some people like to quantify a river’s size by its watershed, which is the area drained by the river and its tributaries. The Mississippi drains over 3.2 million square kilometers, or about 40% of the continental United States, including all or parts of 32 states and two Canadian provinces.
The Mississippi River watershed, which stretches from the Allegheny Mountains in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west, is the world’s fourth-largest. In comparison, the Amazon drains approximately 7.1 million square kilometers.
Mississippi is used by communities all along the river to acquire freshwater and discharge industrial and municipal trash. We don’t have accurate water use numbers for the entire Mississippi River Basin, but we do have some hints.
According to a report issued by the Upper Mississippi Conservation Committee in January 2000, up to 15 million people in the upper half of the basin rely on the Mississippi River or its tributaries.
A 1982 assessment by the Upper Mississippi River Basin Committee found that 18 million people rely on the Mississippi River Watershed for their water supply. More than 50 cities rely on the Mississippi for daily water supplies, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.
The Mississippi River is the longest in North America. The speed of water in the Mississippi headwater is 1.2 miles per hour. Mississippi is used by communities all along the river to acquire freshwater and discharge industrial and municipal trash.
Physical features of the Mississippi River are given below:
The Mississippi drainage area’s geology and physical topography are similar to those of North America’s Interior Lowlands and Great Plains.
The Rocky and Appalachian mountain systems, as well as the rim of the Canadian (Laurentian) Shield to the north, are all touched by fringes.
The system’s focal point, the lower Mississippi floodplain, is particularly interesting because the region’s geology and physical landscape are shaped by the river.
The river has absorbed silt and debris from contributing regions near the funnel’s lip and deposited much of the product in the alluvial plain of the funnel’s spout, demonstrating the Mississippi system’s interdependence.
In recent years, the west bank of the river has become the most prominent contributory area.
Rivers like the Red, Arkansas, Kansas, Platte, and Missouri rise in the western uplands, particularly in the foothills of the Rockies, and remove significant silt burdens from the Great Plains’ undulating plains.
These tributaries meander and braid their way toward the “Father of Waters” across a vast, gently sloping mantle of unconsolidated materials laid down over Cretaceous Period rock strata (about 100 million years old).
The rainfall in these western areas is mild to moderate, averaging less than 25 inches per year, but because at least 70% of it falls as rain between April and September, the rivers’ erosive capacity is increased.
Furthermore, because the sandy soils offer minimal resistance to erosion, many of these rivers’ courses are simply braided.
The Mississippi’s eastern contributing tributaries drain the Appalachian Mountain range, which is well-watered.
The majority of this group, which includes Kentucky, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee rivers, flows into Ohio and subsequently into the Mississippi through well-defined valleys.
These rivers’ erosive capability varies depending on the geologic nature of their basins.
These are made up of harder rocks at higher altitudes and a softer Late Carboniferous limestone sill found below the 1,000-foot elevation line between the Ohio and Tennessee rivers, as well as in the glaciated region of Ohio’s right-bank tributaries.
The Mississippi’s third contributing area is likewise distinct from the other two.
In an area characterized by glacial activity, the upper Mississippi acquires its power.
Huge amounts of meltwater flowed south after the Wisconsin Glacial Stage’s massive ice sheets laid down layers of debris across most of Minnesota, Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northern Iowa, washing channels through the debris.
The Wisconsin, St. Croix, Rock, and Illinois rivers, as well as the upper Mississippi and its tributaries, all track the courses of these ancient sluiceways.
The proto-Missouri and Ohio Rivers joined the glacier meltwaters as they flowed southward. The combined waters then widened the vast north-south trough that presently runs through the lower Mississippi.
This depression is 1,000 miles long and 25 to 200 miles (40 to 320 kilometers) broad, with escarpments reaching 200 feet above the valley floor.
The bottom of the glacial trough was later covered by a deep layer of debris washed out from an ice sheet and deposited to a thickness of 100 to 300 feet in the center portion, according to geologic research.
The delta of the Mississippi is an even more impressive testament to the river’s constructive activity.
Millions of years of sedimentation have spilled out across the Gulf of Mexico floor near the apex of the drainage funnel, producing cones of sediment with a radius of 300 miles and an area of 30,000 square miles.
The Mississippi delta, with an extent of about 11,000 square miles, is the surface representation of the various sub-deltas.
The Mississippi formerly transported 220 million tons of material per year to the gulf via its distributaries, the majority of which was silt.
Most of this silt is now trapped behind upstream dams, causing the delta to erode and diminish in size.
The hundreds of miles of levees along the river’s banks, which trap sediment in the channel, exacerbate the situation.
This is particularly harmful in the delta, where yearly silt additions from floods assist to protect the delta from being eroded by waves.
The Mississippi basin’s typical monthly temperatures range from 55°F in subtropical southern Louisiana to 10°F in subarctic northern Minnesota during the winter. In the summer, average monthly temperatures range from 82 degrees Fahrenheit in Louisiana to 70 degrees Fahrenheit in Minnesota.
Low-level moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and some low-level and high-level moisture from the Pacific Ocean are the main sources of precipitation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and spring around easterly and southerly fronts and storms.
In the winter, average monthly precipitation varies from more than 5 inches (130 mm) in the south to more than 3 inches over much of the Ohio River basin to less than 1 inch across the western and northern Great Plains.
Showers, sporadic thunderstorms, and lesser frontal storms are the most common types of rainfall in the summer, and early autumn. The average monthly rainfall in southern Louisiana and the mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina ranges from six inches to two or three inches in the Great Plains.
The climate is humid in the eastern portion of the basin, and the Tennessee, Ohio and southern Mississippi river basins create a lot of winter and spring runoff. From middle Texas to eastern North Dakota, a north-south belt of subhumid climates, neither completely humid nor semiarid, runs.
To the west, the semiarid climates of the Great Plains rule, while an alpine environment prevails along the Rocky Mountain crests, where winter snowfalls are discharged as spring and early summer meltwater runoff.
Unsurprisingly, the hydrology of such a large river as the Mississippi has been extensively studied. Mark Twain recounted how Mississippi paddle wheeler pilots came together to establish a common information service on changing circumstances along the channel in the nineteenth century with much humor.
Today, the Mississippi River Commission is in charge of river development, and it sees the value in maintaining a functional scale model of the river so that its engineers may test new designs in miniature before committing to large-scale projects.
Indeed, by the 1920s, it was widely assumed that enough had been learned about the river’s hydrology and that enough control devices had been constructed to bring the river under control.
Then, in 1927, the worst flood in the Lower Mississippi Valley’s documented history struck. Over 23,000 square miles of land were inundated. In several locations, communications were disrupted, including roadways, rail, and telephone systems.
Farms, factories, and entire towns were submerged for a while. A massive quantity of property was destroyed, and at least 250 people died. The Mississippi’s hydrology was examined once again by the river engineers.
The average discharge of water into the lower Mississippi by its major tributaries has been closely studied since the unusual events of 1927. The major river in Vicksburg, Mississippi, has a mean discharge of 570,000 cubic feet per second.
The Old River Complex, located about 135 miles downstream of Vicksburg, diverts around 25% of the river’s silt and water discharge into the Atchafalaya River. These figures, on the other hand, hide significant changes in river flow caused by the changing condition of the Mississippi’s bigger tributaries.
The western tributaries, in general, have the most variable flow regimes. They provide up to three or four times as much in the spring and early summer as they do in the winter.
When melting snows are followed by early summer rains, the upper Mississippi and its tributaries reach their maximum flow about the same time. The winter runoff from this location, on the other hand, is significant. The Ohio River’s flow crests a little sooner.
The highest monthly discharge is generally recorded in March near Metropolis, Illinois, right above the Mississippi’s confluence, when Ohio may be contributing more than three-fifths of the water being measured past Vicksburg in the lower river.
As a result, Ohio is primarily responsible for the lower Mississippi floods, which can be exacerbated by early rainfall in the Great Plains, a sudden hot spell in early spring that melts northern snows, and torrential downpours across the lower valley.
In such conditions, the lower river will overflow its banks, putting strain on the river’s man-made levees. On the far side of these identical levees, tributaries will back up and form lakes. At restricted spots along the main channel, the current, which typically flows at 2 to 3.5 knots, may double.
For example, the Vicksburg monitoring station, which measured 93,800 cubic feet per second at low water in 1936, measured 2,060,000 cubic feet per second at high water the following year.
The waters and sediments of the Mississippi River have been shown to contain a range of contaminants originating from urban, industrial, and agricultural sources. Organic chemicals and trace metals are present in small amounts.
They come from industrial and municipal wastes, as well as runoff from rural and urban regions, in addition to those found naturally in the water. However, high concentrations of bacteria associated with human waste have been discovered downstream from some cities.
The concentrations of bacteria have been linked to poorly treated sewage flowing into the river; concentrations downstream from New Orleans, for example, are many times higher than concentrations above the city.
Pollutants have had a limited impact on the makeup of benthic invertebrate populations, which are indicators of water quality changes. New Orleans water tests revealed a comparatively high dissolved-oxygen concentration and a low biological oxygen requirement. As a result of this index, river pollution is considered low.
The Mississippi drainage area’s geology and physical topography are similar to those of North America’s Interior Lowlands and Great Plains. In the winter, the average monthly precipitation varies from more than 5 inches. The water of the river contains many pollutants.
The ecology of the Mississippi River is described below:
Except for the Yangtze, the Mississippi basin has over 375 fish species, greatly surpassing other North Hemisphere river basins that are entirely in temperate/subtropical areas. Streams that originate in the Appalachian and Ozark mountains within the Mississippi basin have a very diverse range of species.
Numerous endemics, as well as relicts including paddlefish, sturgeon, gar, and bowfin, may be found in the basin. The Mississippi basin is frequently split into sub-regions due to its vastness and great species variety.
Walleye, sauger, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, white bass, northern pike, bluegill, crappie, channel catfish, flathead catfish, common shiner, freshwater drum, and shovelnose sturgeon are among the 120 fish species found in the Upper Mississippi River.
In the Mississippi, there are several imported species, some of which are invasive. Fish such as Asian carp, particularly the silver carp, have become notorious for out-competing native fish and their potentially deadly leaping habit.
They’ve expanded throughout a large portion of the basin, even reaching the Great Lakes. The alien species zebra mussels and Eurasian watermilfoil have infected much of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, according to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
In addition to fish, the Mississippi basin is home to a variety of turtles (including snapping, musk, mud, map, painted, and softshell turtles), an American alligator, aquatic amphibians (including hellbender, mudpuppy, three-toed amphiuma, and lesser siren), and cambarid crayfish (including the red swamp crayfish).
People usually ask many questions about “where does the Mississippi River start?”. Some of these questions are given below:
According to Stuart Schmitz, a toxicologist with the Iowa Department of Public Health, there are always undiscovered risks in the Mississippi River owing to bacteria levels. He claims that swimming and fishing in the Mississippi are safe as long as people stay safe.
Nutrient runoff, particularly excess nitrogen and phosphorus has been a problem for the Mississippi River and its tributaries. All of the nitrogen and phosphorus runoff eventually ends up in the Gulf of Mexico, causing an algal bloom.
The Amazon River is the widest in the world. The Amazon River is a massive tributary of the Amazon. It is also one of the widest rivers in the world, in addition to being one of the longest.
We overlook the Mississippi’s best stretch.” There’s a lot to think about as this magnificent American waterway winds its way through ten states: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
Every year, surplus nitrogen and other nutrients from the Mississippi River create an inactive zone in the Gulf of Mexico the size of New Jersey, with oxygen levels too low to sustain marine life. Pollution problems have been reported in rivers with clean water.
The Mississippi River isn’t known for its cleanliness. The river, which has long been used as a drain for Midwest farms, factories, and cities, is teeming with germs, lead, and hazardous chemicals.
The water level near Mississippi has risen by up to 7 inches since 1978. This rise is mostly due to Mississippi’s sinking soil, which is generating serious problems. Barrier islands that are disintegrating due to sea-level rise safeguard coastal towns such as those along the Mississippi Sound.
After the Ohio River, the Mississippi River is the most polluted in the United States, and it is the most contaminated river since it lacks the diluting action of the Ohio River, as well as due to the recent oil disaster in the Mississippi River in 2014.
Mississippi became the 20th state to join the Union in 1817, and it takes its name from the Mississippi River, which runs along its western border. The Choctaw, Natchez, and Chickasaw were among the first peoples to settle in what would become Mississippi.
The Mississippi River will continue to rise in the coming weeks as runoff from upstream snowmelt combines with rainfall-runoff to flow down the river system. Early next week, the river is projected to peak in the Dubuque region and continue downriver.
Where does the Mississippi River start? It runs 2,320 miles south to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. It is the second-longest river in North America. Upper Mississippi, Middle Mississippi, and Lower Mississippi are the three divisions of the river.
Organic chemicals and trace elements are found in the water of the Mississippi River. In the Mississippi, there are several imported species, some of which are invasive.