Does beef or tuna have more protein? Beef and tuna are rich in protein and contain nearly equal amounts of this macronutrient. Although the protein content of beef and tuna are the same, you should also consider the fat content to avoid consuming a lot of unhealthy fats.
How much protein is in one can of tuna?
Cans of tuna vary in nutritional value, but you can find cans containing 30g of protein, 1g of carbohydrates and fat per 100g.
Is canned tuna a good source of protein?
On the other hand, tuna is a high-quality protein source with almost no fat. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body needs to grow and maintain muscle tissue. Canned tuna can be a good source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids: 150 milligrams or more per 4-ounce serving.
Is tuna fish a complete protein?
Tuna protein is a complete protein, meaning it contains all the essential amino acids needed by the human body. Each 100 grams of tuna contains 23 to 27 grams of protein, depending on whether fresh or canned.
Does beef or tuna have more protein than food
Tuna contains 757 mcg of vitamin A, beef 3 mcg. Tuna is less saturated with fat. In this comparison, they used fish, tuna, fresh bluefin tuna, dry cooked and beef, ground beef, 85% lean / 15% fat, grilled cutlet.
What kind of protein does beef and tuna have?
Beef and tuna contain complete proteins. This means that the protein compounds in these foods contain all 20 essential amino acids.
What kind of fat is in a tuna steak?
A 3-ounce tuna steak has fewer grams of saturated fat. Most of the fats in tuna are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, which are good for your heart. These fats help stabilize cholesterol levels and protect your heart. The health problem of tuna is its high mercury content.
What foods have more protein than beef or tofu?
Tempeh, made from cooked and fermented soybeans, is a popular source of protein among vegans and vegetarians, and it's easy to see why. It has more fiber than tofu and more calories from protein, much more than beef. Tempeh can be baked, crumbled into a burrito, or even shaped into a sausage.
Which is a better source of protein Turkey or beef?
While meat can be a good source of protein, there are many plant foods that contain as much or more than meat and are healthier. On average, turkey contains grams (per 100 g) of protein, pork contains grams and chicken and beef are almost equal to o grams. So far that's good.
How many grams of protein in a serving of tuna?
Weigh a serving of beef or tuna before cooking to determine the ounce. Multiply your weight by 7 grams to get the total grams of protein. For example, cooking a 3-ounce steak will produce about 21 grams of protein, while the same serving of baked bluefin tuna will also produce about 21 grams.
Which is better for you salmon or beef?
6 oz. For example, a serving of steak contains 38 g of protein and the same serving of salmon contains 34 g of protein. You need about 60 grams of protein per day to build and repair tissue, or grams per kg of body weight. In terms of fat content, fish has a distinct advantage over beef.
Does beef or tuna have more protein than one
Tuna has the same amount of protein as beef, but much less fat. To compare the amount and quality of protein in tuna and beef, see the following nutritional information. A 300 g serving of canned light tuna contains just over 21 grams (g) of protein and less than one gram of total fat.
What foods have a lot of protein in them?
For example, consider fish. Sardines (g), tuna (g) and salmon (g) are just some of the crustaceans. In addition, most types of beans, such as kidney beans, mung beans, borlotti, cannellini and pinto, contain more than 20 grams of protein per 100 grams, putting them higher on the list than any meat option.
Does beef or tuna have more protein than chicken
Therefore, beef contains more calories and fat, while chicken has more protein. Both types of meat have the same cholesterol content and contain no carbohydrates. Beef is richer in most minerals in addition to sodium, but chicken wins in the vitamin category and you only get vitamin B12.
Is fish healthier than beef?
Chicken and fish are lean meats, making them healthier than pork and beef. For optimal health, your favorite is chicken or fish, and red meat can be selected 1-2 times a week.
Is salmon or chicken healthier?
Fish and chicken are rich in B vitamins, which help the body convert food into energy. Salmon outperforms chicken and other fish in vitamin B12, which is linked to nerve health and red blood cell formation. One serving provides 179% of the Daily Value (DV).
How much protein in 3 oz of chicken?
If you follow a balanced diet, you will most likely get the daily amount you need without much effort. Standard 3 oz. Chicken ■■■■■■■ contain about 26 grams of protein, which is more than half of what is recommended for women. But even though most people get enough protein, it's still a popular macronutrient.
Is chicken a protein?
Chicken is a great source of protein. It's lean, filling and packed with healthy amino acids. According to the National Chicken Council, 100 grams (3.
Does beef or tuna have more protein than fat
Beef and tuna are rich in protein and contain nearly equal amounts of this macronutrient. Although the protein content of beef and tuna are the same, you should also consider the fat content to avoid consuming a lot of unhealthy fats.
Which is better for you meat or seafood?
Seafood and meat have the same protein content, providing about 7 grams of protein per ounce. Eating 3 ounces of meat provides about 21 grams of protein, which is about 3 ounces of seafood. Meat has a higher concentration of iron than seafood.
Is eating tuna in the can every day healthy for You?
According to FDA spokeswoman Lauren Sucher, many will likely eat tuna safely every day, while some may develop mercury symptoms from consuming the same amount.
What is the healthiest canned tuna?
The healthiest type of tuna is canned tuna. This type of tuna contains grams to grams of omega-3 fatty acids and parts per million of mercury.
How many grams of protein are in a can of StarKist Tuna?
Whether you prefer fresh tuna steak or canned tuna, you'll get the massive amounts of protein you need. Cooked Ahi tuna contains 26 grams of protein per 3-ounce serving. Three ounces of canned tuna in oil contains just under 25 grams, while the same amount of canned tuna in water has over 20 grams of protein.
Is tuna good for diet?
As a lean protein source, tuna is suitable for a healthy diet or weight loss program that also contains vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids.
How much protein is in one can of tuna fillets
Whether you prefer fresh tuna steak or canned tuna, you'll get the massive amounts of protein you need. Cooked Ahi tuna contains 26 grams of protein per 3-ounce serving. Three ounces of light canned tuna in oil contains slightly less, almost 25 grams. The same amount of canned tuna in water contains more than 20 grams of protein.
What is the nutritional value of tuna steaks?
Calories and macronutrients. in 3 oz. The seared tuna steak contains 110 calories, 0.5 g of fat and protein. Three ounces. The bluefin tuna steak contains 156 calories, g fat and 25 g protein. Tuna contains no carbohydrates.
How many calories in a 4 oz tuna steak?
Nutritional value Calorific value 180 (752 kJ) Sugar g Protein 40 g Calcium 20 mg Alcohol g 11 extra rows 2 March 2021.
How much sodium in tuna steak?
39 mg sodium per 100 g fish, tuna, fresh, bluefin tuna, raw corresponds to 2% RDA sodium. For a typical 3 ounce (or 85 g) serving, the amount of sodium is mg.
How many calories in fresh tuna?
Fresh Italian Tuna (100 grams) contains 156 calories. Calories: 41% fat, 0% carbohydrates, 59% protein.
How much protein is in one can of tuna sandwich
There are 6480 calories in 1 serving of Subway Tuna. Calories: 46% from fat, 37% from carbohydrates, 17% from protein.
Does halibut have more protein than tuna?
Does halibut have more protein than tuna? A serving of grilled halibut contains about 75 percent tuna protein. Halibut has 19 grams of protein, and the same serving of baked tuna has grams.
What is a protein sandwich?
Protein in sandwiches. The preferred term for the term "sandwich" is 1 slice of bread, which contains about 8 grams of protein. Below are the nutritional values of the different types and sizes of snacks.
What is the quantity of protein in tuna?
Protein in tuna. The preferred term for tuna is 3 ounces of albacore tuna (dry solids, canned), which has about 20 grams of protein.
How much protein is in can of tuna in water?
How much protein is in a can of tuna in water? Servings Per Container: 3 x 12 oz. Jar - Tuna in pieces in water Protein S 16 g 29% Vitamin D 8% Calcium 0 mg 0%.
How much protein is in a tuna salad with egg?
The sugar in tuna and egg salad is about g, and the amount of protein in tuna and egg salad is about g.
How often should an adult eat tuna a day?
Tuna is incredibly nutritious and rich in protein, healthy fats and vitamins, but you don't have to eat it every day. The FDA recommends adults eat 85 to 140 grams of fish 2-3 times a week to get enough omega-3 fatty acids and other beneficial nutrients (10).
What are the main nutrients in canned tuna?
Nutritional Value of Canned Tuna Very Rich in Niacin Very Rich in Selenium Very Rich in Vitamin B12 Rich in Vitamin B6 Rich in Phosphorus Low in Sodium 83mg Low in Saturated Fatty Acids g Cholesterol 50mg Protein 42.
How much protein is in a can of tuna?
Cooked yellowfin tuna contains about grams of protein per 3-ounce serving. Canned light tuna is just under 25 grams per three ounces.
Is canned tuna a healthy food choice?
Canned tuna is one of the healthiest and cheapest protein sources you can buy. Fish is rich in anti-inflammatory and heart-protecting omega-3 fatty acids, 20 to 25 grams of protein per can, rich in vitamin D and low in carbohydrates.
Is canned tuna a good source of protein food
Canned tuna is a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and selenium. Protein is an essential component for all body tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids are "essential" because the body doesn't make them on its own, so they must be taken with food.
What are alternative sources of protein?
Wheat and other grains are surprisingly good sources of protein. For example, 2 slices of whole wheat bread contains 5 grams of protein, 1 cup of cooked spaghetti pasta contains 8 grams, 1 cup of cooked brown rice contains 5 grams and 1 cup of cooked quinoa has 9 grams.
What is the best form of protein?
The best sources of protein are animal products, especially meat, fish, eggs and cheese.
What are all the protein foods?
Some foods are "complete" sources of protein and contain all the essential amino acids. Animal products are the main sources of whole grain protein and include meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and cheese.
What is the best protein source for women?
The RDA for women is 46 grams and the RDA for men is 56 grams per day. Good sources of protein include red meat, fish, chicken, turkey, eggs, dried beans, peas, nuts and seeds.
Is canned tuna a good source of protein for vegetarians
Canned tuna is a nutritious, common fish and an excellent source of protein. It is also a good source of potassium, niacin and vitamin B12. One ounce of canned tuna contains about 36 calories. Many foods are similar to canned tuna, including ham, hot dogs, turkey and Big Macs.
What are the nutritional benefits of canned tuna?
Finally, many brands of canned tuna, although canned, are minimally processed and contain only tuna, water or oil, and salt. Some brands may also add spices or stock for extra flavor. Canned tuna is an inexpensive, low-calorie source of protein and other important nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids.
Can you be a vegetarian and still eat tuna?
Fish is an animal and tuna falls into the fish category, meaning vegetarians don't eat tuna. However, you can be a pescetario. These are people who follow a plant-based diet, but still eat shellfish such as fish. They also tend to eat eggs and dairy products.
Which is better canned tuna or white tuna?
Canned white meat contains less mercury than canned white meat. Canned tuna is an affordable and popular source of protein around the world.
Is it OK to eat canned tuna for lunch?
Otherwise, tuna can be eaten as part of a balanced diet. Tuna is a great source of protein and can be eaten for lunch or dinner as part of a healthy diet. Canned tuna is great for sandwiches, wraps, rice cakes, salads or mixed with pasta or rice. Always buy them in spring water or brine for healthier options.
What nut has the highest protein content?
Peanuts and sunflower seeds top the list with 8 grams of protein per 1/4 cup serving. Almonds, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds aren't far behind: 7 grams of protein per 1/4 cup. Other high-protein nuts include walnuts, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts (hazelnuts), pistachios, and cashews.
Which nuts have most protein?
Most walnuts contain 818% protein daily for a handful of 30 grams. High-protein nuts and seeds include hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds, peanuts, almonds, pistachios, sunflower seeds, flax seeds, sesame seeds, chia seeds, walnuts, cashews, etc.
What are the healthiest nuts to eat?
Final thoughts on the healthiest nuts. Walnuts contain many important nutrients, and eating walnuts has even been linked to health benefits, such as a reduced risk of cancer and heart disease, especially when healthier nuts are consumed.
What seeds have the highest protein?
Pumpkin seeds are one of the richest sources of protein compared to other seeds. One cup contains 12 grams of protein, 12 grams of fat, 34 grams of carbohydrates (including 12 grams of fiber), and 285 calories.
What kind of protein does tuna have in it?
Tuna has a protein content of up to g/100g meat and a fat content of up to g/100g meat.
Which is the healthiest canned tuna on the market?
The Healthiest Canned Tuna You Can Buy 1. Wild Planet Yellowfin Wild Tuna One serving: 3 oz., 100 calories, g fat, 1 g saturated fat, 85 mg sodium, g carbohydrate, 21 g protein.
Are there any health benefits to eating tuna?
However, avoid the term "fishing", which can mean other methods that appear safe but are not (eg longline fishing). Tuna is an inexpensive protein that can be stored for a long time. It is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, which are important for heart, brain and eye health.
What kind of vitamins are in canned tuna?
DHA is a type of omega-3 fatty acid that is especially important for brain and eye health (5, 6). In addition, fresh tuna and canned tuna are good sources of several essential vitamins and minerals, including vitamin D, selenium and iodine (1, 2, 3).
Good source of protein peanuts
Peanuts are a good source of protein. Protein ranges from 22 to 30% of total calories, making peanuts an excellent source of plant-based protein (1 trusted, 3 trusted, 4 trusted). ). SUMMARY As a plant food, peanuts are an exceptionally good source of protein. Keep in mind that some people are allergic to peanut protein. Peanuts are low in carbohydrates. ).
What are the health benefits of eating peanuts?
Health benefits of peanuts. Peanuts are rich in monounsaturated fats, which are very good for the heart. These nuts contain several nutrients such as vitamin E, niacin, protein, folate and manganese, which are very beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease.
Are peanuts a good diet food?
Peanuts are a low acid food. Peanuts also release acid when digested. However, peanuts are good in an alkaline diet. If you balance your peanut intake with alkalizing foods. Peanuts contain healthy nutrients in your diet that help fight many common diseases.
Do peanuts contain complete protein?
Peanuts and almonds are complete proteins. Try not to worry about complete proteins. If you eat a varied and balanced diet, your body receives many essential amino acids, from which it can get all the proteins it needs.
Why are peanuts not healthy?
If you eat peanuts or peanut butter and the oxalates become too concentrated in body fluids, they crystallize and cause health problems. People with untreated or pre-existing gallbladder or kidney problems are advised to avoid peanuts.
Is canned tuna a good source of protein for breakfast
And while eating canned fish may not seem like the most beneficial for your health, canned tuna is actually one of the best (and cheapest) sources of lean protein you can buy at home.
How much protein is in 100 grams of tuna?
The protein content of 100 g of tuna and eggs is 22 g and 13 g respectively. Compare Tuna contains more protein than eggs. Rich in minerals (the iodine content is 28 times higher than the iodine content in freshwater fish, it covers the body's selenium requirement).
Which is higher in protein eggs or tuna?
As for the benefits and content of tuna, the protein content of tuna is almost double the protein content of eggs, which they know is the main source of protein. The protein content of 100 g tuna and eggs is 22 g and 13 g respectively, tuna with a high protein content can be compared to eggs.
What are some good snacks high in protein?
Protein snacks include cheese, yogurt, nuts and seeds. Examples of high-carbohydrate and protein snacks include dried fruit peanut butter and nut jelly, whole grain crackers, fruit, and low-fat cheese yogurt.
What foods are rich in protein?
High protein foods. The list of protein foods includes meat, poultry and fish, eggs, dairy products, seeds and nuts, beans and lentils, grains such as wheat, rice, barley and corn, and soy products.
What do snacks have high protein?
- Chicken ■■■■■■
- soft cheese
- Greek yoghurt
What is the cheapest source of good protein?
Fresh dark green vegetables are one of the cheapest and easiest sources of protein. Vegetables such as kale and spinach are always affordable and available at local supermarkets and nearby market stalls.
How much tuna can you eat daily?
How much you eat affects the nutritional value of the tuna you get from the can. According to the American Heart Association, weight management diets should limit fish portions to 3 ounces and protein foods to 6 ounces per day.
What is a complete protein
Whole protein sources. The source of animal proteins are complete proteins and some plant foods contain all the essential amino acids. Whole animal protein sources include milk, yogurt, cheese, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish and eggs.
What is a complete protein versus an incomplete protein?
What is the difference. The main difference between complete and incomplete protein is that complete protein contains all the essential amino acids that your body needs on a daily basis while incomplete protein contains only a few essential amino acids.
What vegetables are complete proteins?
Full List of High Protein Vegetables 1. Sprouted beans/peas/lentils/soybeans: g/100g sprouted beans 2. Lima beans (cooked): g/100g Lima beans 3. Green peas: g/100g 4. Kale: g/100 5. Broccoli : g / 100 g 6. Cep: g / 100 g 7. Sweet corn: g / 100 g 8. Artichokes: g / 100 g.
What foods have the highest protein?
High-protein foods include meat, fish, cheese, tofu, yogurt, milk, beans, lentils, eggs, nuts, and seeds. Below is a list of foods with the highest protein-to-calorie ratio. See the High Protein Foods, Other High Protein Foods, Low Calorie High Protein Snacks, and Protein Isolates sections for more information.
A complete protein contains
Complete protein contains all 22 amino acids, the building blocks your body uses in various combinations. Animal protein sources are always complete, while vegetable sources are often incomplete because certain amino acids are missing.
What exactly is a complete protein?
Protein is a complete protein if it contains all nine essential amino acids. In short: a complete protein contains all the amino acids that it must or cannot produce itself, explains Eric Bustillo. Amino acids.
What proteins are called complete proteins?
10 Complete Proteins Vegans Should Know About Quinoa Quinoa is the healthiest food NASA plans to grow during extended space missions. It is very similar to couscous, but much more nutritious. Buckwheat. In fact, buckwheat is not a variety of wheat, but a relative of rhubarb.
What are natural peptides?
Peptides are natural amino acids that are the building blocks of protein collagen.
Are peptides good for You?
Peptides are becoming an increasingly important part of many skin care creams and nutritional supplements. Because peptides play such an important role in collagen production, they can improve your skin's firmness, elasticity, and firmness.
How many peptides are there?
It is currently known that about 100 different peptides are secreted by different populations of neurons in the mammalian brain. Neurons use a wide variety of chemical signals to transmit information, including neurotransmitters, peptides and gas transmitters.
What is a peptide for skin care?
The most commonly used peptide in skin care is Matrixil (palmitoyl or oligopeptide pentapeptide). It is a very good neuropeptide for reducing fine wrinkles. Research shows that the right peptide skin cream can play an important role in wound healing and skin improvement. including eczema and dermatitis.
What are the benefits of tuna to your diet?
The benefits of tuna may improve heart health. The first intake of tuna in your diet is omega-3. Helps build muscle mass. It improves brain function and slows the progression of the disease. Strengthen your immune system. Fight depression. Improves blood circulation. Improve the health of your eyes.
Is eating tuna good for weight loss?
Tuna is an excellent food for weight loss due to its high protein content. In addition to amino acids, which your body can use to build muscle, a process that speeds up your metabolism, protein helps you lose weight due to its high thermal effects.
What is the smallest part of proteins?
The smallest unit of protein is an amino acid. All amino acids have four main characteristics: An amino group (NH2) at one end. At the other end is a carboxyl group (COOH).
What is the primary structure of a protein refers to?
The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The primary structure is supported by peptide bonds formed during protein synthesis.
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
The quaternary structure of a protein is the union of several protein chains or subunits into a compact structure. Each of the subunits has its own primary, secondary and tertiary structure. The subunits are held together by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces between the nonpolar side chains.
What do proteins have no quaternary structure?
Correct answer: myoglobin. Explanation: The quaternary structure of a protein involves the assembly of subunits. Hemoglobin, p53 and DNA polymerase are composed of subunits and myoglobin is a single functional sequence. Since myoglobin lacks multiple subunits, it does not have a quaternary structure.
Canned tuna protein content
Cooked Ahi tuna contains 26 grams of protein per 3-ounce serving. Three ounces of light canned tuna in oil contains slightly less, almost 25 grams. The same amount of canned tuna in water contains more than 20 grams of protein. All the calories in your diet come from macronutrients: protein, carbohydrates and fat.
What is the healthiest type of canned tuna?
The healthiest type of tuna is canned light tuna. This type of tuna contains grams to grams of omega-3 fatty acids and parts per million of mercury. Although this figure is higher than that of other fish species, it is considered acceptable even for children and pregnant women.
Is canned tuna good for weight loss?
If you're trying to lose weight, canned tuna wrapped in water can help, especially if you usually eat canned tuna in oil. A water-filled serving of tuna contains only 73 calories, making it suitable even for a low-calorie diet.
How much protein is in a whole egg?
Protein in eggs. The preferred term for "eggs" is 1 large (whole) egg containing about 6 grams of protein.
Which part of the egg is rich in protein?
Egg whites come from both the white and the yolk, with different proteins in each part. The major protein in egg white, making up 54% of the egg white, is ovalbumin while the dominant protein in 16% of the egg yolk is fosvitin.
What is protein found in egg?
Ovalbumin (abbreviated as OVA) is the main protein in egg white, making up about 55% of the total protein.
Are eggs considered protein?
Eggs are primarily protein, but that doesn't mean they are all primarily protein. The white part of an egg is complete protein, but the yolks also contain good cholesterol, vitamin D and a certain amount of carbohydrates.
Canned tuna protein
Protein in tuna. Whether you prefer fresh tuna steak or canned tuna, you'll get the massive amounts of protein you need. Cooked Ahi tuna contains 26 grams of protein per 3-ounce serving. Three ounces of canned tuna in oil yields slightly less, nearly 25 grams.
How much protein in salmon and its health benefits?
The body needs protein, in part to heal, protect bones and prevent muscle breakdown. Salmon contains 2,225 grams of protein per serving. 3. Rich in Vitamin B Salmon is an excellent source of Vitamin B.
Is salmon fattening or good for weight loss?
Mackerel, trout, sardines, herring and other types of fatty fish are also excellent. Summary Salmon is rich in protein and omega-3 fatty acids, making it a good choice for a healthy weight loss diet. 4. Cruciferous vegetables Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and Brussels sprouts.
Does salmon have alot of protein?
Protein in salmon. Most salmon contain 21 to 22 grams of protein for every 3 ounces of fried fillets. Chum salmon, Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, and Atlantic salmon fall into this range.
Century tuna protein content
Century Tuna Hot & Spicy contains 110 calories per serving (56 g): Calories: 59% from fat, 15% from carbohydrates, 26% from protein.
How many calories are in Century Tuna hot and spicy?
There are 110 calories per serving of Century Hot and Spicy Tuna. Calories: 59% from fat, 15% from carbohydrates, 26% from protein.
How many calories are in century tuna flakes in vegetable oil?
Nutritional Information: There are 90 calories in a 56 g serving of Century Tuna and Tuna Flakes in Vegetable Oil. Calories: 53% fat, 5% carbohydrates, 42% protein.
Is the Century Tuna Loaf good for You?
The all new Century Tuna Bread is unlike any other bread - it's juicy, plump and healthy! Every bite of tuna is packed with health benefits! It is low in cholesterol, trans fat free, contains no preservatives and is rich in omega-3 DHA!
What is the best type of tuna?
Some of the best types of tuna include bluefin tuna (which is especially popular and endangered, so think twice before buying), yellowfin tuna and albacore tuna. Bonito, which is found in between tuna and mackerel, but commonly referred to as tuna, is in high demand.
What is the difference between tuna and albacore?
Albacore tuna contains more fat and calories than regular tuna. According to a recently published FDA report, in moderate amounts, Albacore tuna has a lower mercury content than other tuna products. 5. Albacore tuna is a specific type of tuna while tuna is a more general term encompassing many subspecies including bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna.
What is a variety of tuna?
There are different types of tuna (15 species to be exact), but you'll probably only see four of them: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna (also called there), bonito and albacore tuna.
What is chunk light tuna?
Chunky Light Tuna is usually made with bonito tuna and is more pink in color and has a flaky or uneven appearance. It has a slightly richer taste. Some slices of albacore tuna are made from yellowfin tuna, which has almost the same mercury content as albacore tuna. So be sure to check the ingredients list of the brand you have chosen.