The narrator needs to recall a past event that explains the behavior of a character. Or the memory can impose itself on one of the characters, through a sensation.

Going back can maintain suspense: the author first shows the consequences of an action, then goes back in the chronology to recount the circumstances. This process is frequently used in detective novels.

A transition sentence makes it possible to bring back the past, & write essay today either because the character makes an effort of memory, or because the past is imposed on him.

A concluding sentence can take the reader back to the original chronology of the story.

Ex .: Today, times have changed: I grew up …


The narrator’s omniscient provides the reader with information that the characters in the story are ignorant and arousing the reader’s curiosity.

Ex .: Valentine did not yet know that this man was going to transform his life.

The future of a character is evoked by the omniscient narrator who gives the reader information that the characters of the story are unaware, or by one of the characters that project into the future, a feeling, or made a prophecy.

Ex .: It would therefore be my turn to be deleted.
The internal narrator tells the story he lived when he was younger. He knows the sequence of events and can therefore anticipate (means of creating suspense).

Ex: It was only later, when I saw my old friend again… that I could understand his attitude….

1- The ellipse.

The ellipse consists of ignoring certain episodes of the story. It is used in several cases. As some moments are of no particular interest, the narrator chooses not to mention them.
Sometimes the episodes should not be revealed, because the narrator wants to keep them a secret to maintain the suspense or because he wants to forget them. It also happens that the narrator is unable to recount a scene in the story, because he was absent or because he does not remember it.

The ellipse can be indicated by a short sentence which explains its duration, short (an hour passed, the next day…) or longer (three years later).

  • The narrator can also intervene directly and indicate that he is ignoring this episode.
    Ex: Here, we ask permission to pass, without saying a word, over a period of three years.

2- The dilation.

Dilation consists of stretching real-time, as in cinematic slow motion. It is the opposite of the ellipse. The narrator uses it because it is a key moment or to arouse feelings, emotions in the reader. The expansion also allows an action to be broken down.

3- The summary

The summary consists of condensing an episode of the story into a few lines because it is less interesting than others.

External narrator.

It is the pronoun " he " or " she " which is privileged to tell the actions of the character. The narrator is not a character in the story. Example: “Denise had come on foot (…) She was holding hands (…)”

  1. The internal narrator merges with a character in the story and chooses to tell this story through his eyes. The narrator only knows facts that he has seen, understood, or heard said. This point of view (or perspective or focus ) is called internal or subjective.

  2. The external narrator can choose between several techniques a - He can choose to privilege the point of view of a character. He sees through her gaze and slips into her thoughts, it’s always the internal point of view.

  3. He can also know everything about the places, facts, and actions of the characters (including what they do not know). He is likely to slip into the skin of each of his characters, throughout the text. We speak, in this case, of an omniscient point of view or zero focus.

  4. Sometimes, he chooses to describe the characters and places from outside, as a simple observer. He sticks to appearances. He never penetrates the thoughts of his characters. The point of view is therefore external.