Signing of the constitution

Signing of the constitution

What are the names of the signers of the Constitution? These two founding documents were signed by only six people. These were George Clymer, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, George Read, Roger Sherman and James Wilson*. Some of the Declaration's famous signatories when the Constitution was written were elsewhere.

What are the 39 states represented in the Constitution?

Today, the United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The 39 delegates who signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787, and the states they represented were: Washington, George, Virginia. Franklin, Benjamin, Pennsylvania. Madison, James, Virginia Hamilton, Alexander, New York.

Who decided not to sign the Constitution?

See full document. These people saw the constitution and decided not to sign it. George Mason, Edmund Randolph and Jerry Elbridge decided not to sign the document because they felt it would take away too much power from state governments.

What states signing ratified the Constitution?

The Constitution was signed on September 17, 1787. Under Article VII, the document is not binding until nine of the 13 states have ratified it. On December 7, five states (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and Connecticut) quickly ratified it.

Who were the youngest and oldest signers of the Constitution?

signatory to the constitution. Jonathan Dayton was the youngest signatory to the Constitution at age 26, while Benjamin Franklin was the oldest to sign the Constitution at age 81, the oldest a decade earlier (1026: signing of the Declaration of Independence).

Who was the last living signer of the Constitution?

In 1817, after his second term, James Madison retired to his estate in Montpelier, Virginia. In 1829, he was a delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention before dying on June 28, 1836. He was the last survivor to sign the Constitution.

What are the names of the signers of the declaration of Independence?

One of the best known facts about who signed the Declaration of Independence is that the signature of John Hancock was the most prominent, or that several future presidents (more precisely, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson) signed the declaration. Both Samuel and John Adams signed the document.

Who signed the constitution names?

Among those who signed the Constitution were Jonathan Dayton, 29, of New Jersey and Benjamin Franklin, (81) of Pennsylvania. George Washington, who chaired the Convention, was also the first to sign the Constitution.

:brown_circle: What are the names of the signers of the constitution of pennsylvania

Thirty-nine of the fifty-five delegates who attended the Philadelphia Convention | The Constitutional Convention that signed the Constitution of the United States on September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

How many times has the Pennsylvania Constitution been amended?

This Constitution was amended in 1901, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1943, 1945, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1956. referendum of December 16, 1873 is known as the Constitution of 1874 and should be cited.

How many delegates from Rhode Island signed the Constitution?

Thirty-nine of the fifty-five delegates who attended the Philadelphia Convention | The Constitutional Convention that signed the Constitution of the United States on September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. No Rhode Island delegates signed the document because the state refused to send a representative.

Who are the members of the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons?

(b) The Board of Pardons shall be composed of the Lieutenant Governor, who shall be its Chairman, the Attorney General, and three members appointed by the Governor upon the consent of a majority of the members elected to the Senate for a term of six years. rounded.. All three governor-appointed members must be Pennsylvania residents.

Who were the only two presidents to sign the US Constitution?

Answer: The only two future presidents to sign the Constitution are George Washington and James Madison. John Adams, Ambassador to England, and Thomas Jefferson, Ambassador to France, were not present.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: What are the names of the signers of the constitution list

Jonathan Dayton, 26, was the youngest signer to the Constitution and Benjamin Franklin, 81, the oldest. Franklin was also the first to sign and died in April 1790, while James Madison was the last to die in June 1836.

How many signers of the US Constitution were there?

The three major founding documents of the United States of America are the Declaration of Independence (July 1776), the Articles of Confederation (drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781), and the Constitution of the United States (1789). There are a total of 143 signatures on these documents, which amounts to 118 different signatures.

What are the names of the signers of the constitution of north carolina

Completed on September 17, 1787, the Constitution was signed on behalf of North Carolina by William Blount of Bertie County, Richard Dobbs Speight of New Bern, and Hugh Williamson of Pennsylvania.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: How many articles are in the North Carolina Constitution?

North Carolina's first Constitution was passed in 1776 after the adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence. Since the adoption of the first state constitution, there have been two major changes and numerous amendments. Its current form was ratified in 1971 and consists of 14 articles.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: What is the Constitution of the state of North Carolina?

The Constitution of the State of North Carolina governs the structure and functions of the government of the State of North Carolina, one of the United States, it is the supreme legal document of the state and governs the laws of North Carolina.

:brown_circle: Who were the signers of the declaration of Independence?

Signatory of the Declaration of Independence Name State Representative.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How many signers of the declaration of Independence were in Virginia?

Seven signatories to the Virginia Declaration of Independence Name Microsoft PowerPoint Virginia Created by dbybee Created on 06-25-2008 11:34:49 AM m.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Who were the 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention?

The 39 delegates who signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787 and the states they represented were: Washington, George, Virginia Franklin, Benjamin, Pennsylvania, Madison, James, Virginia Hamilton, Alexander, New York Morris, Gouverneur, Pennsylvania Morris, Robert, Pennsylvania.. Wilson, James, P. Pinckney, Chas.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Which delegates did not sign the Constitution?

Four Virginia delegates have not signed the constitution. James McClurg, a doctor who advocates for a strong federal government, left the convention in August. George White, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and friend and mentor of Thomas Jefferson, also left early.

What are the names of the signers of the constitution of texas

Signatory of the Texas Declaration of Independence. These men, elected as delegates to the 1836 Constitutional Convention, determined the future of Texas and eventually most of the United States. Among them were 12 lawyers, five doctors, four surveyors and three landowners, businessmen and merchants.

What is the history of the Texas Constitution?

Texas Constitution of 1876. Nine years later, Texas was able to more carefully write its first state constitution. The Constitution of 1845, passed shortly before annexation, sets out the laws of Texas simply and directly. Constitutional scholars consider it one of the best state constitutions in the country.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Where can I find the complete text of the 1876 Texas Constitution?

For the full text of the Texas Constitution of 1876 (without amendments) and other earlier Texas constitutions, see Texas Constitution 18241876, Tarleton Law Library project at the University of Texas Law School. Click on the image to enlarge the image and the transcript.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: Who were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1836?

These men were elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1836 and determined the future of Texas and eventually most of the United States. Among them were 12 lawyers, five doctors, four surveyors and three landowners, businessmen and merchants.

How many states were represented at the Constitutional Convention?

A quorum of seven states met and talks began on May 25. In the end, twelve states were represented, 74 delegates nominated, 55 in attendance and 39 signed.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How many people signed the Constitution?

You probably think that number would be much higher given the size of the Constitution then and now, but the answer to the question "how many people signed the Constitution?" is 39. That's right, only 39 men (and they were all white men). and landowners) actually signed the most famous legal document in the world.

Who were the 39 delegates who signed the constitution drawing easy

After another two months of intense debate and revision, the delegates introduced what is now known as the Constitution, expanding the powers of the central government and protecting the prerogatives of the states. 4 A total of 39 delegates signed the constitution on September 17, 1787.

What were the 39 states represented in the Constitutional Convention?

The 39 delegates who signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787, and the states they represented were: Washington, George, Virginia. Franklin, Benjamin, Pennsylvania.

Who was the head of the Constitutional Convention Committee?

Governor Morris was appointed chairman of the committee, but most of the writing came from James Madison, who has been called the Father of the Constitution. Signing of the Constitution: The committee worked on the Constitution until September 17, when the Convention voted to adopt the Constitution.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Who was at the Federal Convention of 1787?

Image Courtesy of Virginia Capitol Architect George Washington presides over the 1787 Federal Convention as delegates sign the Constitution in Philadelphia's Independence Hall. Several delegates, such as Washington, served in the Continental Congress or fought against the British during the American Revolution.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: Who prepared the Constitution of India?

In 1928, the All Party Conference convened a committee in Lucknow to prepare a constitution for India, known as the Nehru Report. Most of colonial India was under British rule from 1857 to 1947.

:brown_circle: Who was the original calligrapher of the Indian Constitution?

The original constitution is handwritten and each page is decorated by Shantiniketan artists including Beohar Rammanohar Singh and Nandalal Bose. His calligrapher was Prem Behari Narain Raizada.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: When did the Constitution of India come into effect?

It was passed by the Constituent Assembly of India on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950. The Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's main governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India.

How many people signed the Constitution at the Constitutional Convention?

Most of the meetings were attended by 55 men, never more than 46 at a time, and in the end only 39 delegates signed the constitution. (William Jackson, who was Secretary of Congress but not a delegate, also signed the Constitution.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How many delegates signed the declaration of Independence?

In addition to the 39 delegates, Secretary of Congress William Jackson also signed the document, not as a delegate, but as proof that he had signed the document.

Did all the delegates to the Continental Congress agree with the Constitution?

Several delegates, such as Washington, served in the Continental Congress or fought against the British during the American Revolution. Not all delegates agreed with the final product. Some expressed reservations, but signed the constitution pending heated debate in their states.

How many delegates from Rhode Island attended the Constitutional Convention?

After the Continental Congress voted on the issue, 12 of the 13 states (Rhode Island abstained) elected 70 delegates to represent them at the Federal Convention. Only 55 of these appointees were present.

Who were the 39 delegates who signed the constitution of england

Some of these people disagreed or could not attend, including Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock. In all, 55 delegates attended the meetings of the Constitutional Convention, but only 39 signed the Constitution.

Which founding fathers were delegates to the Constitutional Convention?

Select the names or states below to view brief biographies of all the Founding Fathers who served as delegates to the Constitutional Convention. (* denotes non-signing delegates) William. Samuel Johnson William. Blunt Richard.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Who did not attend the Constitutional Convention?

Meet the authors of the Constitution. Some of these people disagreed or could not attend, including Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock. In all, 55 delegates attended the meetings of the Constitutional Convention, but only 39 signed the Constitution.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Which founding fathers did not sign the Constitution?

Thomas Jefferson has not signed the Constitution. He was in France during the Convention, where he was minister. John Adams was British Foreign Secretary at the Constitutional Convention and was also not present.

:brown_circle: Who is youngest signer of Constitution?

However, Washington signed on the right side of the page, and when the delegates ran out of space, they started a second column of signatures from the left. Jonathan Dayton, 26, was the youngest signer to the Constitution and Benjamin Franklin, 81, the oldest.

Who are the presidents that did not finish their term?

The following US presidents have not served their terms in office: William Henry Harrison (deceased of illness) Zachary Taylor (deceased of illness) Abraham Lincoln (assassinated) James A. Garfield (assassinated) William McKinley (assassinated) Warren G. Harding (deceased of illness) ) ). ) Franklin D. Roosevelt (died of a stroke) .

:eight_spoked_asterisk: What happened to the delegates who didn't sign the Constitution?

Delegates who did not sign the letter. In all, 70 delegates were appointed to the Constitutional Convention, but of those 70, only 55 attended and only 39 registered. Some simply refused, some got sick, some left early.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Why did James Madison not sign the Constitution?

Reason not to sign: He left early for fear his vote would cause controversy among Virginia delegates. Known For: He was the United States' first Attorney General. Reason for not signing: Found that there were not enough checks and balances.

:brown_circle: Why did Abraham Lincoln refuse to sign the Constitution?

Known for: Being the father of the United States Bill of Rights. Reason for not signing: Refused to sign because there was no Bill of Rights in the Constitution at the time. Known For: As one of three doctors (along with James McHenry and Hugh Williamson) involved in the constitutional process.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: How many delegates signed the Constitution at the convention?

A total of 70 delegates were appointed to the Constitutional Convention, but of those 70, only 55 attended and only 39 registered. Some simply refused, some got sick, some left early.

Who decided not to sign the constitution of india

The report was unacceptable to Muslims and two Muslim members of the commission have not signed it. Syed Ali Imam was unable to attend the committee meetings due to health problems and Shoaib Qureshi refused to sign the report.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Who decided the basic features of the Constitution of India?

At the third session of the All-Party Conference, held in Bombay in May 1928, a seven-member committee chaired by Motilal Nehru outlined the blueprint for India's future constitution.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: When did the Constitution of India come into force?

The Republic is governed by the Constitution of India, which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949 and entered into force on January 26, 1950.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: Is the Indian constitution their heritage?

If the Constitution of India is its legacy, bequeathed to them by its founders, then we, the people of India, are no less the custodians and custodians of the values ​​that vibrate in its provisions! The Constitution is not a scroll, it is a way of life that must be respected.

Who prepared the draft constitution for India in 1947?

Retrieved April 14, 2011. On August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly established a drafting committee chaired by BR Ambedkar to draft a constitution for the National Day of the Law in India and welcomed two prominent judges. Archived November 30, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, first reported on November 26, 2011.

When was the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan made?

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان), also known as the Constitution of 1973, is the supreme law of Pakistan. It was developed by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto with additional help from the country's opposition parties, passed by the parliament on April 10 and ratified on August 14, 1973.

:brown_circle: Which is the supreme law of Pakistan?

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان), also known as the Constitution of 1973, is the supreme law of Pakistan.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How has the Constitution of Pakistan changed over time?

It has changed over time and the recent push for political renewal and reform has been reversed. Although Pakistan was introduced in 1973, it annually celebrates the adoption of the constitution on March 23, when the first constitution was adopted in 1956, as Republic Day.

What is the preamble to the 1956 Constitution of Pakistan?

The resolution of the objectives was reproduced as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962 and 1973. ^ background b. Pakistan Constitution filed on November 7, 2015 at the Wayback Machine Posted by Jayshree Bajoria | Council for Foreign Relations | Updated .

:eight_spoked_asterisk: Who signed the Italian Constitution in 1947?

Enrico de Nicola, provisional head of state, signed the constitution on December 27, 1947, in accordance with section XVIII. The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly on December 22, 1947, by 453 votes to 62.

How many times has the Constitution of Italy been amended?

The text, amended sixteen times, was published in a special issue of the Gazzetta Ufficiale on December 27, 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by popular vote on June 2, 1946, the day of the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. it happened.

When was the Constituent Assembly elected in Italy?

The text, amended sixteen times, was published in a special issue of the Gazzetta Ufficiale on December 27, 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by popular vote on June 2, 1946, the day of the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. it happened. Elections were held in all Italian provinces.

Why was the Weimar Constitution not called the Constitution of Germany?

Many parts of the constitution are very different from that of the Weimar Republic. The authors chose not to call it a constitution, hoping that it would be just a temporary law for West Germany and that the two Germanys would soon be united into one.

What is the name of Germany's constitution?

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany is the name of the German Constitution. It was written in 1949 when Germany was divided into East German and West German countries. Many parts of the constitution are very different from that of the Weimar Republic.

Why did the Federal Republic of Germany change the Basic Law?

Instead, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic decided to maintain the Basic Law in the "two plus four" version of the treaty, as demonstrated in West Germany. To facilitate reunification and reassure other states, the Federal Republic of Germany has made some changes to the Basic Law.

When did the West German constitution come into effect?

The West German Constitution was adopted in Bonn on May 8, 1949, and came into effect on May 23 after being approved by the Western Allies in World War II on May 12. It was called the Basic Law to indicate that it was a provisional law until German reunification.

How many states initially ratified the Constitution?

While initially 9 states individually participated in the constitution's ratification, later each of the first 12 states ratified the constitution: the first 9 states.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: What was the last state to sign the Constitution?

The last state to technically "ratify" and put into effect the Constitution was the Ninth State of New Hampshire in June 1788. After the Ninth State, the Constitution went into effect and no longer required ratification. Other states were admitted to the union, forcing them to adopt the United States Constitution as the supreme law of the land.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: How many states would have to approve the Constitution?

Article VII states that nine states must ratify the constitution before it takes effect. The first nine states took ten months to pass a constitution.

How many people actually signed the Constitution?

A total of thirty-nine delegates from various states of the United States signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787. The United States Constitution is a comprehensive document containing a predetermined set of rules defining its powers, duties, organization, and operation. federal and state governments.

:brown_circle: How many states signed the constitution of the united states

The signing of the United States Constitution took place on September 17, 1787, at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention, representing 12 states (all except Rhode Island, which declined to send delegates), signed the Constitution approved.

:brown_circle: Who signed the constitution

Answer: The only two future presidents to sign the Constitution are George Washington and James Madison. John Adams, Ambassador to England, and Thomas Jefferson, Ambassador to France, were not present.

How many states signed the constitution of england

Under Article VII, the document is not binding until nine of the 13 states have ratified it. On December 7, five states (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and Connecticut) quickly ratified it.

:brown_circle: How many states signed the declaration of Independence?

The statement was signed by representatives of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Lee's independence resolution was unanimously approved by the Second Continental Congress on July 2.

Does the UK have a constitution?

The British Constitution was not codified in a single document, such as the Constitution of South Africa or the Basic Law of Germany. However, general constitutional principles govern the law, and fundamental laws are deemed constitutional.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Which state had the most signers of the Constitution?

Pennsylvania had the most representatives with nine signatories. The second largest group came from Virginia with seven signatories. Who was the youngest signatory? The two signatories were 26 years old at the time of signing.

How many states signed the constitution of the philippines

After another two months of intense debate and revision, the delegates introduced what is now known as the Constitution, expanding the powers of the central government and protecting the prerogatives of the states. 4 On September 17, 1787, 39 delegates signed the Constitution.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: When was the present Constitution of the Philippines made?

Current Philippine Constitution: The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, approved by the Constitutional Commission of 1986 on October 12, 1986, was presented to President Corazon C. Aquino on October 15, 1986. 1987. Entered into force on February 11, 1987.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How many articles are there in the Constitution of the Philippines?

Constitution of the Philippines (1987) Preamble and eighteen separate articles, with renumbered sections for each article.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: What is Article 6 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines?

1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES - ARTICLE VI ARTICLE VI LEGISLATIVE SECTION 1. Legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives, except to the extent permitted by the People's Initiative and Referendum Clause.

What does the Constitution of the Philippines say about the US?

Notwithstanding the provisions of the previous Constitution, until the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines is definitively and completely destroyed: (1) all citizens of the Philippines are loyal to the United States. (2) Every officer of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines must first .

:eight_spoked_asterisk: How many states signed the constitution of 1918

Constitution signed The Constitution of the United States of America was signed at the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia by 38 of the 41 delegates present. Supporters of the document fought a stubborn fight for its ratification by all nine of the 13 necessary states.

How many people signed the US Constitution?

Although 55 delegates took part in drafting the constitution, only 39 signed it. Not all 55 people were present all the time, and these 39 were the ones who were present at the end of writing.

How many delegates signed the Constitution in 1787?

States and dates of ratification On September 17, 1787, the delegates finally adopted the Constitution of the United States. It did not include a Bill of Rights, although it was hotly debated. Of the 42 delegates who attended the congress at the end, 39 signed the constitution.

:brown_circle: When was the Constitution finally ratified?

States and dates of ratification. On September 17, 1787, the delegates finally passed the United States Constitution.

How many states did not sign the Constitution?

It does not cover four or fewer states that have not signed. The signing of the Constitution of the United States took place on September 17, 1787, when 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention accepted the Constitution drafted at the convention.

:brown_circle: How many states signed the constitution of india

In all, twelve of the thirteen states sent delegates to the constitutional convention, with a total of 74 nominees, 55 in attendance and 39 signings. Several in attendance left for the signing ceremony and three did not answer.

When was the Constitution of India signed?

On January 24, 1950, the 284 members of the Constituent Assembly signed the Constitution of India at the Constitution Hall, now known as the Central Parliament Hall, New Delhi. Members of the Constituent Assembly sign the Constitution 16. January 26, 1950: The Constitution becomes law.

How many parts of the Indian Constitution are there?

In this article, you will learn more about the elements of the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India consists of 25 parts and 12 lists with 448 articles. The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, and came into force on January 26, 1950.

How many times has the Constitution of India been amended?

The Indian Constitution was only amended 94 times in its first 62 years and has stood the test of time. As of January 2019, 103 amendments have been made to the Indian Constitution since it first came into force in 1950.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: What is the present form of government in India?

Most wanted. The Republic is governed by the Constitution of India, which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949 and entered into force on January 26, 1950. The constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government, which has a federal structure and a number of common features.

:eight_spoked_asterisk: Who was the first person to sign the US Constitution?

The United States Constitution was signed by its original founders, such as Benjamin Franklin and James Madison. However, the privilege of being the first to sign the Constitution went to George Washington.

Signing of the constitution painting

A Howard Chandler Christie painting depicting the signing of the United States Constitution was commissioned in 1939 as part of Congress' bicentennial celebration of the Constitution. Completed in 1940, this oil on canvas painting is one of the most famous depictions of the United States Capitol.

What are the conventions for signing a painting?

  • Use your signature to balance your painting.
  • Keep it simple but memorable.
  • If you have a long name, consider using the shortened version, e.g. B. the first letter of your first name followed by your last name (
  • Ask yourself if your signature is recognizable and unique, especially if they share a common name.

Was the constitution written by the founding fathers?

Many of the Founding Fathers of the United States attended the Constitutional Convention, which wrote and ratified the Constitution. George Washington, for example, presided over the Congress. James Madison, also in attendance, drafted the document that formed the blueprint for the constitution.

:diamond_shape_with_a_dot_inside: Who were the people who supported the Constitution?

The defenders of the new constitution, the Federalists, began publishing articles for its ratification. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay eventually compiled 85 essays called The Federalist Papers.

signing of the constitution