Ideology is a bunch of ideas that describe all features of reality, lays down values and preferences in respect of both ends and means, and contain a program of action for the achievement of the defined ends.
Definition of Ideology:
1: ideology is the combination of ideas about economic, social and political goals and aspects and posit action programs for the attainment of these goals.
2: Ideology is a bunch of ideas about life, society or government, which arise, in most cases, as consciously recommend imperatively maintain social, political or religious slogans or battle-cries and which through uninterrupted usage and preaching’s slowly become the important faiths or dogmas of a specific group, party, or nationality.
3: An ideology is a structure of notional ideas held by an individual (or group) which claim to describe truth, convey value goals, and carry programs of action for the refusal or accomplishment of the kind of social order in which its supporters believe the goals can best be perceive.
4: Ideology is a bunch of ideas that claims to offer meaning to the past, to describe the present and to predict the future.
Ideology and Religion:
Sometimes it is said that ideology belongs to the same logical category as that of the religion. Ideology and religion both have the similarity in a sense that both deals with the questions of truth and conduct. Besides the similarities, there is a difference between both religion and ideology. A religious theory is based on the terms of divine order and its seldom while the ideologist centers on this world. The importance of religion is on faith and worship and it lacks and don’t have a real political program. The aim of religion is the redemption of human spirit. In contradiction with religion, ideology speaks to the group, the class and the nation. Some religions acknowledge revelation while ideology believes on reason only.
Seventeenth Century England role in Ideology:
The Seventeenth century England occupies and important position in the history of ideology. At that time there were no ideology in the strict sense. At that time politics itself acquire certain ideological characteristics. The revolutionary forces in 17th century demands for the explanation of the actions that were radical and were taken. This revolutionary forces and theories increases the tendency to discuss politics in terms of principles which marks the emergence of ideological style. Machiavelli was the earliest to associate ideology with horror
Ideologies of Foreign Policy:
There are three different types of ideologies of foreign policy;
1. Ideology of Status Quo
2. Ideology of Imperialism, and
3. Ambiguous Ideologies.
1: Ideology of status Quo:
Nations that seek the preservation of existing power positions pursue the policy of status quo. Ideology of status quo contradicts with the ideology of imperialism which always favors to overthrow the status quo.
2: Ideology of imperialism:
Ideology of imperialism seeks to change the status quo and believes in the distribution of powers. The ideology of imperialism always remains in need to change the existing territorial arrangements. The ideology of imperialism is based on moral grounds and natural law. Ideology of Imperialism is used by a nation for explaining its policy of enlarging its national power beyond its borders for economic, strategic and political gains.
3: Ambiguous Ideology:
This ideology is also called the ideology of anti-imperialism. This ideology is used to denounce the actions of opponents as imperialist actions.
Kinds of Ambiguous Ideology:
A: Ideology of national self-determination:
This ideology was first used by Woodrow Wilson for the liberation of central and east European nations from foreign domination. Later on this ideology was also used by Hitler for territorial expansion.
B: Ideology of United Nation:
The ideology of United Nations is used by all nations for the justification of their policies and actions. Every international treaty or agreement begins with the certain principles of United Nations. The UN charter is for the justification of policies and decisions of the nations. All the nations almost make their treaties and agreements by keeping in view the ideology and basic principles of the UN charter. Almost all the nations use the UN charter as weapon for criticizing their opponents and for the justification of their own policies as cooperation and goodwill.
C: Ideology of peace:
Ideology of peace is used by nations against their opponents for criticizing their anti-peace policies. Almost all the nations acquire the policies of peace and talks about peace. This ideology is used by nations for concealing the real nature of the policies they follow behind a mask of strong peaceful objectives and for attracting the support of individuals and kindness from every quarter of the world.
D: Ideology of Human Rights:
Ideology of human rights is used by several nations for criticizing their opponents and by influencing other nations to adopt their policies like currently USA and other European states.
Importance of Ideology:
Ideology plays a very important role in decision making. It helps the nations in decision making through which they make policies in the very best interest of the nation. Ideology provides justification for the actions that a nation adopts. It provides the pathway for the nations in the best interest of nations.
Frequently asked question (FAQs)
1. What are the four major ideologies in the United States?
Liberalism, conservatism, libertarianism, and populism are the four major ideologies in the United States. Individuals accept each ideology to a widely varying extent.
2. What are the two main types of ideology?
The set of ethical ideas about how a country should be run is a political ideology.
The set of ideas about philosophy, the Universe, and how people should make decisions is epistemological ideology.
3. What is the Marxist concept of ideology?
The concept of Marxist’ ideology is just a word. This word describes a set of ideas and beliefs that are dominant in society and are used to justify the power and privilege of the ruling class.
4. What is the source of ideology?
Religions and heritage in the light of the current situation being experienced by a group are the sources of ideology. Another important part is that the group must have enough power to implement the ideology.
5. Is there a difference between ideology and theory?
Yes, there is a difference between ideology and theory. Ideology is the set of beliefs that an individual has about the world and theory is the idea or explanation about something.