Australian pine trees
What kind of tree does Australian pine come from? The name of the species equisetifolia comes from the Latin word equisetum, which in turn means horsehair for quite unambiguous reasons. The Australian pine is a plant native to the warm and subtropical tropics of Southeast Asia and Australia, where it is grown, and cultivation extends west to the Indian peninsula.
What trees grow in Australia?
These trees are very beautiful and can grow up to 20 meters high. There are many other tree species in Australia such as: hairy lollipop, jackwood, red kamala, ground tree, female blush, makaranga, native guava, milk bush, native olive, kangaroo apple and many others.
What are the names of Australian softwood trees?
There are several native conifers in Australia namely conifers or conifers such as walnut, celery, pine, white cypress and many more. These species occur naturally and are grown on plantations throughout Australia, especially in the Eastern States and Tasmania.
Is Australian pine invasive?
It is also similar to other casuarin species such as Australian river oak and Brazilian oak, which are also invasive species in Florida. The Australian pine is known to hybridize with two other species and produce trees with intermediate characteristics that are difficult to identify.
What are names of Australian evergreen shrubs?
/ˌL eɪ ɡrˈstr iːmiə/, commonly known as crepe myrtle (also called crepe myrtle or crepe myrtle), is a genus of about 50 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs native to the Southeast Indian subcontinent of Asia. , Northern Australia and parts of Oceania grown in the warmest climates in the world.
What are Australian trees?
There are several types of trees in Australia, some of which are described here: 1. Gums. These include eucalyptus, angophora and corymbia. These three types of trees are very similar in Australia and there are over 700 known species of these trees in Australia and they can be found on almost every slope in Australia.
What is an Austrian pine tree?
Austrian pine. The Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) is an evergreen tree that can withstand most climatic and soil conditions. It can grow up to 60 feet tall and 20 feet wide and is also commonly known as black pine. The tree is cone-shaped and has needles up to 10 cm long.
What kind of tree does australian pine come from from china
Native to Australia, the islands of the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. Leaves: The leaves are reduced to tiny scales around the branches, 68 in whorls in Casuarina equisetifolia, 810 in whorls in C. cunninghamiana and 1017 in whorls in C.
Where does the Australian pine tree come from?
The Australian pine is an invasive tree found primarily in Florida, Hawaii, California, Arizona, and Texas. In 1898, the USDA first planted Australian pine trees to stabilize riverbanks and use them as timber. Today, this invasive species destroys plants, wildlife, and the soil around it. How to recognize the Australian pine?
Are there Australian pine trees in South Florida?
Australian pines pose a threat to native plant communities in central and south Florida, quickly infesting newly constructed beaches, beaches where dredged material was dumped and beaches where the hurricane destroyed existing vegetation. Australian pines have also invaded hammock and tree island communities in South Florida's Everglades.
Is the gum of an Australian pine tree edible?
While it isn't oak either, it does have some overlooked benefits. First, the red juice is drinkable in case you ever need clean water. In addition, tree gum is edible and was harvested by the indigenous people of Australia, where it originated.
What kind of tree looks like a pine tree?
Its small cone-shaped fruits and scaly leaves that resemble pine needles make it resemble Pinus conifers. It is also similar to other casuarin species such as Australian river oak and Brazilian oak, which are also invasive species in Florida.
What kind of tree does australian pine come from plant
It looks like pine, but not pine. Pine needles are actually modified leaves. What look like "needles" in Australian pines are actually branches. These thin, needle-like branches have small leaves.
Where are Australian pine trees found in Florida?
The Australian pine is a large exotic tree that grows throughout South Florida and parts of central Florida. It was introduced to Florida in the late 1800s as a salt-tolerant tree that could provide shade and act as a windbreak along coastal areas. But since then it has become a big problem.
What kind of pine trees are in South Africa?
He is most famous for the Pinus pinaster, which is extremely popular in the Cape and Drakensburg regions of South Africa. Also known as cluster pines, this flora emerged decades after Van Riebeck landed on the Mzansi coast.
When was the Australian pine introduced to the Caribbean?
Australian pines were introduced to Mexico before 1852, Barbados to the Caribbean in 1870, Hawaii before 1895, and the West Indies and Florida in 1920.
Where did the Austrian pine tree come from?
The Austrian pine is native to Austria, northern Italy and the former Yugoslavia. It was introduced to the United States in 1759. Its ancestors were probably worshiped by the Romans more than 2,000 years ago. More than 217 million Austrian pines have been planted as part of the Large Dust Bowl national wind protection project.
When was the Australian pine introduced to Florida?
The Australian pine is a large exotic tree that grows throughout South Florida and parts of central Florida. It was introduced to Florida in the late 1800s as a salt-tolerant tree that could provide shade and act as a windbreak along coastal areas.
When do Australian pine trees bloom in the US?
The root system can also destroy the canal and water pipes and destroy the walkway. The Australian pine reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. Most trees in the continental United States bloom twice a year, from February to April and from September to October. The fruits ripen in June-December.
Is it possible to hybridize an Australian pine tree?
The Australian pine is known to hybridize with two other species and produce trees with intermediate characteristics that are difficult to identify. Pruning or damaging the tree causes vegetative growth, so this is an ineffective management strategy.
What kind of tree does australian pine come from from new zealand
COPPER PINE (E) (S) Also known as southern pine, Slash pine (Pinus elliotti, P. caribea, etc.), native to southeastern Australia and grown mainly in southeastern Queensland and to a lesser extent on plantations in northern New South Wales and New Zealand. Available as high quality smooth veneer.
Where does the southern pine tree come from?
The Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea, Pinus bahamensis, Pinus hondurensis), also known as southern pine, is native to Central America, Cuba, and the Bahamas. It is grown on plantations in Queensland and northern New South Wales.
Are there any native trees in New Zealand?
There are many native trees suitable for any New Zealand microclimate.
Where are South Esk pine trees found in Australia?
Found in eastern Tasmania, the South Esca pine is one of 11 conifers native to Australia.
What kind of bark does an Austrian pine have?
The Austrian pine is native to Europe. The tree has a flat, grooved bark that is dark brown to black in color. The needles are 3 to 6 inches long and come in packs of two. They have a stiff texture, ragged edges and a sharp horn tip. The tree is monoecious. Floral designs have no artistic meaning.
What's the name of the Australian pine tree?
In fact, this "pen" is called SheOak and BullOak in Australia; no, I don't know why this genre is changing. While it isn't oak either, it does have some overlooked benefits. First, the red juice is drinkable in case you ever need clean water.
What kind of trees are found in Australasia?
We've sorted the synonyms by length to make them easier to find. Woody capsule-bearing plants belonging to seven closely related genera found in Australasia: Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Angophora, Stockwellia, Allosyncarpia, Eucalyptopsis, and Aryllastrum. Thanks for visiting Crossword Solver.
Why are Australian pine trees bad for the environment?
Shallow root system: The shallow root system of the Australian pine destroys the spawning grounds of some endangered species. Newborn turtles and other living things can invade these root systems and endanger your species. Displaced habitat plants: In some cases, Australian pines replace the natural habitat of animals.
What are the native plants of Australia?
Australia's geographic isolation is home to many unique species of rare plants, including many species of orchids and eucalyptus. Some of Australia's native plants include Cowrie Bull, Palm Valley Myrtle, Dallahis Banksia, and Sturts Desert Rose.
Are there plants in Australia?
- Australian daisy (Brachiskom)
- Bird's Nest Fern (Asplenium australasicum)
- Bottle Brush (Callistemon)
- Baked peas (chorisma)
- Cicada (macrosam)
- Elk antlers and deer antlers Fern (Platycerium)
- Rubber tree (eucalyptus and corymbia)
- Eternal Chamomile (Xerochrysum bracteatum)
- Fan-shaped flowers (Scaevola aemula)
What trees are in Australia?
There are many other tree species in Australia such as: hairy lollipop, jackwood, red kamala, ground tree, female blush, makaranga, native guava, milk bush, native olive, kangaroo apple and many others.
What is the tree of Australia?
Eucalyptus is the backbone of Australian forests. There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus on this large continent. Eucalyptus has many names such as rubber, hammer, boxwood, ash, iron bark and wire bark. This amazing tree is an important part of the Australian ecosystem. It is the main food source for the cute koala.
What trees grow in australia and new zealand
In the late Cretaceous, New Zealand and Australia were physically linked and shared a flora dominated by podocarps, araucaria, conifers and deciduous angiosperms, consistent with growth in polar regions with periods of wintry darkness. As New Zealand disintegrated and moved north, a typically hardy flora emerged, dominated by angiosperms.
What trees grow in australia and japan
Tree species in Australia. These trees are very beautiful to look at and can grow up to 20 meters high. There are many other types of trees in Australia such as: hairy lollipop, jackwood, red kamala, ground tree, maiden's blush, makaranga, guava, milk bush, olive oil, kangaroo apple and many others.
How much does a Japanese maple tree cost in Australia?
The weeping dwarf maple, a rare flora on the south coast of New South Wales, breeds a variety of rare plants, such as the Norway maple and Dissectum. Specializing in sycamore maple, they ship all over Australia and prices start at $75 for a 24-year-old tree.
What kind of trees are found in Japan?
More than 500 types have been made in Japan alone, making classification difficult and often opaque. In Japan, however, most belong to three main groups. These are: Yabai (野 梅 系): These guys are closest to the wild type. The branching is usually thin and dense, with small, thorny branches.
When to plant a Japanese maple tree in Queensland?
Brindabella Gardens in Queensland has a great exhibit and is happy to share your tips for transplanting and growing. According to Eco Organic, you can plant Japanese maple at any time of the year, but its deciduous nature means it loses its leaves in the winter. When you buy a maple tree in the fall, you will see the brightly colored leaves in all their glory.
What trees grow in australia today
Australia's forests range from ancient Gondwana rainforests and tropical mangroves to vast thickets of acacia, melaleuca and eucalyptus. Your donation will help plant millions of trees in Australia to restore forests affected by the 201920 Black Summer Wildfires and restore vital natural habitats for wildlife.
What trees grow in australia fire
Like many plants found in areas prone to wildfires, eucalyptus (also known as eucalyptus in Australia) is adapted to survive or even thrive in a wildfire.
What kind of tree is fire retardant in Australia?
Australian Fireproof Trees Acacia Cyclops - Coastal Acacia, family Mimosaceae, slow growing, dense, evergreen, often multi-stemmed, dense shrubs, 3 m high x 3 m wide or small tree 3-8 m high, less high in windswept coastal areas cover.
Which is the most adapted tree to fire?
Australian trees and fire. Eucalyptus is one of the native species adapted to the fire. They are specialists in fire safety and salvage. Most eucalyptus species (and some Banksia species) ■■■■■■ underground are based on organs called lignotubers.
Why are there so many fires in Australia?
The fires are fueling Australian eucalyptus forests, which many experts blame for fueling the wildfires that have devastated the hills of California and other places where eucalyptus, native to Australia but now found around the world, is spreading as an invasive species.
Why do they need to plant trees in Australia?
Reforestation efforts help restore natural vegetation, improve soil quality, prevent erosion and control invasive species that can be particularly aggressive after uninterrupted wildfires. Help them stop the catastrophic spread of bushfires in Australia.
What kind of softwood is used in Australia?
Conifers Australian grown pines are readily available in much of Australia. Also, some imported species such as spruce, imported pine, Douglas fir or spruce and fir (SPF) are locally seasoned and grown), Radiata, Pinaster, Slash, Caribbean Pine.
What kind of wood does a softwood tree have?
Conifers generally have softer woods than hard woods. Softwoods contain only a few different types of cells. Hardwood has more cell types and fewer air spaces.
What are the names of the trees in Australia?
The following genera are listed in groups on their websites: Australian figs (Ficus spp.), Australian Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.), Grevilleas (Grevillea spp.), and Lilly Pillies/Satinashes (Syzygium spp.).
What kind of wood grows in Western Australia?
Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) is a large hardwood native to the southwestern corner of Western Australia. Jarrah and Curry also come from ancient forests. The core is strong. It is used in general construction, sleepers, posts, pillars, parquet floors, siding, joinery, heavy furniture.
Where are southern pine trees grown in Australia?
Also known as southern pine, skew pine (Pinus elliotti, P.
What kind of trees are in the PNG rainforest?
PINO (S) ARO (S) Hoop Pine 2 (Araucaria cunninghamii), also known as Dorrigo Pine, Colonial Pine or Arakaria, is a tropical rainforest native to northern New South Wales, Queensland and the PNG Highlands. It is the only native tropical timber grown in large quantities on Australian plantations.
What are the names of australian softwood trees varieties
There are several native conifers in Australia namely conifers or conifers such as walnut, celery, pine, white cypress and many more. These species occur naturally and are grown on plantations throughout Australia, especially in the Eastern States and Tasmania.
What are the names of australian softwood trees species
There are several native conifers in Australia namely conifers or conifers including walnuts, celery, pine, white cypress and many more. These species occur naturally and are grown on plantations throughout Australia, especially in the Eastern States and Tasmania.
What's the difference between softwood and hardwood trees?
Whether the wood is hard or soft does not depend on the resistance, as expected, but on the structure of the seed. Hardwood seeds are produced unopened with a coating such as a shell or fruit. Conifers produce bare seeds that fall to the ground.
What kind of wood is found in Western Australia?
Color: Curry is a glossy hardwood native to Western Australia, available in attractive shades of rose gold or russet with creamy white streaks. Texture and texture: Curry wood has long interlocking fibers. Origin: Western Australia.
What kind of tree is a softwood tree?
Softwood comes from the coniferous gymnosperms. Other names for softwoods include balsam, larch, pine, spruce, or fir. Deciduous tree or coniferous tree?
How tall does an invasive Australian pine tree grow?
Invasive Species: Casuarina equisetifolia, Australian Pine The Australian Pine is an invasive deciduous tree that grows in open coastal habitats such as sandy beaches, rocky shores and sand dunes. Trees can grow over 100 feet (m) in height. The bark is reddish brown to gray, brittle and scaly.
Is it illegal to plant Australian pine trees in Florida?
Never plant Australian pines because of their aggressive growth. There are local trees that provide shade and do not harm the environment. Owning an Australian pine for the purpose of selling or planting it is illegal in Florida without a permit.
Australian pine lumber
Australian pine produces exceptional firewood and is recommended for biomass plantations. The wood was used to power locomotives and brick kilns. Astringent bark decoction has been used as a remedy for diarrhea, vitamin deficiencies, sore throat, cough, headache, toothache, pain, and swelling.
When was the first Australian pine tree planted?
In 1898, the USDA first planted Australian pine trees to stabilize riverbanks and use them as timber. Today, this invasive species destroys plants, wildlife, and the soil around it.
What kind of Ash does an Australian pine tree leave?
Australian pine is also known for its firewood, which leaves behind a pure white ash that was ideal for washing pre-commercial washing machines. The ashes were also used to make soap.
What kind of bark does an Australian pine tree have?
Bark: Australian pine bark ranges from reddish brown to gray and has a rough texture that flakes off. Fruits: Small, winged and solitary fruits are found in conical clusters of Australian pines.
Is australian pine invasive florida
It was introduced to Florida to stabilize canals and trenches. But despite all these good qualities, Australian pine is classified as a Category 1 invasive plant, meaning it is illegal to store, collect, transport, grow and import it.
Is the Australian pine tree an invasive species?
The Australian pine is an invasive tree found primarily in Florida, Hawaii, California, Arizona, and Texas. In 1898, the USDA first planted Australian pine trees to stabilize riverbanks and use them as timber. Today, this invasive species destroys plants, wildlife, and the soil around it. Despite the name, Australian pine has nothing to do with pine.
What happens to Australian pine trees in Florida?
Fewer species of birds nest or eat Australian pines compared to native trees. Australian pines often fall in high winds, causing significant damage during stormy seasons. Australian pines are found along the coasts, parks, and wildlife areas of southern and central Florida.
Are there Australian pine trees in the Everglades?
Australian pines have also invaded hammock and tree island communities in South Florida's Everglades. These trees crowd out natural vegetation and produce thick leaf litter underneath.
Is australian pine invasive florida ecosystem
The Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council classifies Australian pine as a Class I plant. This category is defined as "an invasive exotic that disrupts native plant communities by displacing native species, altering community structure or ecological functions, or interbreeding with native species".
Do you have to remove Australian pines in Florida?
The Florida Native Plant Society said… Although you must remove Australian pines from a new location before you can get planning permission, Palm Beach County law currently requires that existing trees be removed only if they are within 50 feet of the natural surface. Unfortunately there is no money to help the owners move.
Are Brazilian pepper trees poisonous?
When consumed, the bark, leaves, and fruits of the Brazilian pepper tree are toxic to humans, other mammals, and birds. The Brazilian pepper tree is a large evergreen shrub or tree with many trunks that can grow up to 33 feet tall.
Is the Brazilian pepper tree edible?
The berries of the Brazilian pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) are generally not considered safe to consume. Be careful before trying to eat them. Just touching the plant can cause a skin reaction, especially in the blazing sun.
What is the Brazilian pepper tree?
The Brazilian pepper tree is a small evergreen shrub or tree that grows to about 310 m (sometimes 15 m) in height with a trunk diameter of 1030 cm (sometimes 60 cm). The bark is gray, smooth or furrowed in the form of long, flat and narrow ridges. The twigs are light brown, slightly hairy at a young age, with numerous elevations (lentils).
Is australian pine invasive florida habitat
Habitats altered by human and natural activity are particularly vulnerable to invasion by the Australian pine. Because Australian pines can withstand salt spray and can grow close to seawater, they have invaded thousands of acres of coastal areas in southeastern and southwestern Florida. Why you should grow Australian pines.
Where did the Brazilian pepper tree come from?
The item has been successfully added to your shopping cart. The Brazilian pepper tree is an aggressive and invasive tree that has gained importance in recent years due to its distribution in the southern United States. The tree was introduced to Florida as an ornamental plant and has since spread out of the state into Texas and even California.
What's the best way to kill a Brazilian pepper tree?
To kill the Brazilian pepper tree, you must chemically spray the trunk (chop the tree into a stump) or spray the leaves. She recommends any product that contains the active ingredient triclopyr, such as Triclopyr 4 Brush Killer (Garlon 4).
Can you use glyphosate on a Brazilian pepper tree?
While both herbicides pass through the plant, coating only one side of the tree with glyphosate or triclopyr will not kill the plant completely. Keep in mind that foliar dressing requires much more herbicide to control Brazilian peppers. Make sure that drifting herbicides don't damage nearby plants.
When to use basal bark treatment on Brazilian pepper trees?
Defoliation, the absence of new growths and the presence of termites are indicators of the success of the treatment. The main bark treatment is most effective in the fall when the Brazilian peppers are in bloom due to the fast rate of the trees.
How tall do Austrian pine plug trees get?
Austrian cedar seedlings sell for about 48" tall One of the hardiest pines, Austrians can thrive in sometimes very dry conditions and slightly alkaline soils, which are rarely enough for evergreen leaves. Just as much water as the others.
Do you have to fertilize an Austrian pine tree?
Fertilization: In general, stone pines do not require fertilization, but in the early years they can benefit from some of the best evergreen fertilizers. This will also improve the tree's growth rate somewhat. Estimated Delivery Time: Most orders ship immediately.
What kind of birds eat Austrian pine seeds?
Birds and squirrels appreciate cedar seeds. Large conifers also serve as a shelter and breeding ground, especially for birds such as owls. The Austrian pine is native to Austria, northern Italy and the former Yugoslavia.
How fast does a ponderosa pine grow in a year?
Although it can grow up to 200 feet in its natural range, the ponderosa pine grows 40 to 50 feet tall and 20 to 25 feet in Kansas. Their growth rate is often 12 to 18 inches per year.
How big do ponderosa pines get?
Ponderosa pine generally grows to a height of 100 to 164 feet with a trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter. The older ones in particular are over 200 feet long and 7 feet in diameter.
How tall do ponderosa pine trees grow?
The typically cultivated Ponderosa pine grows to about 60 feet tall with a branch of about 25 feet. It takes a large yard to plant ponderosa pine. The lower half of the right trunk is bare and the upper half has branches with needles.
Is ponderosa pine poisonous?
Not all pine species are edible, but ponderosa pine and some other pine species can cause disease and death in livestock, and other evergreen conifers, yew, contain a potentially deadly poison that can enter the human body.
Australian pine trees in florida
Australian pines kill all plants in the weeds that surround them. The Australian pine is a large exotic tree that grows throughout South Florida and parts of central Florida. It was introduced to Florida in the late 1800s as a salt-tolerant tree that could provide shade and shelter from the wind in coastal areas.
Where can you find pine trees in Florida?
The swamp pine is the most common pine in Florida and is often confused with another native pine, the swamp pine. Hardy pines grow from the western enclave to the tip of the peninsula and the Keys.
What kind of pine trees are in Western Australia?
Other pine species affected by EBH. There are several other types of pine in Western Australia, including cedar (Pinus pinea), untreated pine (Pinus brutia), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), and Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis). All of these pines look similar and are listed as prone to EBH.
How tall does a Pinus Australes pine tree get?
These lower-grade pines, Pinus australes, are tall, graceful trees with a 115-foot green canopy. (35m) trunks. Loblolli pines are common in parts of the southeastern United States and grow in acidic, swampy soils. It is also a coniferous tree, which is valued for its high-quality coniferous wood.
What kind of trees are in Perth Hills?
Most of the plantations north of Perth are seaside pines. A ■■■■ pine next to a living pine. Pinus radiata, also known as Monterey pine, makes up the majority of pine trees in plantations and farms in the Perth Hills and southwestern Western Australia.
Which is the tallest pine tree in the world?
The sugar pine is the largest of the pines. Also known as the stone pine, this huge tree is the tallest pine in the world. The sugar pine has the longest cones of any tree in the pine family. This pine species takes its common name from the sweet resin of the tree.
Australian pine trees species
There are several other types of pine in Western Australia, including cedar (Pinus pinea), untreated pine (Pinus brutia), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), and Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis). All of these pines look similar and are listed as prone to EBH.
How to kill australian pine trees
Common control strategies for Australian pine include: Herbicides: Australian pine responds to herbicide applications with collar/ribbon bark, base bark, foliar and soil herbicides. If the tree can fall over and cause damage after using herbicides, they recommend cutting the tree first and using the stump method.
What's the best way to get rid of Australian pine trees?
Damage or pruning of Australian pine encourages growth, so a special removal solution is required for these invasive trees. Common control strategies for Australian pine include: Herbicides: Australian pine responds to herbicide applications with collar/ribbon bark, base bark, foliar and soil herbicides.
Which is the best herbicide to kill pine trees?
This is a very effective way to treat pine trees. Metsulfuron is the active ingredient in several industrial herbicides such as ■■■■■■ and Matrix. It is used for the care of pines in the UK. Its use is similar to that of the glycophatic, but you only need to drill two or three holes and it will kill the tree much faster.
Is it possible to kill a mature pine tree?
It seems a shame to kill a tree, but pine trees can get sick, grow or be left in an uncomfortable place. Killing an adult jaw can be difficult. Forestry professionals occasionally resort to burns, strips and chemical treatments, but trees often return.
Australian pine trees losing their needles
Australian pine and Scots pine typically retain their needles for up to three years. Spruce and spruce keep their needles for several years. The needle drop may not be visible unless you look for it on the internal branches. Some needles turn yellow and fall off in late spring or early summer in the third year of life.
When do pine trees lose their oldest needles?
Even the healthiest pines lose their oldest needles every year. If you see ■■■■ needles in the pines in the fall, it may be no more than a year-long needle drop. If you see ■■■■ needles at other times of the year, or just ■■■■ needles on the lower branches of a pine, read on.
Why are the needles on my pine tree turning brown?
Pines are evergreen, so don't expect ■■■■ brown needles. If you see ■■■■ needles in the pines, take the time to determine the cause. Start by recording the time of year and what part of the tree is affected. If you can only find ■■■■ needles on the lower branches of a pine tree, you're probably not looking at the usual needle drop.
Why are my pine needles drying up on the bottom?
Since the part of the pine closest to the salty ground is the lower branches, the pine may appear to be drying from the bottom up. Stop using salt to thaw if this is a problem. It can kill your trees.
Why are the needles on my tree falling off?
This does not harm the tree as there are always new needles to replace the old ones for several years. However, be careful if your tree loses needles at the ends of the branches. These needles are young and haven't stopped being useful. Most likely, the fault is a disease or insect.